Lectio 10 Lecture 10 Begini et misericordes Kindness and forgiveness 4:30 Et nolite contristare Spiritum Sanctum Dei: in quo signati estis in diem redemptionis. [n. 263] 4:30 And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God: whereby you are sealed unto the day of redemption. [n. 263] 4:31 Omnis amaritudo, et ira, et indignatio, et clamor, et blasphemia tollatur a vobis cum omni malitia. [n. 264] 4:31 Let all bitterness and anger and indignation and clamor and blasphemy be put away from you, with all malice. [n. 264] 4:32 Estote autem invicem benigni, misericordes, donantes invicem sicut et Deus in Christo donavit vobis. [n. 265] 4:32 And be kind one to another: merciful, forgiving one another, even as God has forgiven you in Christ. [n. 265] 262. Supra monuit Apostolus abstinere a verbis malis et nocivis, hic monet abstinere a verbis et factis turbativis seu contristativis proximorum. 262. Previously the Apostle warned the Ephesians to abstain from wicked and injurious words. Here he advises them against words or actions which would upset or sadden other men. Circa quod duo facit. Regarding this he does two things: Primo prohibet quod pertinet ad vetustatem; first, he prohibits what pertains to the old; secundo persuadet quod pertinet ad novitatem, ibi estote autem invicem benigni, et cetera. second, he encourages what pertains to the new, at be kind to one another. Prima iterum in duas, quia Again the first part has two subdivisions: primo prohibet quod ad vetustatem pertinet in generali; first, he forbids what pertains to the old in a general way; secundo in speciali, ibi omnis amaritudo, et cetera. second, in a specific way, at let all bitterness. 263. Dicit ergo nolite contristare Spiritum, et cetera. Contra: Spiritus Sanctus est Deus, in quo non cadit passio aliqua, nec tristitia. 263. There might be an objection to his saying do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God. The Holy Spirit is God in whom there can be no emotion or sorrow. Respondeo. Spiritus Sanctus dicitur contristari, quando contristatur ille, in quo est Spiritus Sanctus. Lc. X, 16: qui vos spernit, me spernit. Is. LXIII, 10: ipsi autem ad iracundiam provocaverunt eum, et afflixerunt Spiritum Sanctum eius, et conversus est eis in inimicum. I reply that the Holy Spirit is said to be grieved when that person is saddened in whom the Holy Spirit dwells. He that despises you, despises me (Luke 10:16). But they provoked to wrath and afflicted the Spirit of his Holy One: and he was turned to be their enemy (Isa 63:10). Vel dicendum est quod est metaphorica locutio. Sicut enim Deus dicitur irasci propter similitudinem effectus, ita etiam dicitur contristari; quia sicut quando aliquis contristatur recedit a contristante, ita Spiritus Sanctus a peccante. Et sic est sensus nolite contristare Spiritum Sanctum Dei, id est nolite eum fugare, vel expellere per peccatum. Sap. I, 5: Spiritus Sanctus enim disciplinae effugiet fictum, et auferet se a cogitationibus, quae sunt sine intellectu, et corripietur a superveniente iniquitate. Or, it could be called a metaphorical expression. Just as God is said to be angry on account of the similarity of what he does to the results of human anger, so he could also be said to be grieved. When some person is saddened he withdraws from whoever is depressing him, likewise does the Holy Spirit withdraw from one who is sinning. Thus the meaning of do not grieve the Holy Spirit is: do not chase him away or reject him through sin. For the Holy Spirit of discipline will flee from the deceitful, and will withdraw himself from thoughts that are without understanding: and he shall not abide when iniquity comes in (Wis 1:5). Igitur non est contristandus Spiritus Sanctus, et hoc propter beneficium signi salutaris. Ideo subiungit in quo signati estis, id est reformati estis, et ab aliis distincti. Qui autem habebit hoc signum secum, habebit vitam aeternam. Ideo ergo est custodiendus et nullo modo contristandus, quia sine eo non est vita aeterna. II Cor. I, 22: qui signavit nos Deus, et dedit nobis pignus Spiritus. Therefore, the Holy Spirit must not be saddened, and this on account of the blessing of his saving seal. Thus he adds whereby you are sealed, that is, you are reformed and set apart from others. Whoever possesses this seal shall enjoy eternal life. For this reason he must be held on to and in no way grieved since without him there is no life everlasting. God also has sealed us and given the pledge of the Spirit in our hearts (2 Cor 1:22). Et quando? In die redemptionis, id est baptismi. Io. III, 5: nisi quis renatus fuerit ex aqua et Spiritu Sancto, et cetera. Act. I, 5: vos autem baptizabimini Spiritu Sancto, non post multos hos dies. Dicit autem redemptionis, quia in baptismo fit homo particeps redemptionis factae per Christum. When did this happen? On the day of redemption, that is, of baptism. Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God (John 3:5). You shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days hence (Acts 1:5). He says redemption since in baptism a man becomes a sharer in the redemption accomplished by Christ. 264. Sequitur omnis amaritudo, et cetera. Ubi ostendit in speciali quae pertinent ad vetustatem. 264. In what follows, at let all bitterness, he discloses what specifically belongs to the old man. Quandoque enim homo contristat amicum suum ex ira, aliquando ex industria. Sed in ira est triplex gradus, quia aliquando retinetur et manet solum in corde, sicut qui tantum interius irascitur. Aliquando vero exprimitur in voce, sine tamen contumeliae prolatione, sicut qui dicit racha. Aliquando fit etiam addita contumeliae prolatione, sicut qui dicit fatue. Primo ergo ponit quod pertinet ad iram cordis; secundo quod pertinet ad inordinatam prolationem; tertio quod pertinet ad contumeliam. For at times a man will sadden his friend out of anger, at other times on set purpose. Anger, however, has three degrees. Sometimes it is constrained and remains within the heart, as when someone is only inwardly angry. On other occasions it is expressed verbally, although not in a contemptuous way, as when someone says raca (Matt 5:22). At still another time contempt may be present in the verbal expression as in you cursed fool! Hence he first writes down what pertains to anger of the heart; second what is proper to its inordinate expression; and third what has reference to contempt. In ira autem cordis ista se consequuntur. Primo, quod ira est effectus tristitiae, et haec in Sacra Scriptura dicitur amaritudo. I Reg. c. I, 10: cum esset Anna amaro animo, et oraret Deum flens, et cetera. Et ideo dicit omnis amaritudo, etc., quae est per memoriam iniuriae praeteritae. Eccli. XXI, 15: non est sensus ubi abundat amaritudo. Secundo, quod statim appetit vindictam; ideo dicit et ira, quae est appetitus vindictae. Iac. I, 20: ira enim viri Dei iustitiam non operatur. Tertio, quod iratus indignum reputat, quod ei parcat, et indignum esse, quod sine punitione transeat; ideo sequitur et indignatio. In anger of the heart the following succeed one another. First, anger is the result of sorrow, which Sacred Scripture refers to as bitterness: as Hannah had her heart full of bitterness, she prayed to the Lord, shedding many tears (1 Sam 1:10). Thus he says all bitterness which arises from the memory of past injuries. For there is no understanding where there is bitterness (Sir 21:15). Second, it immediately desires revenge; hence he says and anger which is a craving for revenge. For the anger of man does not work the justice of God (Jas 1:20). Third, an angered person imagines whatever offends him is an insult, and he is indignant if it passes without punishment. Therefore, and indignation follows. Sed quantum ad inordinatam prolationem sic est clamor. Is. V, 7: expectavi ut faceret iudicium, et ecce iniquitas, et iustitiam, et ecce clamor. Ideo dicit et clamor. Similiter et blasphemia est vel contra Deum, vel contra sanctos. Lev. XXIV, 16: quicumque blasphemaverit nomen Domini, morte moriatur. Ideo dicit et blasphemia. Et addit tollatur a vobis cum omni malitia, scilicet operis. I Petr. c. II, 2: deponentes omnem malitiam, et omnem dolum et simulationem. Noise has to do with the inordinate expression of anger. And I looked that he should do judgment, and behold, iniquity: and do justice, and behold, a cry (Isa 5:7). Hence he says and clamor. In a similar way, blasphemy is either against God or against his saints. Yet he that blasphemes the name of the Lord, dying let him die (Lev 24:16). Thus he says and blasphemy. And he adds that these be put away from you, with all malice of action. Reject all malice and all guile and dissimulations (1 Pet 2:1). 