Lectio 1 Lecture 1 Imitatores Dei Followers of God 5:1 Estote ergo imitatores Dei, sicut filii carissimi, [n. 267] 5:1 Be therefore followers of God, as most dear children: [n. 267] 5:2 et ambulate in dilectione, sicut et Christus dilexit nos, et tradidit semetipsum pro nobis, oblationem et hostiam Deo in odorem suavitatis. [n. 268] 5:2 And walk in love, as Christ also has loved us and has delivered himself for us, an oblation and a sacrifice to God for an odor of sweetness. [n. 268] 266. Posita exhortatione ad benignitatem et misericordiam, quae sunt effectus caritatis, hic ostendit eis exemplum. 266. Once he has exhorted them to kindness and mercy, which are the effects of charity, he gives them a model to imitate. Circa quod duo facit. In reference to this he does two things: Primo inducit eos ad imitationem exemplaris, scilicet Dei; first, he urges them to imitate the exemplar, namely, God; secundo ostendit in quo debent ipsum imitari, ibi et ambulate, et cetera. second, he lets them know in what they should imitate him, at and walk in love. 267. Dicit ergo: dixi quod debetis donare invicem, sicut et Deus in Christo donavit vobis, ergo estote imitatores Dei, quia hoc necessarium est, licet difficile sit. Eccle. II, v. 12: quid est, inquam, homo, ut possit sequi Regem factorem suum? Numquam tamen perficietur natura humana, nisi in coniunctione ad Deum. Unde Iob XXIII, 11: vestigia eius secutus est pes meus. Ergo imitandus est, taliter quomodo habemus possibilitatem, quia ad filium pertinet patrem imitari. Et ideo subdit sicut filii, Patrem scilicet per creationem. Deut. XXXII, 6: nonne ipse est Pater tuus qui possedit, et fecit, et creavit te? Et addit charissimi, quos scilicet elegit ad participationem sui ipsius. 267. I have affirmed, he says, that you ought to forgive one another as God has forgiven you in Christ (Eph 4:32). Be therefore followers of God because this is indispensable even if it is difficult. What is man, said I, that he can follow the King his maker? (Eccl 2:12). Nonetheless, human nature would never achieve its end except in union with God. My foot has followed his steps: I have kept his way, and have not declined from it (Job 23:11). He must be imitated insofar as it is possible for us to do so, since a son must imitate his father. Thus he adds as children since he is our Father through creation: is he not your Father, who possessed you, and made you, and created you? (Deut 32:6) He puts in most dear because God chose us to share in what is his very own. 268. Sequitur et ambulate, et cetera. Ubi 268. And walk in love comes next, and here: primo ponit imitandi modum, quia in caritate; first, he maintains that the way to imitate God is in charity; secundo ostendit immensae caritatis signum, ibi et tradidit, et cetera. second, he speaks of the tremendous sign of charity, at and has delivered himself. 269. Quod ergo simus filii charissimi, hoc facit caritas Dei. Rom. VIII, 15: non enim accepistis spiritum servitutis iterum in timore, sed accepistis Spiritum adoptionis filiorum, in quo clamamus: Abba, Pater. Ipse enim Spiritus testimonium reddit spiritui nostro, quod sumus filii Dei. 269. The charity of God has made us his most dear children: for you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear; but you have received the Spirit of adoption of sons, whereby we cry: Abba, Father. For the Spirit himself gives testimony to our spirit that we are the sons of God (Rom 8:15–16). Debemus ergo ipsum in dilectione imitari. Et dicit ambulate, id est semper proficite. Gen. XV: ambula coram me, et esto perfectus. Et hoc in dilectione, quia dilectio est tale bonum in quo debet homo proficere, et tale debitum quod debet homo semper solvere. Rom. XIII, 8: nemini quidquam debeatis, nisi ut invicem diligatis. Vel in dilectione, quae est via sequendi Deum magis de propinquo. I Cor. XII, 31: adhuc excellentiorem viam vobis demonstro. I Cor. XIII, v. 1: si linguis hominum loquar et angelorum, et cetera. Col. III, 4: super omnia haec caritatem habentes, et cetera. Et hoc exemplo Christi. Unde subdit sicut et Christus dilexit nos. Io. XIII, 1: cum dilexisset suos, qui erant in mundo, in finem dilexit eos. Certainly we ought to follow him in love. He says walk to signify you must always advance: walk before me and be perfect (Gen 17:1). This should be in love since love is so good that man ought always to make further progress in it, and is that kind of a debt which man always has to pay. Owe no man anything, but to love one another (Rom 13:8). Or in love may mean the way in which God is followed more closely: and I show you yet a more excellent way. If I speak with the tongues of men, and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling symbol (1 Cor 12:31–13:1). Above all these things have charity, which is the bond of perfection (Col 3:14). This must be done according to Christ’s example, whence he adds as Christ also has loved us. Jesus having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them unto the end (John 13:1). 