De Sancto sanctorum; Rege regum; Domino dominorum; Deo deorum
On Holy of Holies; King of Kings; Lord of Lords; God of Gods
Exponuntur nomina quae designant rerum gubernationem
There Are Expounded the Names That Designate the Governance of Things
C. XII, §1. 427. Sed quoniam et de istis quaecumque dicere oportebat, convenientem, ut arbitror, acceperunt finem, laudare nos convenit Eum qui est infinitorum-nominum et sicut Sanctum sanctorum et Regem regnantium et Regnatorem saeculorum et in saecula et adhuc, ut Dominum dominorum et Deum deorum. Et primum quidem est dicendum quid quidem per se sanctitatem esse arbitramur, quid autem regnum, quid autem dominationem, quid autem divinitatem et quid volunt monstrare eloquia duplicatione nominum.
C. XII, §1. 427. But because also concerning these whatever things it was necessary to say have received a fitting end, as I reckon, it is fitting that we should praise him who is of infinite names also as Holy of Holies and King of Rulers and Ruler of the Ages and unto the ages and still, as Lord of Lords and God of Gods. And first of all it must be said what indeed we reckon per se sanctity to be, yet what kingship, yet what domination, yet what divinity, and what the eloquences wish to show by a duplication of names.
§2. 428. Igitur sanctitas quidem est, ut secundum nos dicatur, ab omni immunditia libera et perfecta et omnino immaculata munditia;
§2. 428. Therefore sanctity indeed is, so that it might be said according to us, free from every uncleanness and perfect and altogether immaculate cleansing;
429. Regnum autem, omnis finis et ornatus et legis et ordinis distributio;
429. Yet kingship, the distribution of every end and adornment and law and order;
430. Dominatio autem, non peiorum excessus tantum, sed omnis et pulchrorum et bonorum perfecta et omnimoda possessio et vera et cadere non valens fortitudo, unde et ab eo quod est dominium facere, dicitur dominatio et dominus et dominans;
430. Yet domination, not only the excess of the worse, but every perfect possession of beautiful and good things of all sorts and true fortitude and not prevailing to fall, whence also from this which is to make dominion, there is said domination and lord and dominating;
431. Deitas autem, quae omnia videt providentia et bonitate perfecta omnia circumspiciens et continens et seipsa implens et excedens omnia, providentia ipsa utentia.
431. Yet deity, what sees all things by providence and perfect goodness, inspecting and containing and fulfilling all things itself, and exceeding all things using this providence.
§3. 432. Igitur, haec quidem in causa excedente omnia absolute laudare convenit et addendum est ipsam esse excedentem sanctitatem et dominationem et regnum, superpositam et amplissimam deitatem: etenim ex ipsa in uno collective subsistit et distributa est omnis munda diligentia omnis clarae munditiae; omnis existentium et ordinatio et ornatus, inconvenientiam et inaequalitatem et incommensurationem exterminans et ad bene ordinatam identitatem et directionem exultans et circumagens participatione ipsius quae sunt digna habita; omnis omnium pulchrorum perfecta possessio; omnis providentia bona contemplativa et contentiva provisorum, seipsam benigne tribuens ad deificationem conversorum;
§3. 432. Therefore it is fitting indeed to praise these things in the cause exceeding all things absolutely, and it must be added that this is exceeding sanctity and domination and kingship, super-placed and most ample deity: for from this in one collectively there subsists and is distributed every cleansed diligence of every clear cleansing; each ordination and adornment of existing things, exterminating unfittingness and inequality and incommensuration and exulting and driving to well-ordered identity and direction by its participation those things that have been considered worthy; every perfect possession of all beautiful things; every good providence contemplative and contentive of things provided for, kindly bestowing itself unto the deification of the converted;
§4. 433. Quoniam autem superplenus est omnibus, qui est omnium causa, secundum unum omnia excedentem excessum, Sanctus sanctorum laudatur et reliqua, secundum superemanantem causam et segregatum excessum; sicut, si aliquis dicat, inquantum excellunt non existentibus, existentia sancta aut divina aut dominantia aut regalia et rursus participantibus participationes, ita tantum collocatur super omnia existentia, qui est super omnia existentia et omnium participantium et participationum imparticipabilis causa.
