Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Resurgens ad vitam Raised to life 2:4 Deus autem, qui dives est in misericordia, propter nimiam caritatem suam, qua dilexit nos, [n. 85] 2:4 But God (who is rich in mercy) for his exceeding charity with which he loved us [n. 85] 2:5 et cum essemus mortui peccatis, convivificavit nos in Christo (cujus gratia estis salvati), [n. 88] 2:5 Even when we were dead in sins, has quickened us together in Christ (by whose grace you are saved) [n. 88] 2:6 et conresuscitavit, et consedere fecit in caelestibus in Christo Jesu: [n. 88] 2:6 And has raised us up together and has made us sit together in the heavenly places, through Christ Jesus. [n. 88] 2:7 ut ostenderet in saeculis supervenientibus abundantes divitias gratiae suae, in bonitate super nos in Christo Jesu. [n. 89] 2:7 That he might show in the ages to come the abundant riches of his grace, in his bounty towards us in Christ Jesus. [n. 89] 84. Postquam exaggeravit Apostolus statum culpae inficientis, hic commendat beneficium gratiae iustificantis. 84. After giving an account of their state of festering sin, the Apostle recounts here the blessing of the grace of justification. Circa quam duo facit. Concerning this he does two things: Primo ipsum beneficium ponit; first, he sets down the blessing itself; secundo seipsum exponit, ibi gratia enim estis, et cetera. second, he explains it, at for by grace (Eph 2:8). Beneficium autem illud describit quantum ad tres causas. The blessing is described with reference to its three causes: Primo quantum ad causam efficientem; first, the efficient cause; secundo quantum ad causam formalem, seu exemplarem; second, the formal or exemplary cause; tertio quantum ad causam finalem. third, the final cause. 85. Efficiens autem causa beneficii divini iustificantis, est caritas Dei. Et quantum ad hoc dicit Deus autem qui dives est in misericordia, propter nimiam caritatem. 85. The efficient cause of the divine blessing of justification is God’s charity: but God, who is rich in mercy, for his exceeding charity with which he loved us. Dicit autem propter nimiam caritatem, quia dilectionis divinae possumus considerare quadruplicem bonitatem et efficientiam. Primo quia nos in esse produxit. Sap. XI, 25: diligis enim omnia quae sunt, et nihil odisti eorum quae fecisti, et cetera. Secundo quia ad imaginem suam nos fecit, et capaces beatitudinis suae. Deut. XXXIII, 2–3: cum eo sanctorum millia, in dextra illius ignea lex, dilexit populos, omnes sancti in manu illius sunt. Tertio quia homines per peccatum corruptos reparavit. Ier. XXXI, 3: in caritate perpetua dilexi te, et ideo, et cetera. Quarto quia pro salute nostra Filium proprium dedit. Io. III, 16: sic Deus dilexit mundum, ut Filium suum unigenitum daret. Unde Gregorius: o inaestimabilis dilectio caritatis. Ut servum redimeres, Filium tradidisti. He states for his exceeding charity since we can think of a fourfold goodness and efficacy of the divine love. First, it brought us into existence: for you love all things that are, and hate none of the things which you have made (Wis 11:25). Second, he made us according to his own image, capable of enjoying his own beatitude: he came from Miribath-Kadesh and with him thousands of saints. At his right hand a fire blazed forth. He has loved the people; all the saints are in his hand (Deut 33:2–3). Third, he renewed men corrupted by sin: I have loved them with an everlasting love; therefore have I drawn you, taking pity on you (Jer 31:3). Fourth, for our salvation he gave over his own Son: for God so loved the world, as to give his only begotten Son (John 3:16). Hence Gregory exclaims: O the incalculable love of your charity! To redeem slaves you delivered up your Son. 86. Dicit autem qui dives est in misericordia, quia cum amor hominis causetur ex bonitate eius qui diligitur, tunc homo ille qui diligit, diligit ex iustitia, inquantum iustum est quod talem amet. Quando vero amor causat bonitatem in dilecto, tunc est amor procedens ex misericordia. Amor autem quo Deus amat nos, causat in nobis bonitatem, et ideo misericordia ponitur hic quasi radix amoris divini. Is. LXIII, 7: largitus est in eis secundum indulgentiam suam, et secundum multitudinem misericordiarum suarum. Ibidem: multitudo viscerum tuorum et miserationum tuarum super me. 86. He then asserts who is rich in mercy. When a man’s love is caused from the goodness of the one he loves, then that man who loves does so out of justice, inasmuch as it is just that he love such a person. When, however, love causes the goodness in the beloved, then it is a love springing from mercy. The love with which God loves us produces goodness in us; hence mercy is presented here as the root of the divine love: the favors of Yahweh I will recall, the praises of Yahweh for all that Yahweh has done for us . . . which he has given according to his kindness and the multitude of his mercies (Isa 63:7). And where is your zealous care and might, your surge of pity and mercy toward me? (Isa 63:15). 