Lectio 1 Lecture 1 Salutatio Greeting 1:1 Paulus apostolus Jesu Christi per voluntatem Dei, omnibus sanctis qui sunt Ephesi, et fidelibus in Christo Jesu. [n. 4] 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God, to all the saints who are at Ephesus and to the faithful in Christ Jesus. [n. 4] 1:2 Gratia vobis, et pax a Deo Patre nostro, et Domino Jesu Christo. 1:2 Grace be to you and peace, from God the Father and from the Lord Jesus Christ. 1:3 Benedictus Deus et Pater Domini nostri Jesu Christi, qui benedixit nos in omni benedictione spirituali in caelestibus in Christo, [n. 5] 1:3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in heavenly places, in Christ: [n. 5] 1:4 sicut elegit nos in ipso ante mundi constitutionem, ut essemus sancti et immaculati in conspectu ejus in caritate. [n. 8] 1:4 Even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and unspotted in his sight in charity. [n. 8] 1:5 Qui praedestinavit nos in adoptionem filiorum per Jesum Christum in ipsum: secundum propositum voluntatis suae, [n. 9] 1:5 He destined us unto the adoption of children through Jesus Christ unto himself: according to the purpose of his will: [n. 9] 3. Hanc epistolam scribit Apostolus ad Ephesios. Ephesii sunt Asiani ab Asia Minore, quae est pars Graeciae. Hi non fuerunt per Apostolum Paulum in fide fundati, sed confirmati. Iam enim antequam veniret ad eos, erant conversi, ut haberi potest Act. XIX, v. 1: factum est cum Apollo esset Corinthi, et cetera. Post conversionem vero suam et Apostoli confirmationem, in fide perstiterunt, nec pseudo receperunt. Non ergo reprehensione, sed consolatione digni erant. Ideo Paulus eis non increpatoriam, sed consolatoriam scribit epistolam. Scribit autem eis ab urbe Roma per Tychicum diaconum. 3. The Apostle writes this letter to the Ephesians who were Asians, coming from Asia Minor which is part of Greece. They were not initiated into the faith by the Apostle Paul but he did strengthen them in it. Even before he had met them, they had been converted, as can be gathered: it happened that, while Apollo was at Corinth, Paul passed through the upper country and came to Ephesus, where he found certain disciples (Acts 19:1). Once they were converted and fortified by the Apostle, they were steadfast in the faith, not succumbing to false doctrine. Thus, they were entitled to encouragement rather than reprimand; and Paul’s letter has a tone of reassurance and not of rebuke. He wrote them from the city of Rome through the deacon, Tychicus. Intentio vero eius est, eos in bonis habitis confirmare, et ad altiora provocare. The Apostle’s intention is to strengthen them in good habits, and spur them on to greater perfection. Modus autem agendi patet in divisione epistolae. The method of presentation can be seen in the division of the letter: Primo ergo ponit salutationem, in qua suum affectum ad eos demonstrat; first, the greeting, in which he shows his affection for them; secundo narrationem, in qua eos in bonis habitis confirmat, ibi benedictus Deus, etc., usque ad IV cap.; second, the narrative, in which he strengthens them in good habits, from blessed be God until chapter four; tertio, exhortationem, in qua eos ad ulteriora bona provocat, a cap. IV usque ad locum illum cap. VI de caetero, fratres, confortamini in Domino, etc.; third, the exhortation, in which he urges them on to greater perfection, from chapter four until chapter six at be strong in the Lord; quarto epistolae conclusionem, in qua eos ad certamen spirituale confortat a loco isto de caetero, usque in finem. fourth, the conclusion of the letter, in which he fortifies them for the spiritual combat, from be strong until the end. 4. In salutatione primo ponitur persona salutans; secundo, personae salutatae, ibi sanctis omnibus, etc.; tertio forma salutationis, ibi gratia vobis, et cetera. 4. In the salutation, the person greeting comes first, second those greeted, at to all the saints, and third the formula of greeting, at grace be to you. In prima, primo nominat personam, ibi Paulus; secundo personae auctoritatem, ibi apostolus Christi; tertio auctoritatis datorem, ibi per voluntatem Dei. In reference to the first, he gives the name of the person, Paul; second, that person’s authority as an apostle of Christ; lastly, the giver of this authority, by the will of God. Dicit ergo: Paulus apostolus. Paulus nomen est humilitatis, apostolus vero nomen dignitatis, quia qui se humiliat, exaltabitur, Lc. XIV, 11 et XVIII, 14. Apostolus, inquam, Iesu, non Satanae, sicut pseudo. V. 11: non est ergo magnum si ministri eius, scilicet Satanae, transfigurentur velut ministri iustitiae, et cetera. Apostolus, inquam, et hoc non meis meritis, sed per voluntatem Dei. Econtra est in multis. Os. VIII, 4: ipsi regnaverunt, et non ex me, et cetera. Sanctis omnibus, scilicet qui sunt Ephesi, et fidelibus, supple scribit. Vel ego Paulus scribo sanctis exercitio virtutum quo ad mores; fidelibus, rectitudine cognitionis quo ad fidem. Vel sanctis, id est maioribus et perfectis; fidelibus, id est minoribus et imperfectis. Et fidelibus, inquam, in Christo, non in factis suis. He says Paul which is a name of humility, whereas the title of apostle is one of dignity; the reason is that he that humbles himself shall be exalted (Luke 14:11; 18:14). An apostle, I mean, of Jesus and not one of the pseudo-apostles who are of Satan: it is no great thing if his— that is, Satan’s—ministers be transformed as the ministers of justice (2 Cor 11:15). I am an apostle, he says, not by my own merits but by the will of God. In many instances it is just the opposite—they have reigned, but not by me (Hos 8:4). He writes to all the saints who are at Ephesus and to the faithful. Either this could mean, I, Paul, write about morals to those who are holy through the exercise of virtues; and about faith to those