Lectio 6 Lecture 6 Templum Ecclesiae The temple of the Church 2:19 Ergo jam non estis hospites, et advenae: sed estis cives sanctorum, et domestici Dei, [n. 123] 2:19 Now therefore you are no more strangers and foreigners: but you are fellow citizens with the saints and the domestics of God, [n. 123] 2:20 superaedificati super fundamentum apostolorum, et prophetarum, ipso summo angulari lapide Christo Jesu: [n. 126] 2:20 Built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone: [n. 126] 2:21 in quo omnis aedificatio constructa crescit in templum sanctum in Domino, [n. 131] 2:21 In whom all the building, being framed together, grows up into a holy temple in the Lord. [n. 131] 2:22 in quo et vos coaedificamini in habitaculum Dei in Spiritu. [n. 132] 2:22 In whom you also are built together into a habitation of God in the Spirit. [n. 132] 122. Ostenso supra quod ad spiritualia beneficia simul admissae sunt gentes cum Iudaeis hic ostendit quod in illis beneficiis gentiles non sunt minoris dignitatis quam sunt ipsi Iudaei, sed aeque plenarie ad Christi beneficia sint admissi. 122. Once he has made it clear that the gentiles have been admitted to spiritual blessings together with the Jews, he goes on to teach that in these blessings the gentiles are not of less eminence than the Jews themselves; they enjoy a completely equal access to Christ’s blessings. Circa quod duo facit, quia In reference to this he does two things: primo proponit intentum, first, he presents what he has in mind; secundo manifestat propositum per exemplum, ibi superaedificati, et cetera. second, he clarifies this presentation by an example, at built upon the foundation. Circa primum duo facit. Regarding the first he makes two points: Primo excludit id quod erat in statu praeterito a statu praesenti; first, he excludes what was true of their past state from their present state; secundo concludit id quod competit praesenti statui, ibi sed estis cives, et cetera. second, he concludes to what is fitting for their present state, at but you are fellow citizens. 123. Quia ergo Apostolus concludendo inducit hoc quod dicit ergo iam, etc., considerandum est, quod similitudo sequitur ex praemissis: primo quidem ex hoc quod ambo coniuncti, sunt Deo reconciliati; secundo quod ambo habent accessum in uno Spiritu ad Patrem. Quia ergo simul sunt configurati toti Trinitati: Patri ad quem habent accessum, Filio per quem, Spiritui Sancto in quo uno accedunt, in nullo ergo deficiunt a spiritualium bonorum participatione. 123. In drawing a conclusion, the Apostle says now therefore you are no more strangers and foreigners, and it should be recognized that a similar conclusion follows from the premises. First, indeed, from this, that both Jews and gentiles are united and are reconciled to God. In the second place, they both have access in one Spirit to the Father. Together they are conformed to the whole Trinity; to the Father whom they approach, to the Son through whom, and to the Holy Spirit in whom they have access in unity. Hence, they in no way lack a share in spiritual goods. 124. Ad intellectum autem litterae sciendum est, quod collegium fidelium quandoque in Scripturis vocatur domus, secundum illud I Tim. III, 15: ut scias quomodo in domo Dei oporteat te conversari, quae est Dei Ecclesia. Quandoque autem vocatur civitas, secundum illud Ps. CXXI, 3: Ierusalem quae aedificatur ut civitas. 124. To understand the text it must be realized that the community of the faithful is sometimes referred to as a house in the Scriptures: that you may know how to behave yourself in the household of God, which is the Church of the living God (1 Tim 3:15). At other times it is called a city: Jerusalem, which is built as a city (Ps 122:3). Civitas enim habet collegium politicum: domus autem oeconomicum, inter quae quidem duplex differentia invenitur. Nam qui sunt de collegio domus communicant sibi in actibus privatis; qui vero sunt de collegio civitatis, communicant sibi in actibus publicis. Item, qui sunt in collegio domus, reguntur ab uno qui vocatur paterfamilias; sed qui sunt in collegio civitatis reguntur a rege. Ita enim est paterfamilias in domo, sicut rex in regno. A city possesses a political community whereas a household has a domestic one, and these differ in two respects. For those who belong to the domestic community share with one another private activities; but those belonging to the civil community have in common with one another public activities. Second, the head of the family governs the domestic community; while