87. Dicitur autem Deus dives in misericordia, quia habet eam infinitam et indeficientem, quod non habet homo. 87. God is said to be rich in mercy because he possesses an infinite and unfailing mercy, which man does not. In tribus enim homo miseretur cum termino et limitatione. Primo quidem largiendo beneficia temporalia, et haec misericordia est finita, non excedens limites propriae facultatis. Tob. IV, 8: quomodo potueris, ita esto misericors; sed Deus dives est etiam in omnes qui invocant illum, ut dicitur Rom. X, 12. For man has a mercy that is bounded or limited in three ways. First, in bestowing temporal benefits, man’s mercy is restricted by the amount of his own possessions. If you have little, do not be afraid to give from that little (Tob 4:8); whereas God enriches all who call upon him (Rom 10:12). Secundo est finita misericordia hominis quia non remittit nisi offensam propriam, et in hoc etiam modus esse debet, ut scilicet non sic passim remittat, ut ille cui remittit efficiatur procacior, pronior et facilior ad iterum offendendum. Eccle. VIII, 11: etenim quia non profertur cito contra malos sententia, absque timore ullo filii hominum perpetrant mala. Deo autem nihil nocere potest, et ideo potest omnem offensam remittere. Iob c. XXXV, 6: si peccaveris, quid ei nocebis? Et parum post: porro si iuste egeris, quid donabis ei? Second, the mercy of man is limited since he can only pardon offenses against himself. Even with these there ought to be a certain qualification; he should not forgive so indiscriminately that whoever is pardoned becomes more bold, prone and ready to offend again. For, because sentence is not speedily pronounced against the evil, the hearts of the sons of men are fully set to do evil (Eccl 8:11). But nothing can harm God and hence he can forgive every offense: if you sin, what harm do you do to him? And a little further on, and if you act rightly, what do you give him? (Job 35:6–7) Tertio, homo miseretur poenam remittendo, et in hoc etiam est modus servandus, scilicet ut non facias contra legis superioris iustitiam: Deus autem poenam omnium remittere potest, cum non obstringatur aliqua superioris lege. Iob XXXIV, 13: quem constituit alium super terram, et quem posuit super orbem quem fabricatus est? Third, a man shows mercy in remitting punishment; yet here too a qualification must be observed: he must not contravene the justice of a higher law. God, on the other hand, can remit all punishment since he is not bound by any higher law: who gave him charge over the earth? Or who else set the land in its place? (Job 34:13). Sic ergo misericordia Dei est infinita, quia non coarctatur angustiis divitiarum, neque timore nocumenti restringitur, et neque lege superioris. Thus the mercy of God is infinite because it is not limited by a scarcity of wealth, nor is it restricted through a fear of injury, nor by any higher law. 88. Causa vero exemplaris beneficii est, quia in Christo collata est. Et quantum ad hoc dicit cum essemus mortui peccatis, convivificavit nos in Christo, et cetera. Ubi tangit triplex beneficium, id est: iustificationis, resurrectionis a mortuis, et ascensionis in caelum, per quae tria Christo assimilamur. 88. The exemplary cause of the blessing is that it is granted in Christ. In reference to this he states even when we were dead in sins, he has quickened us together in Christ. He touches upon a triple blessing: justification, resurrection from the dead, and ascension into heaven—through these three we are assimilated to Christ. Dicit ergo quantum ad primum, ut legatur littera suspensive, Deus autem, qui dives est, etc., cum essemus mortui peccatis, convivificavit nos in Christo, id est simul vivere fecit cum Christo. Os. VI, 3: vivificabit nos post duos dies, et cetera. Convivificavit, inquam, hic scilicet per viam iustitiae. Ps. LXV, v. 9: qui posuit animam meam ad vitam. Et hoc in Christo, id est per gratiam Christi, cuius, scilicet Christi, gratia estis salvati. Rom. VIII, 24: spe enim salvi