who believe with true knowledge. Or, it may mean, to the saints who are the elders and perfect, and to the faithful who are less experienced and imperfect. They are said to believe in Christ Jesus and not in their own deeds. Gratia vobis et pax, et cetera. Hic subditur salutationis forma, in qua implicantur tria, donum quodlibet gratificantia: doni sufficientia, ibi gratia vobis et pax, datoris potentia, ibi a Deo patre, mediatoris excellentia, ibi et Domino Iesu Christo. Tunc enim gratum est donum quando sufficiens est quod datur; quando a potente datur, ut quando a rege, vel principe datur; quando per solemnem nuntium datur, ut per filium. At grace be to you and peace, he adds the formula of greeting which indicates three qualities which make any gift pleasing: the sufficiency of the gift, in grace be to you and peace; the power of the giver, from God our Father; and the excellence of the mediator, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. For a gift is pleasing when what is given is sufficient and is offered by someone in power, as a king or prince, and is presented by a solemn messenger, for example, by his son. Dicit ergo: gratia, scilicet iustificationis a culpa, et pax, id est tranquillitas mentis, vel reconciliatio ad Deum, quoad liberationem a debita poena pro offensa. Vobis, supple sit, ex hoc, scilicet a Deo Patre nostro, a quo bona cuncta procedunt. Iac. I, 17: omne datum optimum, et cetera. Et Domino Iesu Christo, sine quo nulla bona dantur. Ideo fere omnes orationes finiuntur: per Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum. He mentions grace meaning justification from sin, and peace which is calmness of mind, or reconciliation to God, in regard to the freedom from punishment due to sin. May this be to you, from God our Father from whom every good comes: every good giving and every perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of lights (Jas 1:17). And the Lord Jesus Christ without whom no blessings are given. That is why nearly all prayers are concluded: through our Lord Jesus Christ. Spiritum Sanctum non nominat, quia cum sit nexus Patris et Filii, intelligitur in extremis, vel intelligitur in donis sibi appropriatis, quae sunt gratia et pax. The Holy Spirit is not mentioned in the greeting formula since he is the bond uniting Father and Son and is understood when they are mentioned; or he is understood in the gifts appropriated to him, grace and peace. 5. Deinde cum dicit benedictus Deus, etc., hic, gratias agendo, eos in bono confirmat, et hoc tribus modis. 5. Then when he says blessed be God, in giving thanks he strengthens them in good, and he does this in three ways: Primo, ratione sumpta ex parte Christi, a quo multa bona adepti sunt, capite isto; first, by giving as a reason Christ, from whom they have received so many gifts, in chapter one; secundo, ratione sumpta ex parte ipsorum, qui de praeterito statu malo, ad bonum praesens translati sunt, cap. II, ibi et vos cum essetis mortui, etc.; second, by reason of they themselves who have been transformed from a former evil condition to their present good one, at when you were dead (Eph 2:1); tertio, ratione sumpta ex parte Apostoli, cuius ministerio et diligentia in bono statu positi, confirmati sunt, cap. III, ibi huius rei gratia, et cetera. third, because of the Apostle himself, whose ministry and solicitude has confirmed them in their good state, at for this cause (Eph 3:1). Iterum prima in tres dividitur, quia The first is divided into three sections: primo gratias agendo, tangit beneficia generaliter; first, in giving thanks he touches on blessings in a general way; secundo, beneficia exhibita ipsis apostolis specialiter, ibi quae superabundavit in nobis, etc.; second, the blessings given the apostles in particular, at which has superabounded in us (Eph 1:8); tertio, beneficia exhibita ipsis Ephesiis specialiter, ibi in quo et vos cum audivissetis, et cetera. third, the blessings especially granted to the Ephesians themselves, at in him you also, who have heard (Eph 1:13). Beneficia vero exhibita generaliter humano generi tangit sex. He treats of six blessings offered generally to the human race: Primum benedictionis, in certitudine futurae beatitudinis, ibi benedictus, et cetera. first, that of praising God in the certainty of future beatitude, at blessed; Secundum electionis, in praeordinata separatione a massa perditionis, ibi sicut elegit nos in ipso, et cetera. second, that of being chosen in the foreordained separation from those headed toward destruction, at even as he chose us; Tertium praedestinationis, in praeordinata associatione cum bonis, scilicet cum filiis adoptionis, ibi qui praedestinavit nos, et cetera. third, that of predestination in the foreordained community of the good, namely, of the adopted sons, at he destined us; Quartum gratificationis, in collatione gratiae, ibi in quo gratificavit nos, et cetera. fourth, that of becoming pleasing to God through the gift of grace, at in which he has graced us (Eph 1:6); Quintum redemptionis, in liberatione a poena, id est, a Diaboli servitute, ibi in quo habemus redemptionem, et cetera. fifth, that of being redeemed, liberated from the punishment of diabolical slavery, at in whom we have redemption (Eph 1:7); Sextum remissionis in deletione culpae, ibi remissionem peccatorum, et cetera. sixth, that of being pardoned by having sin blotted out, at the forgiveness of sins (Eph 1:7). Circa beneficium benedictionis, tangit duo. Primo, praeconium, quod debet impendi, ibi benedictus Deus, etc.; secundo, beneficium, propter quod debet impendi, ibi qui benedixit nos, et cetera. Regarding the benefit of praise two aspects are touched on: first, the praise itself which should be rendered, at blessed be God; second, the blessing on account of which it should be rendered, at who has blessed us.