Expositio in Symbolum Apostolorum Exposition of the Apostles’ Creed Prooemium Prologue Primum quod est necessarium Christiano, est fides, sine qua nullus dicitur fidelis Christianus. Fides autem facit quatuor bona. The first thing that is necessary for every Christian is faith, without which no one is truly called a faithful Christian. Faith brings about four good effects. Primum est quod per fidem anima coniungitur Deo: nam per fidem anima Christiana facit quasi quoddam matrimonium cum Deo: Oseae II, 20: sponsabo te mihi in fide. Et inde est quod quando homo baptizatur, primo confitetur fidem, cum dicitur ei, credis in Deum? Quia baptismus est primum sacramentum fidei. Et ideo dicit Dominus, Marc. ult., 16: qui crediderit et baptizatus fuerit, salvus erit. Baptismus enim sine fide non prodest. Et ideo sciendum est, quod nullus est acceptus Deo sine fide: Hebr. XI, 6: sine fide autem impossibile est placere Deo. Et ideo dicit Augustinus super illud Rom. XIV, 23: omne autem quod non est ex fide, peccatum est: ubi non est aeternae et incommutabilis veritatis agnitio, falsa est virtus etiam in optimis moribus. The first is that through faith the soul is united to God, and by it there is between the soul and God a union akin to marriage. I will espouse you in faith (Hos 2:20). When a man is baptized the first question that is asked him is: do you believe in God? This is because baptism is the first sacrament of faith. Hence, the Lord said: he who believes and is baptized shall be saved (Mark 16:16). Baptism without faith is of no value. Indeed, it must be known that no one is acceptable before God unless he have faith. Without faith it is impossible to please God (Heb 11:6). St. Augustine explains these words of St. Paul: all that is not of faith is sin (Rom 14:23), in this way: where there is no knowledge of the eternal and unchanging truth, virtue even in the midst of the best moral life is false. Secundo, quia per fidem inchoatur in nobis vita aeterna: nam vita aeterna nihil aliud est quam cognoscere Deum: unde dicit Dominus, Ioan. XVII, 3: haec est vita aeterna, ut cognoscant te solum verum Deum. Haec autem cognitio Dei incipit hic per fidem, sed perficitur in vita futura, in qua cognoscemus eum sicuti est: et ideo dicitur Hebr. XI, 1: fides est substantia sperandarum rerum. Nullus ergo potest pervenire ad beatitudinem, quae est vera cognitio Dei, nisi primo cognoscat per fidem: Ioan. XX, 29: beati qui non viderunt et crediderunt. The second effect of faith is that eternal life is already begun in us; for eternal life is nothing else than knowing God. This the Lord announced when he said: this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you sent (John 17:3). This knowledge of God begins here through faith, but it is perfected in the future life when we shall know God as he is. Therefore, St. Paul says: faith is the substance of things to be hoped for (Heb 11:1). No one then can arrive at perfect happiness of heaven, which is the true knowledge of God, unless first he knows God through faith: blessed are they who have not seen and have believed (John 20:29). Tertio, quia fides dirigit vitam praesentem: nam ad hoc quod homo bene vivat, oportet quod sciat necessaria ad bene vivendum: et si deberet omnia necessaria ad bene vivendum per studium addiscere: vel non posset pervenire, vel post longum tempus. Fides autem docet omnia necessaria ad bene vivendum. Ipsa enim docet quod est unus Deus, qui est remunerator bonorum et punitor malorum; et quod est alia vita, et huiusmodi: quibus satis allicimur ad bonum, et vitamus malum: Habac. II, 4: iustus meus ex fide vivit. Et hoc patet, quia nullus philosophorum ante adventum Christi cum toto conatu suo potuit tantum scire de Deo et de necessariis ad vitam aeternam, quantum post adventum Christi scit una vetula per fidem: et ideo dicitur Isai. XI, 9: repleta est terra scientia Domini. The third good that comes from faith is that right direction which it gives to our present life. Now, in order that one live a good life, it is necessary that he know what is necessary to live rightly; and if he depends for all this required knowledge on his own efforts alone, either he will never attain such knowledge, or if so, only after a long time. But faith teaches us all that is necessary to live a good life. It teaches us that there is one God who is the rewarder of good and