Lectio 7 Lecture 7 Induite novum hominem Put on the new man 4:20 Vos autem non ita didicistis Christum, [n. 238] 4:20 But you have not so learned Christ: [n. 238] 4:21 si tamen illum audistis, et in ipso edocti estis, sicut est veritas in Jesu, [n. 239] 4:21 Yet if you have heard him and have been taught in him, as the truth is in Jesus: [n. 239] 4:22 deponere vos secundum pristinam conversationem veterem hominem, qui corrumpitur secundum desideria erroris. [n. 240] 4:22 To put off, according to former way of life, the old man, who is corrupted according to the desire of error. [n. 240] 4:23 Renovamini autem spiritu mentis vestrae, [n. 242] 4:23 And be renewed in the spirit of your mind: [n. 242] 4:24 et induite novum hominem, qui secundum Deum creatus est in justitia, et sanctitate veritatis. [n. 245] 4:24 And put on the new man, who according to God is created in justice and holiness of truth. [n. 245] 237. Ostensa perversitate gentilis conversationis, hic ostendit Apostolus quod doctrina Christi totaliter contraria est isti conversationi et statui. Et quia pervertentes quidam doctrinam Christi dixerunt non esse aliam vitam post istam, sed animam mori cum corpore, ut animalia, ideo Apostolus ostendit, 237. Having shown the depravity of the gentile’s conduct, the Apostle points out now that Christ’s teaching is completely contrary to such a way of life and condition. Because some men who distorted Christian doctrine held there is no life after the present one, but that man’s soul, like the rest of the animals, dies with his body, the Apostle makes clear: primo doctrinam Christi contrariam esse vitae et statui praecedenti; first, that Christ’s teaching is contrary to their former life and condition; secundo ostendit conditiones debitas doctrinae Christi, ibi deponite vos, et cetera. second, the requisites of Christ’s teaching, at to put off. 238. Dicit ergo: ita dictum est, quod illi desperantes, etc., vos autem non ita didicistis Christum, scilicet esse imitandum. Quomodo ergo? Ipsi enim vos a Deo didicistis ut diligatis invicem. II Thess. II, 15: itaque, fratres, state et tenete traditiones quas credidistis. Et quomodo tenebimus? I Thess. c. II, 13: quoniam cum accepissetis a nobis verbum auditus Dei, accepistis illud non ut verbum hominum, sed sicut est vere, verbum Dei, et cetera. Col. II, 7: radicati et superaedificati in ipso, et confirmati in fide, sicut didicistis abundantes in illo in gratiarum actione. 238. Thus he affirms: it was said that they, despairing, have given themselves up to lasciviousness (Eph 4:19), but you have not learned that Christ is to be so imitated. How should he be imitated? You yourselves have been taught by God that you must love one another (1 Thess 4:9). Therefore, brethren, stand fast; and hold the traditions which you have learned (2 Thess 2:14). And how shall we retain them? When you had received of us the word of the hearing of God, you received it not as the word of men, but, as it is indeed, the word of God, who works in you that have believed (1 Thess 2:13). Therefore, rooted and built up in him and confirmed in the faith, as also you have learned; abounding in him in thanksgiving (Col 2:7). 239. Et hoc certe, si tamen illum audistis, quia auditus deservit disciplinae. Si, pro quia. Quia haec est Annuntiatio quam audistis, ut dicitur I Io. I, 5. Et hoc quantum ad praedicationem fidei. Eccli. XXIV, 30: qui audit me, non confundetur. Prov. XV, 31: auris quae audit increpationes vitae, in medio sapientium commorabitur, et cetera. Et in illo edocti estis, scilicet quomodo pertinentia ad fidem sunt custodienda et adimplenda. Matth. ult.: fecerunt sicut erant edocti, et cetera. Et hoc sicut est veritas in Iesu, quasi dicat: si audivistis fidem Christi praedicari et quomodo praedicata debeant adimpleri, estis edocti, sicut Iesus, de quo praedicatur vobis, qui est veritas. Vos autem non ita, scilicet oportet ambulare, sicut aliqui desperantes. 239. This certainly will happen if you have heard him, for hearing is the servant of instruction. If here is the equivalent of because. And this is the declaration which you have heard (1 John 1:5); this is in reference to the proclamation of the faith. He that harkens to me shall not be confounded (Sir 24:30). And the ear that hears the reproofs of life shall abide in the midst of the wise. He that rejects instruction despises his own soul: but he that yields to reproof possesses understanding (Prov 15:31–32). If also you have been taught in him how what pertains to faith must be kept and fulfilled. They did as they were taught (Matt 28:15), as the truth is in Jesus. As though he said: if you have heard the faith of Christ preached and how this faith must be put into practice, you have been taught what Jesus is like, who is himself the truth which is imparted to you. You must not, therefore, behave as those who despair. 