those in the civil community are ruled by a king. Hence, what the king is in the realm, this the father is in the home. Sic igitur collegium fidelium aliquid habet de civitate, et aliquid de domo. Sed si consideretur rector collegii, pater est Matth. VI, v. 9: Pater noster, qui es in caelis, et cetera. Hier. c. III, 19: Patrem vocabis me, et post me ingredi non cessabis; et sic collegium est domus. Si vero ipsos subditos consideres, sic civitas est, quia communicabant sibi in actibus praecipuis, scilicet fidei, spei et caritatis. Et hoc modo si fideles considerentur in se, est collegium civitatis; si vero rector collegii attendatur, est collegium domus. The community of the faithful contains within it something of the city and something of the home. If the ruler of the community is thought of, he is a father: our Father, who is in heaven (Matt 6:9); you will call me Father and will not turn from following me (Jer 3:19). In this perspective, the community is a home. But if you consider the subjects themselves, it is a city since they have in common with one another the particular acts of faith, hope and charity. In this way, if the faithful are considered in themselves, the community is a civil one; if, however, the ruler is thought of, it is a domestic community. Et ideo Apostolus duo verba ponit hic, scilicet hospites et advenae. Hoc enim sunt hospites ad domum, quod advenae ad civitatem. Hospes enim dicitur quasi extraneus a domo. Eccli. XXIX, 31: vita nequam, hospitandi de domo in domum. Advena vero est qui extraneus venit ad civitatem. Ac si dicat Apostolus: olim eratis extranei a collegio fidelium, sicut hospites a domo, et advenae ad civitatem, quemadmodum et proselyti ad legem veterem; sed nunc non est ita, quia iam non estis hospites, et cetera. Is. LIV, 15: ecce accola veniet qui non erat mecum, advena quondam tuus adiungetur tibi. This is why the Apostle writes the two words here: strangers and foreigners. For what the stranger is to the home, that the foreigner is to the city. A stranger is an outsider, as it were, of a family: it is a miserable life to go from house to house, and where you are a stranger you may not open your mouth (Sir 29:24). A foreigner is as an alien to the city into which he comes. As though the Apostle said: formerly you were estranged from the community of believers, as strangers to a home and foreigners to a state—and as the proselytes were to the old law—but this is true no longer, for you are no more strangers and foreigners. Behold, an inhabitant will come who was not with me; he who was a foreigner to you will be joined to you (Isa 54:15). 125. Consequenter cum dicit sed estis cives sanctorum, etc.; concludit quod convenit statui praesenti, dicens sed estis cives sanctorum, etc., quasi dicat: quia collegium fidelium dicitur civitas in comparatione ad subditos, et domus in comparatione ad rectorem, collegium, ad quod vocati estis, est civitas sanctorum et domus Dei. Ps. LXXXVI, v. 3: gloriosa dicta sunt de te, civitas Dei. Unde Augustinus: duas civitates faciunt duo amores. Nam amor Dei usque ad contemptum sui, scilicet hominis amantis, facit civitatem Ierusalem caelestem, amor vero sui usque ad contemptum Dei, facit civitatem Babylonis. Quilibet ergo vel est civis sanctorum, si diligit Deum usque ad contemptum sui, Prov. ult.: omnes domestici eius vestiti sunt duplicibus, si vero diligit se usque ad contemptum Dei, est civis Babylonis. 125. Next, at but you are fellow citizens, he draws the conclusion of what their present state is, stating but you are fellow citizens with the saints and the domestics of God. As if he had said: since the community of the faithful is termed a city in relation to its subjects, and a home relative to its ruler, the assembly to which you are called is the city of the saints and the house of God. He who made perfect the glorious dwellings of Jacob speaks in you, city of God (Ps 87:3). Hence Augustine remarks: two loves have formed two cities. For the love of God, even to the contempt of self, namely, of the man loving, builds the heavenly city of Jerusalem. But the love of self, even to the contempt of God, builds the city of Babylon. Everyone, then, either is a citizen with the saints if he loves God to the contempt of self: she shall not fear for her house in the cold of snow, for all her domestics are clothed with double garments (Prov 31:21); or, if he loves himself even to the contempt of God, he is a citizen of Babylon. 126. Consequenter cum dicit superaedificati, etc., manifestat propositum. 