sumus. He states that the whole text might be read, concerning the first: God, who is rich in mercy, for his exceeding charity with which he loved us, even when we were dead in sins, has quickened us together in Christ, that is, he has made us live together with Christ. He will revive us after two days: on the third day he will raise us up and we shall live in his sight (Hos 6:3). He has quickened us, I say, through a life of justice: who placed us among the living (Ps 66:9). This occurs in Christ, that is, through the grace of Christ by whose grace you are saved. For we are saved by hope (Rom 8:24). Quantum vero ad secundum dicit et conresuscitavit nos cum Christo, quantum ad animam in re, et spe quantum ad corpus. Rom. VIII, 11: qui suscitavit ipsum a mortuis, vivificabit et mortalia corpora nostra, et cetera. Regarding the second, he says and has raised us up together with Christ—in reality, in regard to the soul, and in hope, in regard to the body. He who raised Jesus Christ from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also through his Spirit which dwells in you (Rom 8:11). Quantum vero ad tertium dicit et consedere fecit in caelestibus in Christo Iesu, scilicet nunc per spem, et tandem in futuro in re, quia, ut dicitur Io. XII, 26: ubi ego sum, illic et minister meus erit, et cetera. Item Apoc. III, v. 21: qui vicerit, dabo ei sedere mecum in throno meo, sicut et ego vici, et sedi cum Patre meo in throno eius. In respect to the third he asserts and has made us sit together in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus, now through hope, and in the future in reality. Where I am, there also will my servant be. If anyone serves me, my Father will honor him (John 12:26). He who conquers I will grant him to sit with me in my throne; as I myself have conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne (Rev 3:21). Utitur autem in his Apostolus praeterito pro futuro, enuntians tamquam iam factum quod futurum est, pro certitudine spei. Sic ergo convivificavit quantum ad animam, tandem resuscitavit quantum ad corpus, consedere fecit quantum ad utrumque. In these the Apostle uses the past tense in place of the future, proclaiming as already accomplished what has yet to be done, on account of the certitude of hope. Thus God has quickened us in soul, he has raised us up in body, and has made us sit with Christ in both body and soul. 89. Consequenter cum dicit ut ostenderet, etc., ostendit causam finalem collati beneficii. Quod quidem potest dupliciter legi, quia saecula supervenientia vel possunt accipi in vita ista, vel in vita futura. 89. Consequently, when he says that he might show, he discloses the final cause of the blessing which has been given. It can be read in two ways, depending on whether ages to come pertains to the present or future life. Si enim accipiantur in vita ista, tunc saeculum est quaedam mensura temporis et periodus unius generationis, ut dicatur sic: dico quod nos, qui sumus primitiae dormientium, convivificavit in Christo, et hoc ut ostenderet in saeculis supervenientibus, id est his qui futuri sunt post nos, abundantes divitias gratiae suae, et hoc non meritis nostris, sed bonitate sua, quae est scilicet super nos in Christo Iesu, id est per Christum Iesum. I Tim. I, 15 s.: Iesus Christus venit in hunc mundum peccatores salvos facere, quorum primus ego sum. Sed ideo misericordiam consecutus sum, ut in me ostenderet Christus omnem patientiam ad informationem illorum qui credituri sunt illi in vitam aeternam. If it applies to this life, then age is a certain measure of time and a period of one generation. As though he affirmed: I am saying that we who are the first-fruits of those who sleep (1 Thess 4:12ff), he has quickened in Christ that he might show in the ages to come, to those who will exist after us, the abundant riches of his grace. And this is not on account of our merits, but in his own bounty towards us in Christ Jesus, that is, through Christ Jesus. Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of these I am the foremost. But I have received mercy for this reason, that in me first Christ Jesus might display his perfect patience, as an example for those who would believe in him for eternal life (1 Tim 1:15–16). Sic ergo Deus largitus est sanctis primitivis abundantia dona gratiae, ut posteri facilius convertantur ad Christum. Therefore, God has communicated copious gifts of grace to the early saints that later generations would more easily be converted to Christ. 