Gentes Christo redempti
Gentiles redeemed by Christ
2:11 Propter quod memores estote quod aliquando vos gentes in carne, qui dicimini praeputium ab ea quae dicitur circumcisio in carne, manu facta: [n. 102]
2:11 For which cause be mindful that you, being heretofore gentiles in the flesh, who are called uncircumcision by that which is called circumcision in the flesh, made by hands: [n. 102]
2:12 quia eratis illo in tempore sine Christo, alienati a conversatione Israël, et hospites testamentorum, promissionis spem non habentes, et sine Deo in hoc mundo. [n. 105]
2:12 That you were at that time without Christ, alienated from Israel’s way of life, and strangers to the testament, having no hope of the promise and without God in this world. [n. 105]
2:13 Nunc autem in Christo Jesu, vos, qui aliquando eratis longe, facti estis prope in sanguine Christi. [n. 108]
2:13 But now in Christ Jesus, you, who at one time were far off, are made near by the blood of Christ. [n. 108]
101. Prosecuto beneficio Dei gentilibus exhibito quantum ad liberationem a peccato, hic recitat Apostolus beneficium eis exhibitum a liberatione a statu gentilitatis.
101. Once he has outlined God’s blessing to the gentiles in freeing them from sin, the Apostle recalls the favor shown them in their liberation from the state of paganism.
Circa quod duo facit.
Concerning this he does two things:
Primo commemorat conditionem status praeteriti;
first, he recounts the condition of their former state;
secundo recitat beneficia eis exhibita in statu praesenti, ibi nunc autem in Christo Iesu, et cetera.
second, he describes the blessings granted them in their present state, at but now in Christ Jesus.
Circa primum duo facit.
He does two things about the first:
Primo commemorationis status praeteriti ponit exhortationem;
first, he prefaces the recollections of their past state with an exhortation;
secundo ipsemet status praeteriti declarat conditionem, ibi quia aliquando, et cetera.
second, he discusses the condition of the past state itself, at at one time.
102. Dicit ergo propter quod, ut scilicet advertere possitis, quod omnia sint nobis data ex Dei gratia, memores estote. Deut. IX, 7: memento et ne obliviscaris quomodo ad iracundiam provocaveris dominum Deum tuum, et cetera. Deut. XVI, 3: memineris diei egressionis tuae de Aegypto, omnibus diebus vitae tuae.
102. Thus he says for which cause, that you might advert to the fact that everything comes to us by God’s grace, be mindful: remember and do not forget how you provoked Yahweh your God in the dessert (Deut 9:7), that you may remember the day of your coming out of Egypt, all the days of your life (Deut 16:3).
103. Secundo cum dicit quia aliquando commemorat praeteriti status conditionem et
103. When he states that you, being heretofore gentiles he recounts, in the second place, the condition of their past state:
primo quantum ad mala quae habebant;
first, as regards the evils they endured;
secundo quantum ad bona quibus privabantur, ibi qui eratis illo in tempore, et cetera.
second, as regards the goods of which they were deprived, at you were at that time.
104. Circa primum ponit tria mala. Primo gentilitatis crimen, quo idolis serviebant, cum dicit quia aliquando vos gentes eratis. I Cor. XII, 2: scitis quoniam cum Gentes essetis, ad simulacra muta prout ducebamini euntes.
104. In reference to the first he exposes three evils. First was the crime of paganism, by which they were accustomed to worship idols; this he implies in that you, being heretofore gentiles. You know that when you were heathens, you went to dumb idols according as you were led (1 Cor 12:2).
Quidam vero libri habent: vos qui gentes eratis, et tunc pendet constructio usque ibi nunc autem in Christo Iesu, et cetera.
Some books have you who were gentiles and omit everything until but now in Christ Jesus.
Secundo recitat eorum carnalem conversationem, cum dicit in carne, id est carnaliter viventes. Rom. VIII, 8: qui autem in carne sunt, Deo placere non possunt.
Second, he discusses their carnal way of life, saying in the flesh, that is, living lustfully. And they who are in the flesh cannot please God (Rom 8:8).
Tertio recitat contemptus eorum vilipensionem, qua a Iudaeis vilipendebantur. Unde dicit qui dicebamini praeputium, id est incircumcisio, ab ea, scilicet circumcisione, quae dicitur circumcisio manufacta in carne, id est a Iudaeis tali circumcisione circumcisis. Et dicit manufacta ad differentiam circumcisionis spiritualis, de qua dicitur Col. II, v. 11: in quo circumcisi estis circumcisione non manufacta in expoliatione corporis carnis, sed in circumcisione Christi consepulti ei in baptismo. Et sequitur parum post: vos cum mortui essetis in delictis et praeputio carnis vestrae, convivificavit cum illo, condonans vobis omnia, et cetera.
Third, he speaks of the repugnance and contempt with which the Jews despised them. Hence he mentions who are called uncircumcision by that type of circumcision which is called circumcision in the flesh as the circumcised Jews performed this circumcision. He says made by hands to distinguish it from the spiritual circumcision spoken of: in whom you also were circumcised with a circumcision not hand-made, by putting off the body of the flesh, but in the circumcision of Christ, buried with him in baptism . . . and when you were dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, he has brought you to life together with him, forgiving you all offenses (Col 2:11–13).
105. Deinde cum dicit qui eratis illo in tempore, etc., commemorat bona quibus privabantur, et
105. Next, at you were at that time, he recounts the good things of which they were deprived:
primo participatione sacramentorum;
first, a share in the sacraments;
secundo Dei cognitione, ibi et sine Deo in hoc mundo.
second, a knowledge of God, at and without God in this world.
