Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Redemptio per sanguinem et gratiam Redemption through blood and grace 1:6 in laudem gloriae gratiae suae, in qua gratificavit nos in dilecto Filio suo. [n. 15] 1:6 Unto the praise of the glory of his grace, in which he has graced us, in his beloved Son. [n. 15] 1:7 In quo habemus redemptionem per sanguinem ejus, remissionem peccatorum secundum divitias gratiae ejus, [n. 17] 1:7 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the remission of sins, according to the riches of his grace, [n. 17] 14. Hic ponit Apostolus quartum beneficium, scilicet gratificationis in collatione gratiae. Circa quod duo facit. 14. Now the Apostle writes of the fourth blessing, that of becoming pleasing to God through the gift of grace. Regarding this he does two things: Primo tangit huius beneficii collationem; first, he touches on the giving of this blessing; secundo ostendit conferendi modum et conditionem, ibi in quo habemus redemptionem, et cetera. second, he shows the manner and conditions of its bestowal, at in whom we have redemption. 15. Dicit ergo primo: ego dico, quod praedestinati sumus in adoptionem filiorum, in laudem gloriae gratiae suae, et dico gratiam, in qua gratificavit nos, et cetera. 15. Hence he first asserts: we are predestined unto the adoption of sons, for the praise of the glory of his grace—that grace, I say, in which he has graced us in his beloved Son. Circa quod sciendum est quod idem est aliquid esse gratum alicui et esse dilectum ei. Ille enim est mihi gratus quem diligo. Cum ergo Deus dilexerit nos ab aeterno, nam elegit nos ante mundi constitutionem in caritate, sicut dictum est, quomodo ergo in tempore gratificavit? In this respect, it should be noted that to be loved by someone is identical to being pleasing to him. For he whom I love is pleasing to me. Now, since God loved us from eternity—he chose us before the foundation of the world in love, as has been said—how has he made us pleasing to himself in time? Et dicendum est quod illos quos ab aeterno in seipso dilexit, in tempore prout sunt in naturis propriis gratificat, et illud quidem quod ab aeterno est, factum non est; quod vero in tempore est, fieri dicitur. Unde hic Apostolus dicit gratificavit, id est gratos fecit, quod simus digni dilectione sua. I Io. III, v. 1: videte qualem caritatem dedit nobis Deus Pater, ut filii Dei nominemur, et simus. A reply is that those whom he loves eternally in himself, he renders pleasing in time according as they exist in their own natures. The former is from eternity and is not created, the latter happens in time and is said to come into being. Hence the Apostle says that he has graced us, that is, made us pleasing that we should be worthy of his love. See what love the Father has bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God; and so we are (1 John 3:1). Consuevit autem distingui duplex gratia, scilicet gratis data, quae sine meritis datur, Rom. XI, 6: si autem gratia, iam non ex operibus, alioquin gratia, iam non est gratia, et gratia gratum faciens, quae nos facit Deo gratos et acceptos, de qua dicitur hic. Two types of grace are customarily distinguished: grace freely given without being merited—and, if by grace, it is now not by works; otherwise grace is no more grace (Rom 11:6)—and grace which makes us pleasing and acceptable to God. The latter is the grace dealt with here. 16. Notandum est autem, quod aliqui diliguntur propter alium, et aliqui propter seipsos. Cum enim aliquem multum diligo, diligo illum, et quidquid ad illum pertinet; nos autem a Deo diligimur, sed non propter nos ipsos, sed in eo, qui per seipsum dilectus est Patri. Et ideo Apostolus addit in dilecto Filio, pro quo, scilicet, nos diligit, inquantum sumus ei similes. Dilectio enim fundatur super similitudine. Unde dicitur Eccli. c. XIII, 19: omne animal diligit sibi simile. Filius autem est per naturam suam similis Patri, et ideo principaliter et per se dilectus est, et ideo naturaliter et excellentissimo modo est Patri dilectus. Nos autem sumus filii per adoptionem, inquantum scilicet sumus conformes Filio eius, et ideo quamdam participationem