240. Sed quomodo? Subdit deponite vos, et cetera. Quae quidem littera potest legi dupliciter. Uno modo, ut dicatur deponere, et tunc construitur cum praecedentibus sic: ita est veritas in qua edocti estis in Iesu, deponere vos, et cetera. Si autem dicatur deponite, quae littera communius habetur, dicemus quod quia contraria est et vita et doctrina gentilium, vitae et doctrinae Iesu, in qua edocti estis, restat ut deponatis, et cetera. 240. How should they live? He adds to put off, according to the former way of life, the old man. The passage has two variant readings. One is the infinitive, to put off; then it would be construed with what preceded to read: the truth about which you were instructed in Jesus was to put off the old man. The more common reading has an imperative, put off; in this case the signification is: since the life and teachings of the gentiles are contrary to those of Jesus, in which you have been taught, the only alternative is that you discard the old man. Duo ergo facit. Quia cum primo extirpanda sint vitia quam inserantur virtutes, Hence he makes two points here since vices must first be eradicated before virtues can be cultivated: primo docet eos statum pristinae ac veteris conversationis deponere; first, he instructs them to put aside their former condition, their old way of living; secundo novum statum Iesu assumere, ibi renovamini autem spiritu, et cetera. second, how they must take on a new way of life characteristic of Jesus, at and be renewed in the spirit. 241. Dicit ergo: deponite, et cetera. Ubi tria sunt consideranda. Primo quid intelligatur per veterem hominem. 241. Hence, he says put off, according to former way of life, the old man; and three considerations follow. First, what does the old man mean? Dicunt aliqui, quod hic homo vetus exterior, novus vero dicitur interior. Sed dicendum est quod homo vetus dicitur tam interior quam exterior, qui subiicitur vetustati quantum ad animam per peccatum et quantum ad corpus, quia membra corporis sunt arma peccati. Et sic, subiectus homo peccato secundum animam et corpus, dicitur vetus homo, secundum quod illa vetusta sunt, quae sunt in via corruptionis, vel in ipso corrumpi; quia quod antiquatur et senescit, prope interitum est, ut dicitur ad Hebr. VIII, 13. Et sic homo subiectus peccato dicitur vetus, quia est in via corruptionis; propter quod subdit qui corrumpitur secundum desideria erroris. Nam unumquodque corrumpitur, cum recedit ab ordine naturae suae. Natura autem hominis est, ut desiderium eius tendat ad id quod est secundum rationem. Perfectio autem et bonum rationis est veritas. Quando ergo ratio tendit ad errorem, et desiderium ex hoc errore corrumpitur, tunc vetus homo dicitur. Some hold that the old man is exterior and the new man interior. But it must be said that the old man is both interior and exterior; he is a person who is enslaved by a senility in his soul, due to sin, and in his body whose members provide the tools for sin. Thus a man enslaved to sin in soul and body is an old man. He is already on the way to corruption, or is actually beginning to decay since that which decays and grows old is near its end (Heb 8:13). And so a man subjected to sin is termed an old man because he is on the way to corruption. On this account he goes on, corrupted according to the desire of error. Anything will corrupt when it deviates from the order of its nature. Man’s nature longs for what accords with reason; and truth is reason’s perfection and good. Hence, when someone’s reason sways toward error, and his desire is corrupted from this error, he is referred to as an old man. Dicit autem secundum desideria, scilicet mala. Rom. XIII, 14: carnis curam ne feceritis in desideriis. I Tim. VI, 9: desideria multa, et nociva, et inutilia, quae mergunt hominem in interitum et perditionem, et cetera. Quia autem haec desideria in quibusdam trahuntur ex infirmitate, in quibusdam vero ex malitia, sicut in illis qui dicunt Deum providentiam non habere, ideo dicit erroris; quia in