Signati Spiritu Sancto
Signed with the Spirit
1:13 in quo et vos, cum audissetis verbum veritatis, Evangelium salutis vestrae, in quo et credentes signati estis Spiritu promissionis Sancto, [n. 37]
1:13 In whom you also, after you had heard the word of truth (the Gospel of your salvation), in whom also believing, you were signed with the Holy Spirit of promise. [n. 37]
1:14 qui est pignus haereditatis nostrae, in redemptionem acquisitionis, in laudem gloriae ipsius. [n. 43]
1:14 Who is the pledge of our inheritance, unto the redemption of acquisition, unto the praise of his glory. [n. 43]
36. Postquam enarravit Apostolus beneficia collata communiter omnibus fidelibus, exhibita specialiter apostolis, hic consequenter enumerat beneficia ipsis Ephesiis collata.
36. Once the Apostle has enumerated the blessings offered generally to all the faithful, then those especially given the apostles, he begins to recount those granted to the Ephesians themselves.
Dividitur autem pars ista in duas, quia
This section is divided into two parts:
primo proponit beneficia eis exhibita;
first, he sets down the favors shown them;
secundo insinuat affectum suum ex ipsis beneficiis excitatum, ibi propterea et ego audiens, et cetera.
second, he describes his feelings aroused by the favors, at wherefore, I also (Eph 1:15).
Prima iterum in tres dividitur, secundum tria beneficia eis exhibita; quia
The first is divided into three parts according to the three blessings granted to them:
primo proponit beneficium praedicationis;
first, the blessing of preaching;
secundo beneficium conversionis ad fidem, ibi in quo et credentes signati estis;
second, the blessing of conversion to the faith, at in whom also believing;
tertio beneficium iustificationis, ibi signati estis, et cetera.
third, the blessing of justification, at were signed.
37. Dicit ergo quantum ad primum in quo, scilicet Christo, et vos cum audivissetis, id est cuius beneficio et virtute audivistis, verbum veritatis, id est verbum praedicationis, in quantum ipse Christus ad vos praedicatores misit. Rom. X, 14: quomodo audient sine praedicante? Quomodo vero praedicabunt, nisi mittantur? Item infra eodem: ergo fides ex auditu, auditus autem per verbum Dei. Eius ergo beneficio audiunt, qui praedicatores eis mittit. Lc. XI, 28: beati qui audiunt verbum Dei, et custodiunt illud.
37. In reference to the first point he says: Christ in whom you also, after you had heard, that is, by whose favor and power you have heard the proclamation of the word of truth since Christ himself has sent those who preach it to you. How shall they believe him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear, without a preacher? And how shall they preach unless they be sent? . . . faith, then, comes by hearing; and hearing by the word of Christ (Rom 10:14–15, 17). They hear through the blessing of him who sends them the preachers: blessed are they who hear the word of God and keep it (Luke 11:28).
38. Hoc verbum praedicationis tripliciter commendat Apostolus. Primo a veritate cum dicit verbum veritatis quippe quia accipit originem a Christo, de quo dicitur Io. c. XVII, 17: sermo tuus veritas est; Iac. I, v. 18: voluntarie genuit nos verbo veritatis suae.
38. The Apostle mentions the threefold recommendation of this preached word. It is, first of all, true; a word of truth. Indeed, it could be nothing else since its source is Christ, concerning whom it is written: your word is truth (John 17:7); for of his own will he has begotten us by the word of truth (Jas 1:18).
Secundo quia est annuntiatio bona. Unde dicit Evangelium, quod quidem annuntiat summum bonum et vitam aeternam; et anthonomastice verbum fidei, Evangelium dicitur, quasi Annuntiatio summi boni. Is. LII, 7: quam pulchri pedes annuntiantis et praedicantis pacem, annuntiantis bonum, praedicantis salutem, eodem 41, super montem excelsum ascende tu qui evangelizas Sion. Et hoc est quantum ad futura bona.
Second, it is a proclamation of good news. Hence he says the Gospel: it announces the highest good and eternal life. ‘Word of faith’ is antonomastically applicable to the Gospel as the communication of the highest good. How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of him who brings good news and preaches salvation . . . go up on a high mountain, lady-messenger of Zion (Isa 52:7; 40:9). This refers to future goods.
Tertio describitur et commendatur quantum ad bona praesentia, quia salvat. Unde dicit salutis vestrae, id est quod creditum dat salutem. Rom. I, 16: non enim erubesco Evangelium: virtus enim Dei est in salutem omni credenti. I Cor. XV, 1: notum autem vobis facio, fratres, Evangelium, quod praedicavi vobis, quod et accepistis, in quo et statis, per quod et salvamini.