divini amoris habemus. Io. XIII, v. 35: Pater diligit Filium, et omnia dedit in manu eius; qui credit in Filium, habet vitam aeternam. Col. I, 13: transtulit nos in regnum Filii dilectionis suae. 16. Notice how persons can be loved for the sake of others, or for their own sake. For when I love someone very much, I love him and whatever belongs to him. We are loved by God, not for what we are in ourselves, but in him who by himself is beloved of the Father. Thus the Apostle adds in his beloved Son on account of whom he loves us and to the degree that we are like him. For love is based on similarity: every beast loves its like: so also every man his neighbor (Sir 13:15). By his own nature, the Son is similar to the Father, he is beloved before all else and essentially. Hence he is naturally, and in a most excellent way, loved by the Father. We, on the other hand, are sons through adoption to the degree that we are conformed to his Son; in this way we enjoy a certain participation in the divine love. The Father loves the Son, and has given all things into his hand. He who believes in the Son has life everlasting (John 3:35–36). He has transferred us into the kingdom of the Son he loves (Col 1:13). 17. Deinde cum dicit in quo habemus redemptionem, etc., ponit modum ipsius. 17. Next, when he says in whom we have redemption, he sets down the way itself that grace is given. Circa hoc autem duo facit. Quia Concerning this he sets down two things: primo proponit modum ex parte Christi; first, the way it is given on the part of Christ; secundo ex parte Dei, ibi secundum divitias gratiae eius, et cetera. second, on the part of God, at according to the riches of his grace. 18. Ex parte Christi ponit duplicem modum, nam Christus per duo nos gratificavit. Sunt enim duo in nobis quae repugnant gratificationi divinae, scilicet peccati macula, et poenae noxa. Et sicut mors repugnat vitae, ita peccatum repugnat iustitiae, ita ut per hoc elongati a Dei similitudine, Deo grati non essemus. Sed per Christum nos gratificavit. Primo quidem ablata poena, et quantum ad hoc dicit, quod in Christo habemus redemptionem, scilicet a servitute peccati. I Petr. I, 18: non corruptibilibus auro vel argento redempti estis de vana vestra conversatione paternae traditionis, sed pretioso sanguine, et cetera. Apoc. V, 9: redemisti nos Deo in sanguine tuo. 18. On the part of Christ he writes of two ways through which Christ has made us pleasing. For within us there exists two antagonisms to the divine good pleasure, the stains of sin and the hurt of punishment. Justice is as opposed to sin as life is to death, so that through sin, having departed from our likeness to God, we cease being pleasing to God. But through Christ he has made us pleasing. First, indeed, by abolishing the punishment; and in reference to this he says that in Christ we have redemption from the slavery of sin. You know that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, as gold or silver, from the vain manner of life handed down from your fathers: but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb unspotted and undefiled (1 Pet 1:18–19). You have redeemed us for God, by your blood (Rev 5:9). Secundo dicimur redempti, quia a servitute, qua propter peccatum detinebamur, nec per nos plene satisfacere poteramus, per Christum liberati sumus, quia moriendo pro nobis satisfecit Deo Patri, et sic abolita est noxa culpae. Unde dicit in remissionem peccatorum. Io. I, 29: ecce Agnus Dei, ecce qui tollit peccata mundi. Lc. ult. 46: oportebat Christum pati et resurgere a mortuis die tertia, et praedicari in nomine eius poenitentiam et remissionem peccatorum. Second, we are said to be redeemed because through Christ we are freed from a slavery in which we were caught as a result of sin without ourselves being capable of fully making satisfaction. By dying for us, Christ has satisfied the Father and thus the penalty of sin was abolished. Whence he says unto the remission of sins. Behold the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world (John 1:29). It is written that Christ should suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, and that penance and remission of sins should be preached in his name (Luke 24:46–47). 