126. Consequently, when he says built upon the foundation, he clarifies what has been said. Consuetum est in Scripturis quod in figura, quae metonymia dicitur, continens ponatur pro contento, sicut quandoque domus pro his qui sunt in domo: secundum hunc ergo modum loquitur Apostolus de his qui sunt in domo Dei, scilicet de fidelibus, sicut de una domo, et comparat eos aedificio. Et It is customary in the Scriptures that the figure, called metonymy, is used where the container is substituted for what it contains, as a house sometimes refers to those who are in the house. The Apostle employs this figure of speech concerning those who are in the house of God, the faithful; as though they were one house, he compares them to a building. circa hoc duo facit, quia Regarding this he does two things: primo proponit intentum, first, he sets down what he intended; secundo ostendit quod huius aedificii participes facti sunt ipsi Ephesii, ibi in quo et vos coaedificamini, et cetera. second, he shows that the Ephesians themselves have become parts of this building, at in whom you also are built. Circa primum duo facit. Concerning the first he does two things: Primo proponit huius aedificii fundamentum; first, he describes the foundation of this building; secundo ipsius constructionem seu complementum, ibi in quo omnis aedificatio constructa, et cetera. second, its construction or completeness, at all the building, being framed together. 127. Fundamentum autem ponit duplex: unum secundarium, et aliud principale. Secundarium quidem fundamentum sunt apostoli et prophetae. Et quantum ad hoc dicit eos non esse hospites, sed cives, qui iam pertinent ad aedificium spirituale, utpote superaedificati supra fundamentum apostolorum et prophetarum, id est, qui sunt apostoli et prophetae, id est, super doctrinam eorum. 127. He writes of two foundations: one is primary and another secondary. The apostles and prophets are the secondary foundation. In this regard he states that the Ephesians are not strangers but fellow citizens who belong already to the spiritual edifice which is built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, that is, upon the teaching of the apostles and prophets. Vel aliter: supra fundamentum apostolorum et prophetarum, id est, supra Christum qui est fundamentum apostolorum et prophetarum; quasi dicat: in eodem fundamento superaedificati estis in quo apostoli et prophetae sunt aedificati, qui ex Iudaeis fuerunt. Or, upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets means upon Christ who is the foundation of the apostles and prophets. As though he said: you are built upon the same foundation on which the apostles and prophets, who were Jewish, were built. Hae autem expositiones duae tantum quo ad verba differunt; sed prima convenientior est, quia si alia convenientior esset, tunc pro nihilo adiungeret ipso summo angulari lapide Christo Iesu, cum ipse Iesus sit summum fundamentum. Secundum ergo primum modum magis consonat, ita tamen quod praecipuus lapis et summum fundamentum sit Christus. Quantum vero ad sententiam nihil differunt, quia idem est dicere Christum esse fundamentum, et doctrinam apostolorum et prophetarum, cum Christum tantum, non seipsos, praedicaverint; unde accipere eorum doctrinam est accipere Christum crucifixum. I Cor. I, 23: nos autem praedicamus Christum crucifixum idest I Petr. I, 12: quibus revelatum est, quia non sibi ipsis, et cetera. Item I Cor. II, 16: nos autem sensum Christi habemus. These two interpretations only differ in words. Yet the first is more appropriate; if the second was the better one there would be no point in adding Jesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone since he would be the principal foundation. Hence this is more in harmony with the first; although Christ would be both the chief stone and the principal foundation. In meaning, however, they are in no way different since it is the same to say that Christ is the foundation, and that the teaching of the apostles and prophets is; after all, they proclaimed Christ alone, and not themselves. To accept their doctrine is to accept Christ crucified: we preach Christ crucified (1 Cor 1:23); it was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves but you, in the things which have been announced to you by those who preached the good news to you (1 Pet 1:12). We have the mind of Christ (1 Cor 2:16). 