the punisher of evil; that there is a life other than this one, and other like truths whereby we are attracted to live rightly and to avoid what is evil: the just man lives by faith (Hab 2:4). This is evident in that no one of the philosophers before the coming of Christ could, through his own powers, know God and the means necessary for salvation as well as any old woman since Christ’s coming knows him through faith. And, therefore, it is said: the earth is filled with the knowledge of the Lord (Isa 11:9). Quarto, quia fides est qua vincimus tentationes: Hebr. XI, 33: sancti per fidem vicerunt regna. Et hoc patet, quia omnis tentatio vel est a diabolo, vel a mundo, vel a carne. Diabolus enim tentat ut non obedias Deo nec subiiciaris ei. Et hoc per fidem removetur. Nam per fidem cognoscimus quod ipse est Dominus omnium, et ideo sibi est obediendum: I Petr. V, 8: adversarius vester diabolus circuit quaerens quem devoret: cui resistite fortes in fide. Mundus autem tentat vel alliciendo prosperis, vel terrendo adversis. Sed haec vincimus per fidem, quae facit nos credere aliam vitam meliorem ista: et ideo prospera mundi huius despicimus, et non formidamus adversa: I Ioan. V, 4: haec est victoria quae vincit mundum, fides nostra: et etiam quia docet nos credere alia maiora mala, scilicet inferni. Caro vero tentat inducendo nos ad delectationes vitae praesentis momentaneas. Sed fides ostendit nobis quod per has, si eis indebite adhaeremus, aeternas delectationes amittimus: Ephes. VI, 16: in omnibus sumentes scutum fidei. Sic ergo patet quod multum est utile habere fidem. The fourth effect of faith is that by it we overcome temptations: the holy ones by faith conquered kingdoms (Heb 11:33). We know that every temptation is either from the world or the flesh or the devil. The devil would have us disobey God and not be subject to him. This is removed by faith, since through it we know that he is the Lord of all things and must therefore be obeyed: your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, goes about seeking whom he may devour. Resist him, strong in faith (1 Pet 5:8). The world tempts us either by attaching us to it in prosperity, or by filling us with fear of adversity. But faith overcomes this in that we believe in a life to come better than this one, and hence we despise the riches of this world and we are not terrified in the face of adversity: this is the victory which overcomes the world: our faith (1 John 5:4). The flesh, however, tempts us by attracting us to the swiftly passing pleasures of this present life. But faith shows us that, if we cling to these things inordinately, we shall lose eternal joys: in all things taking the shield of faith (Eph 6:16). We see from this that it is very necessary to have faith. Sed dicit aliquis: stultum est credere quod non videtur, nec sunt credenda quae non videntur. But someone will say that it is foolish to believe what is not seen, and that one should not believe in things that he cannot see. Respondeo. Dicendum, quod hoc dubium primo tollit imperfectio intellectus nostri: nam si homo posset perfecte per se cognoscere omnia visibilia et invisibilia, stultum esset credere quae non videmus; sed cognitio nostra est adeo debilis quod nullus philosophus potuit unquam perfecte investigare naturam unius muscae: unde legitur, quod unus philosophus fuit triginta annis in solitudine, ut cognosceret naturam apis. Si ergo intellectus noster est ita debilis, nonne stultum est nolle credere de Deo, nisi illa tantum quae homo potest cognoscere per se? Et ideo contra hoc dicitur Iob XXXVI, 26: ecce Deus magnus, vincens scientiam nostram. I answer by saying that the imperfect nature of our intellect takes away the basis of this difficulty. For if man of himself could in a perfect manner know all things visible and invisible, it would indeed be foolish to believe what he does not see. But our manner of knowing is so weak that no philosopher could perfectly investigate the nature of even one little fly. We even read that a certain philosopher spent thirty years in solitude in order to know the nature of the bee. If, therefore, our intellect is so weak, it is foolish to be willing to believe concerning God only that which man can know by himself alone. And against this it is said: behold, God is great, exceeding our knowledge (Job 36:26). Secundo potest responderi, quia