106. Circa primum ponit tria sacramenta, quorum participatione privabantur. Primo Christi dignitatem; unde dicit qui eratis illo in tempore sine Christo, id est sine promissione Christi, quae facta est Iudaeis. Ier. XXIII, 5: suscitabo David germen iustum, et cetera. Zach. IX, 9: exulta satis, filia Sion, iubila, filia Ierusalem, ecce Rex tuus venit tibi iustus et salvator.
106. Regarding the first he sets down three sacraments they were deprived of sharing in. They were, first of all, without the dignity of Christ; whence he affirms that you were at that time without Christ, without the promise of a Christ as was made to the Jews. I will raise up for David a just branch; and a king shall reign and shall be wise (Jer 23:5). Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion, shout for joy, O daughter of Jerusalem: See, your King is coming to you, triumphant and victorious (Zech 9:9).
Secundo tangit societatem sanctorum, qua privabantur quamdiu in Gentilitate permanebant, cum dicit alienati a conversatione Israel, quia scilicet Iudaeis cum gentibus non erat licitum conversari. Deut. VII, 2–3: non inibis cum eis foedus, non misereberis eorum, neque sociabis cum eis coniugia, et cetera. Io. IV, v. 9: non enim coutuntur Iudaei Samaritanis.
They were deprived, in the second place, from the society of the saints as long as they remained in paganism. He says they were alienated from Israel’s way of life, since the Jews were not permitted to mix with the gentiles. You shall not make any league with them, nor show them mercy. Neither shall you make marriages with them (Deut 7:2–3). Jews do not communicate with Samaritans (John 4:9).
Et quantum ad illos qui in Iudaismo recipiebantur contemptibiliter cum fiebant proselyti. Unde subditur et hospites testamentorum, quasi dicat: huiusmodi proselyti, quando convertebantur ad Iudaeos et fiebant proselyti, non sicut cives sed sicut hospites recipiebantur ad percipiendum testamenta Dei.
With respect to those who—not without contempt—were accepted into Judaism when they became proselytes he adds and strangers to the testaments. As though he asserted: these converts, when they went over to Judaism and became proselytes, were accepted to partake of God’s covenants as strangers rather than as citizens.
Dicit autem testamentorum in plurali; quia Iudaeis Vetus Testamentum erat exhibitum, et Novum erat promissum; quia, ut dicitur Eccli. XLIV, 25: testamentum suum confirmavit super caput Iacob; quod potest intelligi de Veteri Testamento. Promiserat enim Deus dare aliud testamentum. Bar. II, 35: statuam illis testamentum alterum sempiternum. Hoc autem reddidit illis, quorum adoptio est filiorum Dei et gloria et testamentum, ut dicitur Rom. IX, 4.
He says testaments in the plural since the Old Testament was offered the Jews and the New was promised. The Lord made his covenant rest upon the head of Jacob (Sir 44:25) can be understood of the Old Testament. God promised to give them another covenant: and I will make an everlasting covenant with them (Bar 2:35). This latter was granted to those to whom belong the adoption as children, the glory and the testament (Rom 9:4).
Ponit etiam aliud beneficium quo privabantur, scilicet spem futurorum bonorum, cum dicit promissionis spem non habentes; quia, ut dicitur Gal. III, 16, Abrahae dictae sunt promissiones, et semini eius.
He also sets down another blessing of which they were deprived: the hope of future goods, when he says having no hope of the promise since to Abraham were the promises made and to his seed (Gal 3:16).
107. Ulterius ponit summam damnificationem qua damnificantur, scilicet ob Dei ignorantiam, ibi et sine Deo in hoc mundo, id est sine cognitione Dei. Ps. LXXV, 2: notus in Iudaea Deus: non autem gentibus, ut dicitur I Thess. IV, 5: non in passione desiderii, sicut et gentes, quae ignorant Deum; quod tamen intelligitur de cognitione quae est per fidem. Nam de cognitione naturali dicitur Rom. I, 21: qui cum cognovissent Deum, non sicut Deum glorificaverunt, et cetera.
107. Finally, he writes of the greatest injury from which they suffered, ignorance of God. And without God in this world means without the knowledge of God. God has shown himself in Judah (Ps 76:2), but not among the gentiles: not in the passion of lust, like the gentiles that do not know God (1 Thess 4:5). This must be understood of the knowledge obtainable through faith, for Romans speaks of their natural knowledge: although they knew God, they did not glorify him as God or give him thanks (Rom 1:21).
108. Consequenter cum dicit nunc autem in Christo, etc., commemorat beneficia eis exhibita in statu conversionis per Christum.
108. After this, when he says but now in Christ, he recalls the blessings offered them through Christ in their condition after conversion.
Circa quod duo facit, quia
Concerning this he does two things:
primo ostendit quomodo facti sunt participes bonorum quibus ante privabantur;
first, he shows how they were made partakers of the goods previously denied them;
secundo ostendit quod ad illa bona non sicut hospites, sed sicut cives recipiuntur, ibi ergo non estis hospites, et cetera.
second, he shows that their participation in those goods is not that of strangers but of citizens, at you are no more strangers (Eph 2:19).
Prima iterum in duas, quia
The first part again has two sections:
primo commemorat huiusmodi beneficia in generali;
first, he depicts these blessings in a general way;
secundo in speciali, ibi in ipso enim est pax nostra, et cetera.
second, in a specific way, at for he is our peace (Eph 2:14).