433. Yet because he is super-full over all things, who is the cause of all things, according to one excess exceeding all things, he is praised as Holy of Holies and the rest, according to super-emanating cause and segregated excess; as, if anyone should say, inasmuch as existing holy or divine or dominating or regal things excel those not existing, and again participations things participating, so thus he is gathered above all existing things, who is above all existing things and the imparticipable cause of all participating things and participations.
434. Sanctos autem et reges et dominos et deos vocant eloquia in singulis principaliores ornatus, per quos secundi ex Dei donis accipientes illorum distributionis simplicitatem circa sui ipsorum differentias multiplicant, quorum varietatem primi, provisive et deiformiter ad unitatem sui ipsorum congregant.
434. Yet the eloquences call holy men and kings and lords and gods the more principle adornments in each, through whom second things receiving from the gifts of God multiply the simplicity of their distribution around their differences, the first of whom gather the variety providingly and deiformly unto their unity.
939. Postquam Dionysius exposuit divina nomina per quae significatur emanatio perfectionum a Deo in creaturas, hic exponit nomina Dei quae designant rerum gubernationem; in qua quidem gubernatione, sunt quatuor attendenda:
939. After Denys has expounded the divine names through which there is signified the emanation of perfections from God into creatures, here he expounds the names of God that designate the government of things; in which government indeed four things must be considered:
primo quidem, divinae cognitionis providentia, ad quam pertinet nomen deitatis;
first of all, the providence of the divine knowledge, to which there pertains the name of deity;
secundo, potestas exequendi sapientiae divinae ordinationem, ad quam pertinet nomen dominationis;
second, the power of executing the ordination of the divine wisdom, to which there pertains the name of domination;
tertio, ipsa executio gubernationis, ad quam pertinet nomen regis;
third, the very execution of government, to which there pertains the name of king;
quarto, gubernationis effectus, qui est munditia ab omni inordinatione et ad hoc pertinet nomen sanctitatis;
fourth, the effect of government, which is the cleansing from every inordinateness, and to this there pertains the name of sanctity;
unde in hoc capitulo agit de sancto sanctorum; rege regum; domino dominorum; Deo deorum, ut patet ex titulo. Similiter etiam ex ipso modo loquendi quo dicitur: sanctus sanctorum vel rex regum, quaedam gubernationis praesidentia designatur.
whence in this chapter he treats of Holy of Holies; King of Kings; Lord of Lord; God of Gods; as is clear from the title. Likewise also from this mode of speaking by which there is said Holy of Holies or King of Kings, there is designated a certain presidency of government.
940. Circa hoc ergo duo facit:
940. About this therefore he does two things:
primo, dicit de quo est intentio;
first, he says what the intention is about;
secundo, exequitur propositum, ibi: igitur sanctitas etc.
second, he pursues the proposition, at Therefore sanctity indeed.
941. Dicit ergo primo quod quia, secundum suum arbitrium, ad convenientem finem adducta sunt quae de praemissis dicere oportebat, conveniens est ut Deum qui infinitis modis nominari potest in suis effectibus, laudemus nunc sicut Sanctum sanctorum, secundum illud Daniel. 9, secundum aliam litteram: cum venerit Sanctus sanctorum; et sicut Regem regum, secundum illud Apocal. 19: habet in vestimento et in femore suo scriptum: Rex regum et Dominus dominantium; et Regnatorem saeculorum, secundum illud Psalm. 144: regnum tuum, regnum omnium saeculorum; et in saecula et adhuc, secundum illud Exod. 15: Dominus regnabit in aeternum et ultra; et sicut Dominum dominorum, ut est ex Apocalypsi introductum; et Deum deorum, secundum illud Psalmistae, Psalm. 49: Deus deorum Dominus locutus est. Has enim laudes divinas in Scripturis positas, in hoc capitulo exponere intendit.
941. Therefore he says, first, that because, according to his judgment, there must be led to a fitting end those things that were necessary to say about the things set forth, it is fitting that we should praise God, who can be named in infinite ways in his effects, now as Holy of Holies, according to Daniel 9:24, according to another translation: When the Holy of Holies will have come; and as King of Kings, according to Revelation 19:16: He has written upon his garment and upon his thigh: King of Kings and Lord of Lords; and Ruler of the Ages, according to Psalm 144:13: Your kingship, the kingship of all ages; and unto the ages and still, according to Exodus 15:18: The Lord shall reign unto eternity and beyond; and as Lord of Lords, as has been introduced from Revelation; and God of Gods, according to the Psalmist in Psalm 49:1: The God of Gods, the Lord, has spoken. For he intends in this chapter to expound these divine praises posited in the scripture.