dato quod aliquis magister aliquid diceret in sua scientia, et aliquis rusticus diceret non esse sicut magister doceret, eo quod ipse non intelligeret, multum reputaretur stultus ille rusticus. Constat autem quod intellectus Angeli excedit magis intellectum optimi philosophi, quam intellectus optimi philosophi intellectum rustici. Et ideo stultus est philosophus si nolit credere ea quae Angeli dicunt; et multo magis si nolit credere ea quae Deus dicit. Et contra hoc dicitur Eccli. III, 25: plurima supra sensum hominum ostensa sunt tibi. Second, one can also answer this question by supposing that a certain master had said something concerning his own special branch of knowledge, and some uneducated person would contradict him for no other reason than that he could not understand what the master said! Such a person would be considered very foolish. So, the intellect of the angels as greatly exceeds the intellect of the greatest philosopher as much as that of the greatest philosopher exceeds the intellect of the uneducated man. Therefore, the philosopher is foolish if he refuses to believe what an angel says, and a far greater fool to refuse to believe what God says. Against such are these words: for many things are shown to you above the understanding of men (Sir 3:25). Tertio responderi potest, quia si homo nollet credere nisi ea quae cognosceret, certe non posset vivere in hoc mundo. Quomodo enim aliquis vivere posset nisi crederet alicui? Quomodo etiam crederet quod talis esset pater suus? Et ideo est necesse quod homo credat alicui de iis quae perfecte non potest scire per se. Sed nulli est credendum sicut Deo: et ideo illi qui non credunt dictis fidei, non sunt sapientes, sed stulti et superbi, sicut dicit Apostolus I ad Tim. VI, 4: superbus est, nihil sciens. Propterea dicebat II Tim. I, 12: scio cui credidi et certus sum. Eccli. II, 8: qui timetis Deum, credite illi. Third, if one were willing to believe only those things which one knows with certitude, one could not live in this world. How could one live unless one believed others? How could one know that this man is one’s own father? Therefore, it is necessary that one believe others in matters which one cannot know perfectly for oneself. But no one is so worthy of belief as is God, and hence they who do not believe the words of faith are not wise, but foolish and proud. As the Apostle says: he is proud, knowing nothing (1 Tim 6:4). And also: I know whom I have believed; and I am certain (2 Tim 1:12). You who fear the Lord, believe him and your reward shall not be made void (Sir 2:8). Quare potest etiam responderi, quia Deus probat quod ea quae docet fides, sunt vera. Si enim rex mitteret litteras cum sigillo suo sigillatas, nullus auderet dicere quod illae litterae non processissent de regis voluntate. Constat autem quod omnia quae sancti crediderunt et tradiderunt nobis de fide Christi, signata sunt sigillo Dei: quod sigillum ostendunt illa opera quae nulla pura creatura facere potest: et haec sunt miracula, quibus Christus confirmavit dicta apostolorum et sanctorum. Finally, one can say also that God proves the truth of the things which faith teaches. Thus, if a king sends letters signed with his seal, no one would dare to say that those letters did not represent the will of the king. In like manner, everything that the saints believed and handed down to us concerning the faith of Christ is signed with the seal of God. This seal consists of those works which no mere creature could accomplish; they are the miracles by which Christ confirmed the sayings of the apostles and of the saints. Si dicas, quod miracula nullus vidit fieri: respondeo ad hoc. Constat enim quod totus mundus colebat idola, et fidem Christi persequebatur, sicut Paganorum etiam historiae tradunt; sed modo omnes conversi sunt ad Christum, et sapientes et nobiles et divites et potentes et magni ad praedicationem simplicium et pauperum et paucorum praedicantium Christum. Aut ergo hoc est miraculose factum, aut non. Si miraculose, habes propositum. Si non, dico quod non potuit esse maius miraculum quam quod mundus totus sine miraculis converteretur. Non ergo quaerimus aliud. Sic ergo nullus debet dubitare de fide, sed credere ea quae fidei sunt magis quam ea quae videt: quia visus hominis potest decipi, sed Dei scientia nunquam fallitur. If, however, you would say that no one has