The present goods are what describe and recommend the preached word in the third place, for it saves. Thus he says of your salvation; if believed in, it gives salvation. I am not ashamed of the Gospel. For it is the power of God unto salvation to all who believe (Rom 1:16). Now I make known unto you, brothers, the Gospel which I preached to you, which also you have received and wherein you stand, by which also you are saved (1 Cor 15:1).
39. Quantum autem ad beneficium conversionis ad fidem, dicit in quo, scilicet Christo, id est, in cuius operatione vos credentes, signati estis. Quod quidem beneficium ideo apponitur fidei, quia fides necessaria est audientibus. Frustra enim quis audiret verbum veritatis, si non crederet, et ipsum credere est per Christum. Infra II, 8: gratia enim estis salvati per fidem. Et hoc non ex vobis, donum enim Dei est.
39. Regarding the blessing of conversion to the faith, he states in whom, namely, Christ, by whose action you also believing, were signed. This blessing is applied to faith since faith is necessary for those who listen. In vain would anyone listen to the word of truth if he did not believe, and the believing itself is through Christ. By grace you are saved through faith, and that not of yourselves, for it is the gift of God (Eph 2:8).
40. Quantum vero ad beneficium iustificationis dicit signati estis, et hoc per Spiritum Sanctum, qui datus est vobis, de quo dicit tria, scilicet quod est signum, et quod est Spiritus promissionis, et quod est pignus haereditatis.
40. Concerning the blessing of justification he mentions that you were signed with the Holy Spirit who was given to you. Concerning this Spirit three things are said: he is a sign, the Spirit of the promise, and the pledge of our inheritance.
41. Signum quidem est inquantum per eum infunditur caritas in cordibus nostris, qua distinguimur ab his qui non sunt filii Dei. Et quantum ad hoc dicit signati estis, scilicet divisi a grege diaboli. Infra cap. IV, v. 30: nolite contristare Spiritum Sanctum Dei, in quo signati estis, et cetera. Sicut enim homines gregibus suis apponunt signa, ut ab aliis distinguantur, ita Dominus gregem suum, id est populum suum, spirituali signo voluit signari.
41. He is a sign inasmuch as through him charity is infused into our hearts, thereby distinguishing us from those who are not the children of God. Relating to this he says you were signed, set apart from Satan’s fold. Do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God; whereby you are sealed unto the day of redemption (Eph 4:30). Just as men brand a mark on their own herds to differentiate them from others, so the Lord willed to seal his own flock, his people, with a spiritual sign.
Dominus autem populum peculiarem habuit, in Veteri quidem Testamento Iudaeos. Ez. XXXIV, 31: vos autem greges mei, greges pascuae meae homines estis. Unde Ps. XCIV, v. 7: nos autem populus eius, et oves pascuae eius. Sed quia hic grex in pascuis corporalibus pascebatur, scilicet in doctrina corporali et in bonis temporalibus, Is. I, 19: si volueritis et audieritis me, bona terrae comedetis, ideo eum Dominus corporali signo, scilicet circumcisionis, ab aliis separavit et distinxit. Gen. XVII, 13: eritque pactum meum in carne vestra. Prius autem dicitur: circumcidetis carnem praeputii vestri, ut sit signum foederis inter me et vos.
The Lord had the Jews as his own people in the Old Testament. And you, my flocks, the flocks of my pastures are men (Ezek 34:31). And we are the people of his pasture and the sheep of his hand (Ps 95:7). This flock was fed on the earthly pastures of material teachings and temporal goods: if you be willing and obedient, you shall eat the good things of the land (Isa 1:19). The Lord, therefore, differentiated and set them apart from others by means of the bodily sign of circumcision. And my covenant shall be in your flesh (Gen 17:13); before this it says, you shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, that it may be for a sign of the covenant between me and you (Gen 17:11).
In Novo autem Testamento gregem habuit populum Christianum. I Petr. II, 25: conversi estis nunc ad pastorem et episcopum animarum vestrarum. Io. X, 27: oves meae vocem meam audient, et cetera. Sed grex iste pascitur in pascuis doctrinae spiritualis et spiritualibus bonis, ideo eum signo spirituali ab aliis Dominus distinxit. Hoc autem est Spiritus Sanctus, per quem illi qui Christi sunt, distinguuntur ab aliis qui non sunt eius. Quia autem Spiritus Sanctus amor est, ergo tunc Spiritus Sanctus datur alicui, quando efficitur amator Dei et proximi. Rom. V, 5: caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per Spiritum Sanctum, et cetera.