19. Modus autem ex parte Dei ponitur, cum dicit secundum divitias, etc., quasi dicat, quod Deus gratificans nos, non solum culpam remisit nobis, sed Filium suum dedit, qui pro nobis satisfecit. Et hoc fuit ex superabundanti gratia, qua voluit per hoc honorem humanae naturae conservare, dum, quasi per iustitiam, homines a servitute peccati et mortis voluit liberare per mortem Filii sui. Et ideo dicit secundum divitias gratiae eius, quasi dicat: hoc quod redempti sumus et gratificati sumus per satisfactionem Filii eius, fuit ex abundanti gratia et misericordia, prout immeritis tribuitur misericordia et miseratio. 19. The way we are blessed with grace on God’s part is set down in according to the riches of his grace. As though he said: in making us pleasing to himself, God not only forgave us our sins, but he gave his own Son to make reparation on our behalf. This was from an overflowing graciousness by which he willed to preserve the human race’s honor while, as though in justice, willing men to be freed from the slavery of sin and death through the death of his own Son. Thus, in saying according to the riches of his grace he seems to state: that we were redeemed and made pleasing through the satisfaction of his Son comes from an overflowing grace and mercy, since mercy and compassion are bestowed on those having no claim to it. 20. Haec autem, quae dicta sunt, prosecuti sumus secundum expositionem Glossae, quae quidem expositio videtur extorta, quia idem continetur in uno, quod in alio. Nam idem est dictu elegit nos et praedestinavit nos. Et idem dicitur per hoc, quod dicit ut essemus sancti et immaculati, et per hoc quod dicit in adoptionem filiorum. 20. In what has been said so far we have followed the interpretation of a Gloss which seems to be a far-fetched exposition since the same idea expressed in one phrase occurs in another. He chose us is the same as to say he destined us. And the same idea is expressed in that we should be holy and unspotted as in unto the adoption of children. Propter quod sciendum est, quod est consuetudo Apostoli, ut cum loquitur in aliqua difficili materia, quae immediate sequuntur, sunt praemissorum expositio, nec est ibi inculcatio verborum, sed expositio, et hunc modum servat hic Apostolus. Unde, servato eodem verborum pondere, aliter a principio dividamus, et dicamus, quod pars ista, benedictus Deus, etc., dividitur primo in tres partes, quia Apostolus primo reddit gratiarum actionem, ibi benedictus Deus, etc.; secundo recitat omnium beneficiorum simul largitionem, ibi qui benedixit nos in omni benedictione spirituali, etc.; tertio ponit divinorum beneficiorum in speciali apertam expressionem, ibi sicut elegit, et cetera. Et haec dividitur in duas partes, quia primo beneficia distincte exprimit; secundo ea exponit, ibi qui praedestinavit nos, et cetera. In this regard it should be known that the customary procedure of the Apostle, when speaking of a difficult subject, is to explain what went before by what immediately follows. This is not verbal proliferation but an exposition; and this is the method the Apostle uses here. Retaining the same import of the words, we may divide it differently from the beginning, at blessed be God (Eph 1:3), into three sections. First, the Apostle gives thanks in blessed be God. Second, he mentions conjointly the bestowal of all blessings in who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in heavenly places, in Christ. Third, he gives a clear expression of the divine blessings in particular, at as he chose. This latter is divided into two parts: first, he distinctly formulates the blessings; second, he interprets them, at he destined us (Eph 1:5). Explicat autem beneficia: primo quantum ad electionem; secundo quantum ad ea quae sequuntur, ibi ut essemus sancti, et cetera. He formulates the blessings: first, as regards election; second, as regards its consequences, at that we should be holy (Eph 1:4). Exponit autem primo de electione. Est enim duplex electio, scilicet praesentis iustitiae, et praedestinationis aeternae. De prima