witnessed these miracles, I would reply in this manner. It is a fact that the entire world worshipped idols and that the faith of Christ was persecuted, as the histories of the pagans also testify. But now all are turned to Christ, wise men and noble and rich, converted by the words of the poor and simple preachers of Christ. Now, this fact was either miracle or it was not. If it is miraculous, you have what you asked for, a visible fact; if it is not, then there could not be a greater miracle than that the whole world should have been converted without miracles. And we need go no further. We are more certain, therefore, in believing the things of faith than those things which can be seen, because God’s knowledge never deceives us, but the visible sense of man is often in error. Articulus 1 Article 1 Credo in unum Deum Patrem omnipotentem, creatorem caeli et terrae I Believe in One God, the Father the Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth I believe in one God Inter omnia quae debent credere fideles, hoc est primum quod debent credere, scilicet quod sit unus Deus. Considerandum autem, quid significet hoc nomen Deus: quod quidem nihil est aliud quam gubernator et provisor rerum omnium. Ille igitur credit Deum esse qui credit omnes res mundi huius gubernari et provideri ab illo. Qui autem credit quod omnia proveniant a casu, hic non credit Deum esse. Nullus autem invenitur adeo stultus qui non credat quod res naturales gubernentur, provideantur, et disponantur; cum in quodam ordine et certis temporibus procedant. Videmus enim solem et lunam et stellas, et alias res naturales omnes servare determinatum cursum; quod non contingeret, si a casu essent: unde si aliquis esset qui non crederet Deum esse, stultus esset. Psal. XIII, 1: dixit insipiens in corde suo: non est Deus. Among all the truths which the faithful must believe, this is the first, that there is one God. We must see that the name "God" means the ruler and provider of all things. He, therefore, believes in God who believes that everything in this world is governed and provided for by him. He who would believe that all things come into being by chance does not believe that there is a God. No one is so foolish as to deny that all nature, which operates with a certain definite time and order, is subject to the rule and foresight and an orderly arrangement of someone. We see how the sun, the moon, and the stars, and all natural things follow a determined course, which would be impossible if they were merely products of chance. Hence, as is spoken of in the Psalm, he is indeed foolish who does not believe in God: the fool said in his heart: there is no God (Ps 13:1). Sunt autem aliqui qui licet credant Deum gubernare et disponere res naturales, non tamen credunt Deum esse humanorum actuum provisorem; qui scilicet credunt actus humanos non disponi a Deo. Cuius ratio est, quia vident in mundo isto bonos affligi, et malos prosperari: quod videtur tollere providentiam divinam circa homines: unde in persona eorum dicitur Iob XXII, 14: circa cardines caeli perambulat, nec nostra considerat. There are those, however, who believe that God rules and sustains all things of nature, and nevertheless do not believe God is the overseer of the acts of man; hence they believe that human acts do not come under God’s providence. They reason thus because they see in this world how the good are afflicted and how the evil enjoy good things, so that divine providence seems to disregard human affairs. Hence the words of Job are offered to apply to this view: he does not consider our things; and he walks about the poles of heaven (Job 22:14). Hoc autem est valde stultum. Nam istis accidit, sicut si aliquis nesciens medicinam, videret medicum propinantem uni infirmo aquam, alteri vinum, secundum scilicet quod ars medicinae dictat: crederet quod hoc fiat a casu, cum nesciat artem medicinae, quae ex iusta causa hoc facit, scilicet quod isti dat vinum, illi vero aquam. Sic est de Deo. Deus enim ex iusta causa et sua providentia disponit ea quae sunt hominibus necessaria; et sic quosdam bonos affligit, et quosdam malos in prosperitate dimittit. Unde qui credit hoc provenire a casu, est et reputatur insipiens: quia non contingit hoc, nisi quia nescit artem et causam dispositionis divinae. Iob XI, 6: ut ostenderet tibi secreta sapientiae, et quod multiplex esset lex eius. But