128. Notandum est quod apostoli dicuntur fundamenta. Ps. LXXXVI, 1: fundamenta eius in montibus sanctis. Is. LIV, 11: fundabo te in sapphiris, id est, in caelestibus viris. Expresse autem dicuntur fundamenta Apoc. XXI, 14: murus civitatis habens fundamenta duodecim, et in ipsis nomina duodecim apostolorum. Qui intantum dicuntur fundamenta, inquantum eorum doctrina Christum annuntiant. Matth. XVI, 18: super hanc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam. 128. Notice that the apostles are designated as foundations: O city founded by him on the holy mountains (Ps 87:1). I will lay your foundations with sapphires (Isa 54:11), that is, with saintly men. They are expressly called foundations: and the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them were the twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb (Rev 21:14). They are referred to as foundations to the degree that their doctrine proclaims Christ. Upon this rock I will build my Church (Matt 16:18). Dicit autem apostolorum et prophetarum, ut designet, quod utraque doctrina est necessaria ad salutem. Matth. XIII, 52: scriba doctus in regno caelorum similis est homini patrifamilias, qui profert de thesauro suo nova et vetera. Item ut ostendat concordiam inter utramque, alterius ad alteram, dum idem est utriusque fundamentum. Nam quod prophetae praedixerunt futurum, apostoli praedicaverunt factum. Rom. I, 1 s.: Paulus servus Iesu Christi, vocatus apostolus, segregatus in Evangelium Dei, quod ante promiserat per prophetas suos. Both apostles and prophets are alluded to so that he might indicate that the doctrine of both is necessary for salvation. Therefore, every scribe instructed in the kingdom of heaven is like a householder who brings forth out of his treasure new things and old (Matt 13:52). Also, that he might show the harmony between the two, of the one with the other, since there is an identical foundation to both. What the prophets foretold was to come, the apostles proclaimed as accomplished. Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, set apart for the Gospel of God, which he had promised before by his prophets in the holy Scriptures, concerning his Son (Rom 1:1–3). 129. Principale vero fundamentum tantum est Christus Iesus, et quantum ad hoc dicit ipso summo, et cetera. Ubi tria dicit de eo, scilicet quod sit lapis, quod angularis, et quod summus. 129. Christ Jesus alone is the principal foundation, in reference to this he says himself being the chief cornerstone. Here he states three things about him; he is a stone, is placed at the corner, and is the chief one. Lapis quidem est propter fundamenti firmitatem. Unde dicitur Matth. VII, 25, quod domus quae fundata erat supra petram, firmiter aedificata erat, intantum quod nec pluvia, nec flumina, nec venti potuerunt eam destruere. Non sic autem de domo fundata super arenam. Dan. II, 45: lapis abscissus de monte sine manibus. He is a stone on account of the strength of the foundation. Whence Matthew speaks of the house founded on a rock and built solidly (Matt 7:25); neither rains, nor floods, nor winds could destroy it. Such was not the case with the house built on sand. You saw a stone cut out of the mountain without a hand being put to it (Dan 2:45). Angularis autem dicitur propter utriusque coniunctionem; nam ut in angulo duo parietes uniuntur, sic in Christo populus Iudaeorum et gentium uniti sunt. Ps.: lapidem quem reprobaverunt aedificantes, hic factus est in caput anguli. Act. IV, 11 s.: hic est lapis qui reprobatus est a vobis aedificantibus, qui factus est in caput anguli, et non est in aliquo alio salus. Et hoc idem de se introducit Matth. XXI, 42: numquid legistis in Scripturis: lapidem quem reprobaverunt aedificantes, hic factus est in caput anguli, et cetera. He is called a corner stone on account of the convergence of both Jews and gentiles. As two walls are joined at the corner, so in Christ the Jewish and pagan peoples are united. The stone which the builders rejected became the cornerstone (Ps 118:22): this is the stone rejected by you, the builders, which became the cornerstone. And there is salvation in no one else (Acts 4:11–12). And Christ applies this text to himself: have you never read in the Scriptures: the stone which the builders rejected has become the cornerstone? (Matt 21:42) Summus autem dicitur propter dignitatis celsitudinem. Is. XXVIII, 16: ecce ego mittam in fundamentis Sion lapidem angularem, probatum, pretiosum, in fundamento fundatum. He is referred to as the chief one by reason of his heavenly dignity: see, I am laying a stone in Zion, a tested stone, a cornerstone, a precious stone, a foundation stone (Isa 28:16).