90. Vel potest aliter accipi saeculum, scilicet in alia vita, de quibus dicitur Eccli. XXIV, 14: et usque ad futurum saeculum non desinam. Sed licet ibi sit unum saeculum, quia ibi est aeternitas, dicit tamen in saeculis supervenientibus, propter multitudinem sanctorum participantium aeternitatem: ut dicantur ibi tot saecula, quot sunt aeternitates participatae. De his saeculis dicitur in Ps. CXLIV, 13: regnum tuum regnum omnium saeculorum. 90. Or, age can be taken in reference to the next life, of which it is written: for eternity I shall not cease to exist (Sir 24:14). Although there will then be only one age, since it will be eternity, he nevertheless says in the ages to come on account of the numerous saints who will participate in eternity; there are said to be as many ages as there are shared-in eternities. Of these ages it is written: your kingdom is a kingdom of all ages (Ps 145:13). Dicit ergo secundum hunc sensum: dico quod vivificavit nos in spe, scilicet per Christum, vel in gratia, ut ostenderet in saeculis supervenientibus, id est in alia vita compleret, abundantes divitias gratiae suae, id est abundantem gratiam, quam etiam in hoc mundo, dum multa dimittit peccata et maxima dona concedit, dicit: quae quidem superabundat in vita alia, quia ibi indeficienter habetur. Io. X, 10: ego veni ut vitam, scilicet gratiae, habeant in hoc mundo, et abundantius habeant, scilicet gloriae in patria. In this sense he affirms: I say that he has vivified us in hope, namely, through Christ or in grace that he might show in the ages to come, that is, that he might bring to perfection in the next life, the abundant riches of his grace. Such an abundant grace with which, even in this world, he forgives many sins and confers the greatest of gifts, will superabound even more in the next life, since there it will be enjoyed unfailingly. I have come that they might have a life, namely, of grace in this world, and have it more abundantly in the fatherland of glory (John 10:10). Et hoc in bonitate sua. Ps. LXXII, 1: quam bonus Israel Deus. Thren. III, 25: bonus est dominus sperantibus in eum, animae quaerenti illum. This occurs in his own bounty. Israel, how good God is to those who are pure of heart! (Ps 73:1). Yahweh is good to those who wait for him, to the soul that seeks him (Lam 3:25). Et hoc supra nos, id est supra nostrum desiderium, supra nostrum intellectum, et supra capacitatem nostram. Is. LXIV, 4: oculus non vidit, Deus, absque te, quae praeparasti expectantibus te. This is towards us; it is beyond our desire, our understanding, and beyond our capacity: no eye has seen any God but you acting like this for those who wait for him (Isa 64:4). Et hoc in Christo Iesu, id est, per Christum Iesum, quia sicut gratia nobis confertur per Christum, ita et gloria consummata. Ps. LXXXIII, 12: gratiam et gloriam dabit dominus. Per ipsum enim beatificamur, per quem iustificamur. And this is in Christ Jesus, that is, through Christ Jesus; for as grace is bestowed on us through Christ, so also is glory communicated, which is grace brought to perfection. Yahweh God bestows favors and honors (Ps 84:12). Through the same person we are beatified, through whom we are justified. 91. Dicit autem ut ostenderet, quia thesaurus gratiae in nobis est occultus, quia habemus ipsum in vasis fictilibus, ut dicitur II Cor. IV, 7; et I Io. III, 1: videte qualem caritatem dedit nobis Pater: ut filii Dei nominemur et simus. Et parum post: nunc filii Dei sumus, et nondum apparuit, et cetera. Sed ille thesaurus occultus, quia nondum apparuit, in saeculis supervenientibus ostenditur, quia in patria omnia erunt nobis aperta, quae ad manifestam sanctorum gloriam pertinent. Rom. VIII, 18: non sunt condignae passiones huius temporis ad futuram gloriam, quae revelabitur in nobis. 91. He says that he might show because the treasure of grace is hidden within us; we have it in earthen vessels (2 Cor 4:7). Behold what manner of charity the Father has bestowed upon us, that we should be called and should be the sons of God, after which comes: we are now sons of God, and it has not yet been revealed what we shall be. We know that when he shall appear we shall be like to him (1 John 3:1–2). But that hidden treasure, although it has not yet been revealed, is shown in the ages to come, since in the fatherland everything relating to the transparent glory of the saints will be unveiled before us. The sufferings of this time are not worthy to be compared with the glory to come that shall be revealed in us (Rom 8:18).