this is indeed absurd. It is just as though a person who is ignorant of medicine should see a doctor give water to one patient and wine to another. He would believe that this is mere chance, since he does not understand the science of medicine which for good reasons prescribes for one wine and for another water. So is it with God. For God in his just and wise providence knows what is good and necessary for men; and hence he afflicts some who are good and allows certain wicked men to prosper. But he is foolish indeed who believes this is due to chance, because he does not know the causes and method of God’s dealing with men. I wish that God might speak with you, and would open his lips to you, that he might show you the secrets of wisdom, and that his law is manifold (Job 11:5–6). Et ideo firmiter credendum est, quod Deus gubernat et disponit non solum res naturales, sed etiam actus humanos. Psal. XCIII, 7, 8 et 9: et dixerunt, non videbit Dominus, nec intelliget Deus Iacob. Intelligite insipientes in populo, et stulti aliquando sapite. Qui plantavit aurem, non audiet; aut qui finxit oculum, non considerat? (...) V. 10. Dominus scit cogitationes hominum. We must, therefore, firmly believe that God governs and regulates not only all nature, but also the actions of men. And they said: the Lord shall not see; neither shall the God of Jacob understand. Understand, ye senseless among the people, and, you fools, be wise at last. He who planted the ear, shall he not hear? He who formed the eye, does he not consider? . . . The Lord knows the thoughts of men (Ps 93:7–10). Omnia ergo videt, et cogitationes, et occulta voluntatis. Unde et hominibus specialiter imponitur necessitas bene faciendi, quia omnia quae cogitant et faciunt, divino conspectui sunt manifesta, Apostolus Hebr. IV, 13: omnia nuda sunt et aperta oculis eius. God sees all things, both our thoughts and the hidden desires of our will. Thus, the necessity of doing good is especially imposed on man since all his thoughts, words and actions are known in the sight of God: all things are naked and open to his eyes (Heb 4:13). Est autem credendum, quod hic Deus qui omnia disponit et regit, sit unus Deus tantum. Cuius ratio est, quia illa dispositio rerum humanarum est bene disposita, in qua multitudo invenitur disponi et gubernari per unum. Nam multitudo praesidentium inducit saepe dissensionem in subditis: unde cum divinum regimen praeeminet regimini humano, manifestum est quod regnum mundi non est per multos deos, sed per unum tantum. We believe that God who rules and regulates all things is but one God. This is seen in that wherever the regulation of human affairs is well arranged, there the group is found to be ruled and provided for by one, not many. For a number of heads often brings dissension in their subjects. But since divine government exceeds in every way that which is merely human, it is evident that the government of the world is not by many gods, but by one only. Sunt autem quatuor, ex quibus homines inducti sunt ad ponendum plures deos. There are four motives which have led men to believe in a number of gods. Primum est imbecillitas intellectus humani. Nam homines imbecillis intellectus non valentes corporalia transcendere, non crediderunt aliquid esse ultra naturam corporum sensibilium; et ideo inter corpora illa posuerunt praeeminere et disponere mundum, quae pulchriora et digniora inter ea videbantur, et eis attribuebant et impendebant divinum cultum: et huiusmodi sunt corpora caelestia, scilicet sol et luna et stellae. Sed istis accidit sicut alicui eunti ad curiam regis, qui volens videre regem, credit quemcumque bene indutum vel in officio constitutum, regem esse: de quibus dicitur Sap. XIII, 2: solem et lunam, aut gyrum stellarum rectores orbis terrarum deos putaverunt; Isai. LI, 6: levate in excelsum oculos vestros, et videte sub terra deorsum: quia caeli sicut fumus liquescent, et terra sicut vestimentum atteretur, et habitatores eius sicut haec interibunt; salus autem mea in sempiternum erit, et iustitia mea non deficiet. For dull men, not capable of going beyond sensible things, did not believe anything existed except physical bodies. Hence, they held that the world is disposed and ruled by those bodies which to them seemed most beautiful and most valuable in this world. And, accordingly, to things such as the sun, the moon and