talibus sic errantibus corrumpitur intellectus et affectus. Vel secundum desideria erroris, id est quae homines faciunt errare, secundum illud Sap. II, 21: haec cogitaverunt et erraverunt, et cetera. Prov. XIV, 8: imprudentia stultorum errans. This, he says, is according to evil desire. Make not provision for the flesh in its concupiscences (Rom 13:14); many are the unprofitable and hurtful desires which drown men into destruction and perdition (1 Tim 6:9). Some people are lured into these cravings through their own weakness. Malice will draw others to them, as it does those who say that God does not have a providential care. Therefore he adds of error because the mind and affections of those who maliciously err become corrupted. Possibly the desire of error refers to whatever makes men err, according to what is written: these things they thought, and were deceived: for their own malice blinded them (Wis 2:21); the imprudence of fools errs (Prov 14:8). Sed quomodo deponendus sit, docet Apostolus, dicens Col. III, 9: expoliantes vos veterem hominem cum actibus suis, et cetera. Non ergo substantialiter debet deponi vel expoliari, sed solum quoad opera mala, vel conversationem. I Petr. II, 12: conversationem vestram inter gentes habentes bonam. I Tim. IV, 12: exemplum esto fidelium in verbo et conversatione. The Apostle indicates how to leave the old man behind: stripping yourselves of the old man with his deeds (Col 3:9). The substance of human nature is not to be rejected or despoiled, but only wicked actions and conduct. Have your manner of life good among the gentiles (1 Pet 2:12); be an example of the faithful, in word, in conduct, in charity, in faith, in chastity (1 Tim 4:12). 242. Deinde cum dicit renovamini, etc., ostendit, quod debemus novum statum induere. 242. Next, when he says be renewed, he indicates the new condition they are to take on. Circa quod tria facit. Concerning this, he shows three things: Primo ostendit per quid consequi possumus hanc novitatem; first, through what means we can obtain this newness; secundo in quo haec novitas consistat; second, in whom this newness resides; tertio quae sit. third, what the newness is. 243. Quantum ad primum dicit renovamini spiritu, et cetera. 243. Regarding the first he says be renewed in the spirit of your mind. Ubi notandum est quod licet spiritus multipliciter dicatur in homine, tamen triplex spiritus invenitur, scilicet Spiritus Sanctus, I Cor. c. III, 16: nescitis quod templum Dei estis, et Spiritus Dei habitat in vobis? Item, spiritus rationalis, Gal. V, 17: caro concupiscit adversus spiritum. Item, spiritus phantasticus. Os. IX, 7: scitote Israel stultum prophetam, insanum virum, spiritualem, id est phantasticum. Hoc ergo quod dicit Spiritu mentis, sumitur pro Spiritu Sancto. Dicit autem causam renovationis esse Spiritum Sanctum, qui habitat in mente nostra. Gal. IV, 6: misit Deus Spiritum Filii sui in corda, et cetera. Ps. CIII, v. 30: emitte Spiritum tuum, et creabuntur, et cetera. Notice that although spirit is frequently said to be in man, nevertheless three spirits are discernible in him. One is the Holy Spirit: do you not know that you are the temple of God and that the Spirit of God dwells in you? (1 Cor 3:16). Another is his spiritual reason: for the flesh lusts against the spirit; and the spirit against the flesh (Gal 5:17). Finally, there is man’s imaginative spirit: know, O Israel, that the prophet was foolish, the man was mad, and spiritual (Hos 9:7), that is, his imagination went wild. Therefore, the Spirit of your mind may point to the Holy Spirit. He then states that the cause of renewal is the Holy Spirit who dwells in our mind: God has sent the Spirit of his Son into your hearts (Gal 4:6). Send forth your Spirit, and they shall be created: and you shall renew the face of the earth (Ps 104:30). Vel potest accipi spiritus pro spiritu rationali, et tunc spiritus idem est quod mens nostra, et est simile huic quod dicitur Col. II, v. 11: in expoliatione corporis carnis, id est corporis, quae est caro; ita hic spiritu mentis, id est spiritu, qui est mens; hoc autem dicit, quia in nobis est alius spiritus, qui non est mens, qui scilicet est communis nobis et brutis. Or spirit could refer to the rational spirit and would be identical with our mind, similar to the expression: in despoiling of the body of the flesh (Col 2:11), that is, the body which the flesh is. Likewise here, in the spirit of your mind would refer to the spirit which the mind is. He would qualify it in this way since there is another spirit within us, differing from the mind, and which is common to both us and the beasts. 