265. Deinde cum dicit estote autem, etc., ponit pertinentia ad novitatem contrariam passionibus praemissis: contra amaritudinem, benignitatem. Unde dicit estote autem invicem benigni. Quia benignus est spiritus sapientiae, et cetera. Contra iram, misericordiam; unde dicit misericordes. Lc. VI, 36: estote ergo misericordes, sicut et Pater vester misericors est. Contra indignationem, condonationem; unde dicit donantes invicem, et cetera. Col. III, 13: donantes vobismetipsis si quis adversus aliquem habet querelam, sicut et Dominus donavit nobis, ita et vos. Rom. c. VIII, 32: qui etiam proprio Filio suo non pepercit; et paulo post sequitur: quomodo non etiam cum illo nobis omnia donavit? 265. Next, when he says be kind one to another he determines what pertains to the new man which is contrary to the above mentioned passions. Opposed to bitterness is kindness; so he says be kind one to another since the spirit of wisdom is benevolent (Wis 1:6). Mercy is contrary to anger, thus he mentions merciful: be therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful (Luke 6:36). Opposed to indignation is a pardoning attitude; whence he says forgiving one another even as God has forgiven you in Christ. Forgiving one another, if any have a complaint against another. Even as the Lord has forgiven you, so do you also (Col 3:13). He that spared not even his own Son, and shortly afterwards, how has he not also, with him, given us all things? (Rom 8:32). Caput 5 Chapter 5 Vita in Ecclesia Life in the Church Lectio 1 Lecture 1 Imitatores Dei Followers of God 5:1 Estote ergo imitatores Dei, sicut filii carissimi, [n. 267] 5:1 Be therefore followers of God, as most dear children: [n. 267] 5:2 et ambulate in dilectione, sicut et Christus dilexit nos, et tradidit semetipsum pro nobis, oblationem et hostiam Deo in odorem suavitatis. [n. 268] 5:2 And walk in love, as Christ also has loved us and has delivered himself for us, an oblation and a sacrifice to God for an odor of sweetness. [n. 268] 266. Posita exhortatione ad benignitatem et misericordiam, quae sunt effectus caritatis, hic ostendit eis exemplum. 266. Once he has exhorted them to kindness and mercy, which are the effects of charity, he gives them a model to imitate. Circa quod duo facit. In reference to this he does two things: Primo inducit eos ad imitationem exemplaris, scilicet Dei; first, he urges them to imitate the exemplar, namely, God; secundo ostendit in quo debent ipsum imitari, ibi et ambulate, et cetera. second, he lets them know in what they should imitate him, at and walk in love. 267. Dicit ergo: dixi quod debetis donare invicem, sicut et Deus in Christo donavit vobis, ergo estote imitatores Dei, quia hoc necessarium est, licet difficile sit. Eccle. II, v. 12: quid est, inquam, homo, ut possit sequi Regem factorem suum? Numquam tamen perficietur natura humana, nisi in coniunctione ad Deum. Unde Iob XXIII, 11: vestigia eius secutus est pes meus. Ergo imitandus est, taliter quomodo habemus possibilitatem, quia ad filium pertinet patrem imitari. Et ideo subdit sicut filii, Patrem scilicet per creationem. Deut. XXXII, 6: nonne ipse est Pater tuus qui possedit, et fecit, et creavit te? Et addit charissimi, quos scilicet elegit ad participationem sui ipsius. 267. I have affirmed, he says, that you ought to forgive one another as God has forgiven you in Christ (Eph 4:32). Be therefore followers of God because this is indispensable even if it is difficult. What is man, said I, that he can follow the King his maker? (Eccl 2:12). Nonetheless, human nature would never achieve its end except in union with God. My foot has followed his steps: I have kept his way, and have not declined from it (Job 23:11). He must be imitated insofar as it is possible for us to do so, since a son must imitate his father. Thus he adds as children since he is our Father through creation: is he not your Father, who possessed you, and made you, and created you? (Deut 32:6) He puts in most dear because God chose us to share in what is his very own. 268. Sequitur et ambulate, et cetera. Ubi 268. And walk in love comes next, and here: primo ponit imitandi modum, quia in caritate; first, he maintains that the way to imitate God is in charity; secundo ostendit immensae caritatis signum, ibi et tradidit, et cetera. second, he speaks of the tremendous sign of charity, at and has delivered himself.