Io. VI, 71: nonne duodecim vos elegi, et unus ex vobis diabolus est? Et de hac Apostolus non intendit hic, quia ista non fuit ante mundi constitutionem, et ideo statim manifestat de qua intelligit, quia de secunda, scilicet de aeterna praedestinatione; propter quod dicit praedestinavit nos, et cetera. Et quia dicit in Christo, scilicet ut Christo essemus similes et conformes, secundum quod adoptamur in filios, ideo subdit in adoptionem filiorum per Iesum Christum. Hoc vero, quod dicit in caritate, exponit cum dicit in quo habemus redemptionem per sanguinem eius, quasi dicat: nos habemus, et cetera. Quod vero dicit et immaculati, exponit cum dicit in remissionem peccatorum. Hoc vero quod dicit in conspectu eius, exponit, dicens in laudem gloriae gratiae suae. First, he treats of election, for there are two types of election, one involving a present justification and another an eternal predestination. Concerning the first it is written: have not I chosen you twelve? And one of you is a devil? (John 6:71). But this is not what the Apostle refers to since it did not occur before the foundation of the world (Eph 1:4). So he immediately clarifies what he means, that it is the second type, eternal predestination. Thus he says he destined us (Eph 1:5). As he said in Christ to signify that we are assimilated and conformed to Christ in proportion as we are adopted children, so he adds unto the adoption of children through Jesus Christ. What he means by in charity he explains when he says in whom we have redemption through his blood. As though he affirmed: we have redemption. Unspotted is expounded by unto the remission of sins; while in his sight is explained by unto the praise of the glory of his grace. Lectio 3 Lecture 3 Sacramentum voluntatis Dei The mystery of God’s will 1:8 quae superabundavit in nobis in omni sapientia et prudentia: [n. 22] 1:8 Which has superabounded in us, in all wisdom and prudence, [n. 22] 1:9 ut notum faceret nobis sacramentum voluntatis suae, secundum beneplacitum ejus, quod proposuit in eo, [n. 25] 1:9 That he might make known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his purpose, which he has purposed in him, [n. 25] 1:10 in dispensatione plenitudinis temporum, instaurare omnia in Christo, quae in caelis et quae in terra sunt, in ipso; [n. 28] 1:10 In the dispensation of the fullness of times, to re-establish all things in Christ, that are in heaven and on earth, in him. [n. 28] 21. Positis beneficiis communiter omnibus collatis, hic Apostolus ponit beneficia specialiter apostolis collata. Dividitur autem haec pars in duas, quia 21. Having set down the blessings generally given to all, the Apostle now turns to those favors especially granted to the apostles. This section is divided into two parts: primo proponit beneficia singulariter apostolis collata; first, he proposes the special blessings given the apostles; secundo ostendit causam eorum, ibi in quo et nos sorte vocati, et cetera. second, he indicates their cause, at in whom we are also called by lot (Eph 1:11). Circa primum tria facit, quia In reference to the first he does three things: primo proponit singularia apostolorum beneficia quantum ad excellentiam sapientiae; first, he sets down the particular blessings of the apostles as regards the excellence of their wisdom; secundo quantum ad specialem revelationem sacramenti absconditi, ibi ut notum faceret, etc.; second, as regards a unique revelation of the hidden mystery, at that he might make known; tertio exponit quid sit illud sacramentum, ibi secundum beneplacitum, et cetera. third, he suggests what this mystery is, at according to his purpose. 22. Dicit ergo primo: dico quod secundum divitias gratiae eius omnes fideles communiter, tam vos quam nos, habemus redemptionem et remissionem peccatorum per sanguinem Christi; quae quidem gratia superabundavit in nobis, id est abundantius fuit, quam in aliis. 22. He first states: according to the riches of his grace all the faithful together, both you and we, possess redemption and the remission of sins through the blood of Christ. This grace has superabounded in us who have it more fully than others.