the stars, they attributed and gave a divine worship. Such men are like to one who, going to a royal court to see the king, believes that whoever is sumptuously dressed or of official position is the king. They have imagined either the sun and moon or the circle of the stars to be the gods that rule the world (Wis 7:2). Lift up your eyes to heaven, and look down to the earth beneath: for the heavens shall vanish like smoke, and the earth shall be worn away like a garment, and the inhabitants thereof shall perish in like manner: but my salvation shall be forever, and my justice shall not fail (Isa 51:6). Secundo provenit ex adulatione hominum. Nam aliqui volentes adulari dominis et regibus, honorem Deo debitum eis exhibuerunt, obediendo eis, et subiiciendo se eis: unde et aliquos post mortem fecerunt deos, alios etiam in vita dixerunt deos. Iudith V, 29: sciat omnis gens, quomodo Nabuchodonosor Deus terrae est, et praeter ipsum alius non est. The second motive came from human adulation. Some men, wishing to fawn upon kings and rulers, obey and subject themselves to them and show them honor which is due to God alone. After the death of these rulers, sometimes men make them gods, and sometimes this is done even whilst they are living. That every nation may know that Nebuchadnezzar is god of the earth, and besides him there is no other (Jdt 5:29). Tertio provenit ex carnali affectu ad filios et consanguineos: nam aliqui propter nimium amorem quem ad suos habebant, faciebant statuas post eorum mortem, et sic ex hoc processum est quod illis statuis divinum cultum impendebant: de quibus dicitur Sap. XIV, 21: quoniam aut effectui aut regibus deservientes homines, incommunicabile nomen lapidibus et lignis imposuerunt. The third motive came from human affection for sons and relatives. Some, because of the excessive love which they had for their family, caused statues of them to be erected after their death, and gradually a divine honor was attached to these statues: for men, serving either their affections or their kings, gave the incommunicable name to stones and wood (Wis 14:21). Quarto ex malitia diaboli. Ipse enim ab initio voluit aequiparari Deo: unde ipse ait, Isai. XIV, 13-14: ponam sedem meam ab Aquilone, in caelum conscendam, et ero similis altissimo. The fourth motive is from the malice of the devil. The devil wished from the beginning to be equal to God, and thus he said: I will ascend above the height of the clouds. I will be like the Most High (Isa 14:14). Et hanc voluntatem nondum deposuit; et ideo totus conatus suus in hoc existit ut faciat se ab hominibus adorari, et sacrificia sibi offerri: non quod delectetur in uno cane vel Cato qui ei offertur, sed delectatur in hoc quod ei impendatur reverentia sicut Deo: unde et Christo dixit, Matth. IV, 9: haec omnia tibi dabo, si cadens adoraveris me. The devil still entertains this desire. His entire purpose is to bring about that man adore him and offer sacrifices to him; not that he takes delight in a dog or cat that is offered to him, but he delights in the fact that thereby irreverence is shown to God. Thus, he spoke to Christ: all these will I give you, if you fall down and adore me (Matt 4:9). Inde est etiam quod intrantes idola, dabant responsa, ut scilicet venerarentur ut dii. Psalm. XCV, 5: omnes dii gentium daemonia; Apostolus, I Cor. X, 20: sed quae immolant gentes, daemoniis immolant, et non Deo. For this reason those demons who entered into idols said that they would be venerated as gods. All the gods of the gentiles are demons (Ps 105:5). The things which the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God (1 Cor 10:20). Licet autem haec sint horribilia, sunt tamen aliquando et multi qui frequenter incidunt in istas quatuor causas. Et licet non ore aut corde, tamen factis ostendunt se credere plures deos. Nam qui credunt quod corpora caelestia possunt in voluntatem hominis imprimere, et qui in factis suis certa accipiunt tempora, ii ponunt corpora caelestia esse deos, et aliis dominari, facientes astrolabia. Ierem. X, 2: a signis caeli nolite metuere quae timent gentes, quia leges populorum vanae sunt. Although all this is terrible to contemplate, yet at times there are any who fall into these above-mentioned four causes. Not by their words and hearts, but by their actions, they show that they believe in many gods. Thus, those who believe