In the New Testament the flock he had is the Christian people: you have returned to the shepherd and guardian of your souls (1 Pet 2:25). My sheep hear my voice; and I know them; and they follow me (John 10:27). This flock is fed on the pastures of spiritual doctrine and spiritual favors; hence the Lord differentiated it from others by a spiritual sign. This is the Holy Spirit through whom those who are of Christ are distinguished from the others who do not belong to him. But since the Holy Spirit is love, he is given to someone when that person is made a lover of God and neighbor. God’s love has been poured into our hearts through the Holy Spirit which has been given to us (Rom 5:5).
Signum ergo distinctionis est caritas, quae est a Spiritu Sancto. Io. XIII, 35: in hoc cognoscent omnes, quia mei discipuli estis, si dilectionem habueritis ad invicem. Spiritus ergo Sanctus est quo signamur.
Therefore, the distinctive sign is charity which comes from the Holy Spirit: by this shall all men know that you are my disciples, if you have love one for another (John 13:35). The Holy Spirit is he by whom we are signed.
42. Spiritus vero promissionis dicitur triplici ratione. Primo quia promissus est fidelibus. Ez. XXXVI, 26: spiritum novum ponam in medio vestri. Et Ez. XXXVII, 6: dabo vobis spiritum novum. Secundo quia datur cum quadam promissione; ex hoc enim ipso quod datur nobis, efficimur filii Dei. Nam per Spiritum Sanctum efficimur unum cum Christo, Rom. VIII, 9: si quis autem Spiritum Dei non habet, hic non est eius, et per consequens efficimur filii Dei adoptivi, ex quo habemus promissionem haereditatis aeternae, quia si filii, et haeredes Rom. VIII, 17.
42. The Spirit is described as a promise for three reasons. First, he is promised to those who believe: I will put a new spirit within you . . . and I will give you a new spirit (Ezek 36:26; 37:6). Second, he is given with a certain promise, because by the very fact that he is given to us we become the children of God. For through the Holy Spirit we are made one with Christ: anyone who does not have the Spirit of God, does not belong to him (Rom 8:9). As a result we are made adopted children of God, and thus we have the promise of an eternal inheritance since if sons, heirs also (Rom 8:17).
43. Tertio dicitur pignus, inquantum facit certitudinem de promissa haereditate. Nam Spiritus Sanctus inquantum adoptat in filios Dei, est Spiritus promissionis, et ipsemet est signum promissionis adipiscendae.
43. Third, he is termed a pledge inasmuch as he makes us certain of the promised inheritance. Adopting us into the children of God, the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of promise who also is the seal of the promise yet to be attained.
Sed, ut dicitur in Glossa, alia littera habet qui est arra haereditatis, et forte melius, quia pignus est aliud a re pro qua datur, et redditur postquam ille, qui pignus recipit, rem sibi debitam recipit. Arra autem non est aliud a re pro qua datur, nec redditur; quia datur de ipso pretio, quod non est auferendum, sed complendum. Deus autem dedit nobis caritatem tamquam pignus, per Spiritum Sanctum, qui est Spiritus veritatis et dilectionis. Et ideo huiusmodi non est aliud, quam quaedam particularis et imperfecta participatio divinae caritatis et dilectionis, quae quidem non est auferenda, sed perficienda, ideo magis proprie dicitur arra quam pignus.
However, as is mentioned in a Gloss, a variant reading has who is the earnest of our inheritance, and perhaps this is a better rendering. For a pledge differs from the object in place of which it is given, and it must be returned once he who has received the pledge obtains the object due him. An earnest, however, does not differ from the object in place of which it is given, nor is it returned since it is a partial payment of the price itself, which is not to be withdrawn but completed. God communicates charity to us as a pledge, through the Holy Spirit who is the Spirit of truth and love. Hence, this is nothing else than an individual and imperfect participation in the divine charity and love; it must not be withdrawn but brought to perfection. More fittingly, therefore, it is referred to as an earnest rather than as a pledge.
Tamen potest nihilominus et pignus dici. Nam per Spiritum Sanctum Deus nobis diversa dona largitur, quorum quaedam manent in patria, ut caritas, quae nunquam excidit, I Cor. XIII, 8; quaedam vero propter sui imperfectionem non manent, sicut fides et spes, quae evacuabuntur ut ibidem dicitur. Sic ergo Spiritus Sanctus dicitur arra per respectum ad ea quae manent, pignus vero per respectum ad ea quae evacuabuntur.