942. Circa horum autem expositionem sic procedere intendit, ut primo dicat quid sit per se sanctitas; et quid regnum; et quid dominatio; et quid deitas; deinde, quid intendunt Scripturae demonstrare per huiusmodi nominum duplicitatem, cum dicitur Sanctus sanctorum vel Deus deorum.
942. Yet about the exposition of these he intends to proceed such that first he might say what is per se sanctity; and what kingship; and what domination; and what deity; then, what the scriptures intend to demonstrate through a duplicity of names of this sort, when he is called Holy of Holies or God of Gods.
943. Deinde, cum dicit: igitur sanctitas etc., exequitur intentum de praemissis;
943. Then when he says, Therefore sanctity indeed, he pursues the intention from the things set forth;
et primo, manifestat primum, scilicet per unumquodque praedictorum quid sit intelligendum;
and first, he manifests the first, namely what must be understood through each of the aforementioned;
secundo, manifestat secundum, scilicet causam praedictae reduplicationis in Scripturis; ibi: quoniam autem etc.
second, he manifests the second, namely the cause of the aforementioned reduplication in the scriptures, at Yet because he is super-full over all things.
944. Circa primum, duo facit:
944. About the first, he does two things:
primo, ostendit quid sit unumquodque praedictorum, secundum se consideratum;
first, he shows what each of the aforementioned is, considered according to itself;
secundo, qualiter Deo attribuantur; ibi: igitur haec etc.
second, how it is attributed to God, at Therefore it is fitting indeed to praise.
945. Circa primum, quatuor exponit: primo exponit quid sit sanctitas; et dicit quod, secundum nostram acceptionem, per sanctitatem intelligitur munditia quae est libera ab omni immunditia et perfecta et immaculata; in quibus verbis, tres gradus munditiae designantur qui ad sanctitatem requiruntur:
945. About the first, he expounds four things: first he expounds what sanctity is; and he says that, according to our reception, through sanctity there is understood cleansing which is free from every uncleanness and perfect and immaculate; in which words three grades of cleansing are designated that are required for sanctity:
quorum primus est libertas ab omni immunditia; servus autem immunditiae existit qui totaliter ab immunditia vincitur et ei subiicitur. Primus ergo gradus munditiae est ut aliquis ab huiusmodi servitute immunditiae liberetur.
the first of which is freedom from every uncleanness; yet the slave of uncleanness exists as one who is totally conquered by uncleanness and subjected to it. The first grade of cleansing, therefore, is that someone should be freed from this sort of servitude to uncleanness.
Secundus autem gradus est ut sit munditia perfecta: perfectum enim est cui nihil deest; contingit autem quandoque quod aliquis immunditiae quidem non subiacet, deest tamen sibi aliquid ad munditiam, inquantum passionibus immunditiae inquietatur quae, cum tolluntur, fit perfecta munditia.
Yet the second grade is that there should be perfect cleansing; for that is perfect to which nothing is lacking; yet it happens sometimes that someone indeed is not subject to uncleanness, nevertheless something is lacking for him for cleansing, inasmuch as he is disturbed by the passions of uncleanness which, when they are removed, perfect cleansing is made.
Tertius gradus munditiae est ut sit omnino immaculata; maculari enim dicitur quod non ab intrinseco, sed ab extrinseco inquinatur. Erit ergo omnino immaculata munditia, cum non solum in seipso aliquis puritatem habet, sed etiam nihil est exterius, quod eum ad immunditiam trahere possit. Et in his tribus munditiae gradibus, ratio sanctitatis perfecte consistit.
The third grade of cleansing is that it should be altogether immaculate; for that is said to be stained which is polluted not from within, but from without. Therefore there shall be cleansing altogether immaculate when someone not only has purity in himself, but also there is nothing outside that can draw him away to uncleanness. And in these three grades of cleansing, the ratio of sanctity perfectly consists.
946. Deinde, cum dicit: regnum autem etc., ostendit quid sit regnum; nomen autem regni a regendo est assumptum:
946. Then when he says, Yet kingship, he shows what kingship is; yet the name of kingship is taken from ruling:
in omni autem directione, primo, considerandus est finis ad quem dirigens perducere intendit;
yet in every direction, first, there must be considered the end to which the director intends to lead;
secundo, consideranda est facultas perveniendi ad finem;
second, there must be considered the faculty of arriving unto the end;