244. Dicit autem renovamini spiritu mentis, quia illud quod non est corruptum est novum, nec renovatione indiget. Nam si Adam corruptus non fuisset, renovatione non indiguisset, nec nos etiam. Sed quia corruptus fuit, renovatione indiguit et eius posteriores. Et ideo oportet renovari nos in praesenti secundum animam, et in futuro secundum corpus, quando corruptibile hoc induet incorruptionem, et mortale immortalitatem, ut dicitur I Cor. XV, 53. Dicit ergo renovamini spiritu, hic scilicet, quia nisi in praesenti spiritus renovetur, numquam corpus eius innovabitur. 244. However, he states be renewed in the spirit of your mind; what is not spoiled is new and does not require a renewal. If Adam had not become tainted neither he nor ourselves would need a renovation. Yet, once he was corrupted, both he and his offspring are in need of a renovation. In the present life we must be renewed in soul; our body will be in the future when this corruptible must put on incorruption; and this mortal must put on immortality (1 Cor 15:52). Hence he says be renewed in the spirit since, unless the spirit is renewed in this life, the body will never be renewed. Vel potest exponi spiritu mentis, id est mente vestra spirituali facta; et in idem redit. Or, in the spirit of your mind can be interpreted as in your mind which was made spiritual and will return to the same. 245. In quo autem haec renovatio consistat, quantum ad secundum, subdit cum dicit et induite novum hominem, et cetera. 245. And put on the new man discloses in whom this renewal takes place. Hic advertendum est quod sicut uniuscuiusque rei primum vetustatis principium fuit Adam, per quem peccatum in omnes intravit, ita principium primum novitatis et renovationis Christus est; quia sicut in Adam omnes moriuntur, ita et in Christo omnes vivificabuntur. Unde Gal. ult.: in Christo Iesu neque circumcisio, neque praeputium aliquid valet, sed nova creatura. Induimini ergo Dominum nostrum Iesum Christum, Rom. c. XIII, 14. Here it is to be remembered that Adam introduced sin into all men, and thus became for everything the primary source of oldness. Likewise, the primary source of newness and renovation is Christ. As in Adam all die, so also in Christ all shall be made alive (1 Cor 15:22). For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision avails anything, nor uncircumcision; but a new creature (Gal 6:15). Therefore, put on the Lord Jesus Christ (Rom 13:14). 246. Quae autem sit renovatio ostendit, cum dicit qui secundum Deum creatus est, et cetera. Hoc autem potest intelligi tripliciter. Uno modo sic, ut ly qui, referatur ad spiritum, id est: spiritus, qui est mens nostra, creatus est a Deo, scilicet in originali iustitia, scilicet in sui novitate; vel recreatus nova creatione, ut esset iustus. Supra II, 10: creati in Christo Iesu in operibus bonis. 246. Who, according to God, is created in justice and holiness of truth makes known what the renovation is. It admits of a triple explanation. If who refers to man’s spirit, it would mean: the spirit, which our mind is, was created by God in the freshness of original justice; or, by a second creative act was renewed to be just again: created in Christ Jesus in good works (Eph 2:10). Vel ly qui, potest referri ad novum hominem, scilicet Christum. Et tunc construetur sic: qui creatus est, id est formatus in utero Virginis secundum Deum, id est non semine humano, sed Spiritu Sancto. Vel creatus est secundum esse gratiae et plenitudinis, et hoc in iustitia, quoad homines, et sanctitate, quoad Deum, et hoc veritatis, non falsitatis. Lc. I, 75: in sanctitate et iustitia. Vel ut sanctitas sit in corde, veritas in ore, iustitia in opere. Or, who might have reference to the new man, Christ. Then the text could be construed as: who is created, that is, formed in the Virgin’s womb according to God by the Holy Spirit and not human seed. Or, he was created according to an existence of grace, as well as a fullness in justice toward men and holiness before God that was not fictitious but of truth: in holiness and justice before him (Luke 1:75). Or it could mean that holiness is in his heart, truth on his tongue, and justice in his actions. Lectio 8 Lecture 8 Praecepta ad proximos Precepts towards neighbors