Nevertheless, it can also be called a pledge. For through the Holy Spirit God grants us a variety of gifts. Some of these will remain in the fatherland, as charity which never comes to an end (1 Cor 13:8); while others will not last on account of their imperfection, such as faith and hope which shall be done away with (1 Cor 13:10). Hence, the Holy Spirit is called an earnest in reference to what will remain, and a pledge with respect to what will be done away with.
44. Ad quid autem signati sumus, subdit, dicens in redemptionem. Nam si aliquis de novo aliqua animalia acquireret et adderet gregi suo, imponeret eis signa acquisitionis illius. Christus autem acquisivit populum ex gentibus. Io. X, 16: alias oves habeo, quae non sunt ex hoc ovili, et illas oportet me adducere, et cetera. Et ideo impressit eis signum acquisitionis. I Petr. II, 9: gens sancta, populus acquisitionis. Act. XX, 28: quam acquisivit sanguine suo.
44. He adds the purpose for which we are signed as unto the redemption. For when a man buys new animals and adds them to his flock, he puts a mark on them to the effect that he has purchased them. Now Christ has purchased a people from the gentiles. Other sheep I have that are not of this fold; them also I must bring. And they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold and one shepherd (John 10:16). And on them he imprints a sign of purchase: a holy nation, a purchased people (1 Pet 2:9) which he has purchased with his own blood (Acts 20:28).
Sed quia Christus acquisivit populum istum, non sic quod nunquam fuerit suus, sed quia aliquando fuerat suus, sed opprimebatur a servitute diaboli, in quam peccando se redegit, ideo non dicit simpliciter acquisivit, sed addit in redemptionem, quasi dicat: non simpliciter de novo acquisiti, sed quasi a servitute diaboli per sanguinem eius redempti. I Petr. I, 18: non corruptibilibus auro et argento redempti estis, et cetera. Acquisivit ergo Christus nos redimendo, non quod accrescat inde aliquid Deo; quia bonorum nostrorum non indiget. Iob XXXV, 7: si iuste egeris, quid donabis ei? Aut quid de manu tua recipiet?
Christ acquired this people, not because they never were his, but because they previously belonged to him and yet, by sinning, had sold themselves into a diabolical slavery which oppressed them. So it does not simply state that he acquired them but adds unto redemption, as though to say: you are not strictly a new acquisition; you are re-purchased from the slavery of the devil through his blood. You were not redeemed with corruptible things as gold or silver, from the vain manner of life handed down from your fathers, but with the precious blood of Christ (1 Pet 1:18–19). Christ purchased us, therefore, through a redemption; not that this added anything to God since he needs none of our goods. If you are righteous, what do you give him, or what does he receive of your hand? (Job 35:7).
Ad quid autem acquisiverit nos Christus, subdit in laudem gloriae ipsius, id est ut ipse Deus laudetur. Is. XLIII, 7: qui invocat nomen meum, in gloriam meam creavi eum.
The purpose for which Christ acquired us is unto the praise of his glory, that God himself be praised since everyone who calls upon my name, I have created him for my glory (Isa 43:7).
Caritas Pauli Ephesiis
Paul’s love for the Ephesians
1:15 Propterea et ego audiens fidem vestram, quae est in Domino Jesu, et dilectionem in omnes sanctos, [n. 46]
1:15 Wherefore, I also, hearing of your faith that is in the Lord Jesus and of your love towards all the saints, [n. 46]
1:16 non cesso gratias agens pro vobis, [n. 47] memoriam vestri faciens in orationibus meis: [n. 48]
1:16 I do not cease to give thanks for you, [n. 47] remembering you in my prayers, [n. 48]
1:17 ut Deus Domini nostri Jesu Christi, Pater gloriae, det vobis Spiritum sapientiae et revelationis [n. 49] in agnitione ejus, [n. 52]
1:17 That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the Spirit of wisdom and of revelation, [n. 49] in the knowledge of him: [n. 52]
1:18 illuminatos oculos cordis vestri, ut sciatis quae sit spes vocationis ejus, [n. 52] et quae divitiae gloriae haereditatis ejus in sanctis, [n. 54]
1:18 The eyes of your heart enlightened that you may know what the hope is of his calling [n. 52] and what are the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints. [n. 54]
45. Postquam enumeravit Apostolus beneficia Ephesiis collata per Christum, hic ostendit quomodo affectus suus crevit ad eos.
45. After enumerating the blessings conferred on the Ephesians through Christ, the Apostle now reveals how his affection for them has grown.