that the celestial bodies influence the will of man and regulate their affairs by astrology, really make the heavenly bodies gods, and subject themselves to them. Be not afraid of the signs of heaven which the heathens fear. For the laws of the people are vain (Jer 10:2–3). Item omnes illi qui obediunt regibus plusquam Deo, vel in illis in quibus non debent, constituunt eos deos suos. Act. V, 29: obedire oportet Deo magis quam hominibus. In the same category are all those who obey temporal rulers more than God, in that which they ought not; such actually set these up as gods. We ought to obey God rather than men (Acts 5:29). Item illi qui diligunt filios aut consanguineos plusquam Deum, ostendunt factis suis plures esse deos. Vel etiam illi qui diligunt escam plusquam Deum: de quibus Apostolus Phil. III, 19: quorum Deus venter est. So also those who love their sons and kinsfolk more than God show by their actions that they believe in many gods; as likewise do those who love food more than God: whose god is their belly (Phil 3:19). Item omnes illi qui insistunt veneficiis et incantationibus, credunt daemones esse deos: cuius ratio est, quia petunt a daemonibus id quod solus Deus dare potest, scilicet revelationem alicuius rei occultae, et veritatem futurorum. Est ergo primo credendum quod Deus est unus tantum. Moreover, all who take part in magic or in incantations believe that the demons are gods, because they seek from the devil that which God alone can give, such as revealing the future or discovering hidden things. We must, therefore, believe that there is but one God. Sicut dictum est, primum quod credere debemus, est quod sit unus solus Deus; It has been shown that we must first of all believe there is but one God. secundum est quod iste Deus sit creator et factor caeli et terrae, visibilium et invisibilium. Now, the second is that this God is the Creator and maker of heaven and earth, of all things visible and invisible. Et ut rationes subtiles dimittantur ad praesens; quodam rudi exemplo manifestatur propositum, quod scilicet omnia sunt a Deo creata et facta. Constat enim quod si aliquis intraret domum aliquam, et in ipsius domus introitu sentiret calorem, postmodum vadens interius sentiret maiorem calorem, et sic deinceps, crederet ignem esse interius, etiam si ipsum ignem non videret qui causaret dictos calores: sic quoque contingit consideranti res huius mundi. Nam ipse invenit res omnes secundum diversos gradus pulchritudinis et nobilitatis esse dispositas; et quanto magis appropinquant Deo, tanto pulchriora et meliora invenit. Unde corpora caelestia pulchriora et nobiliora sunt quam corpora inferiora, et invisibilia visibilibus. Et ideo credendum est quod omnia haec sunt ab uno Deo, qui dat suum esse singulis rebus, et nobilitatem. Sap. XIII, 1: vani sunt autem omnes homines in quibus non subest scientia Dei, et de his quae videntur bona, non potuerunt intelligere eum qui est, neque operibus attendentes, agnoverunt quis esset artifex; et infra, 5: a magnitudine enim speciei et creaturae cognoscibiliter poterit creator horum videri. Let us leave more subtle reasons for the present and show by a simple example that all things are created and made by God. If a person, upon entering a certain house, should feel a warmth at the door of the house, and going within should feel a greater warmth, and so on the more he went into its interior, he would believe that somewhere within was a fire, even if he did not see the fire itself which caused this heat which he felt. So also is it when we consider the things of this world. For one finds all things arranged in different degrees of beauty and worth, and the closer things approach to God, the more beautiful and better they are found to be. Thus, the heavenly bodies are more beautiful and nobler than those which are below them; and, likewise, the invisible things in relation to the visible. Therefore, it must be seen that all these things proceed from one God who gives his being and beauty to each and everything. All men are vain, in whom there is not the knowledge of God: and who by these good things that are seen could not understand him that is. Neither by attending to the works have acknowledged who was the workman (Wis 13:1); for by the greatness of the beauty, and of the creature, the Creator of them may be seen, so as to be known thereby (Wis 13:5).