270. Et quia, secundum Gregorium, probatio dilectionis, exhibitio est operis, ideo subdit et tradidit semetipsum pro nobis. Apoc. I, 5: dilexit nos, et lavit nos a peccatis nostris. Gal. II, 20: in fide vivo Filii Dei, qui dilexit me et tradidit in mortem seipsum pro me. Is. LIII, 12: tradidit in mortem animam suam, et cetera. 270. According to Gregory, love is verified when it is expressed in action. Therefore he adds and delivered himself for us. He has loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood (Rev 1:5). I live in the faith of the Son of God, who loved me and delivered himself for me (Gal 2:20). He has delivered his soul unto death and was reputed with the wicked (Isa 53:12). Haec autem mors fuit nobis utilis et necessaria, ideo subdit oblationem et hostiam, et cetera. Loquitur autem hic Apostolus more veteris legis, in qua, ut dicitur Lev. IV, 25 ss., quando quis peccaverat, offerri debebat pro eo hostia et oblatio, quae dicitur pro peccato. Item, quando quis agebat gratias Deo, vel aliquid consequi volebat, oportebat offerri hostiam pacificam, ut dicitur Lev. III, 9, quae quidem erat in oblationem suavissimi odoris Domino, ut dicitur ibidem. Haec autem facta sunt per Christum, quia, ut a peccatis mundaremur et gloriam consequeremur, tradidit semetipsum pro nobis in oblationem per ea quae in vita gessit. Is. LIII, 7: oblatus est, quia ipse voluit, et cetera. Et hostiam Deo pro peccato. This death was both advantageous and necessary for us, thus he says an oblation and a sacrifice. Here the Apostle is speaking in the way the old law does. In it, as Leviticus 4 indicates, when someone sinned he was obliged to offer, because of it, the sacrifice and oblation which was designated for the sin. Then too, when someone gave thanks to God, or wished to obtain some favor, he had to offer a victim of peace (Lev 3:9), which was of a most sweet savor (Lev 3:16) to the Lord. These, however, are all accomplished through Christ who, in order that we might be cleansed from sin and attain to glory, delivered himself for us, an oblation through the actions he performed during his life: he was offered because it was his own will, and he opened not his mouth (Isa 53:7); and he delivered himself as a sacrifice to God for sin. Et hoc in odorem suavitatis. Alludit autem hic, quod dicitur Lev. III, 5 s. Sed certe ille odor non erat tunc Deo acceptus secundum se, sed secundum suam significationem, inquantum significabat oblationem odoriferam corporis Christi Filii Dei. Gen. II: ecce odor filii mei, sicut odor agri pleni. Cant. I, 3: trahe me post te, curremus in odorem unguentorum tuorum. Sic autem debemus nos sacrificare Deo spiritualiter. Ps. l, v. 19: sacrificium Deo spiritus, et cetera. This was for an odor of sweetness, hinting at what is said in Leviticus 3:5 ff. But certainly the odor described there was not pleasing to God in itself but according to its signification, inasmuch as it symbolized the sweet-smelling oblation of the body of Christ, the Son of God. Behold, the smell of my son is as the smell of a plentiful field (Gen 27:27). Draw me, we will run after you to the odor of your ointments (Song 1:3). In this way also we ought to offer spiritual sacrifices to God: a sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit (Ps 51:19). Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Fugite immunditiam Avoid uncleanness 5:3 Fornicatio autem, et omnis immunditia, aut avaritia, nec nominetur in vobis, sicut decet sanctos: [n. 272] 5:3 But fornication and all uncleanness or covetousness, let it not so much as be named among you, as becomes saints: [n. 272] 5:4 aut turpitudo, aut stultiloquium, aut scurrilitas, quae ad rem non pertinet: sed magis gratiarum actio. [n. 275] 5:4 Or obscenity or foolish talking or scurrility, which is to no purpose: but rather giving of thanks. [n. 275] 271. Supra, posita monitione, Apostolus docuit ut deposita vetustate Ephesii novitatem assumerent prohibendo vitia spiritualia, hic prohibet eisdem vitia etiam carnalia. 271. Having previously cautioned them, the Apostle taught the Ephesians to put off the old man and put on the new by forbidding spiritual vices. Now he also bans carnal sins. Dividitur autem in duas. It is divided into two parts: Primo enim prohibet vetustatem vitiorum carnalium; first, he prohibits the old way of carnal sins; secundo inducit ad novitatem, ibi videte itaque, fratres, et cetera. second, he stimulates them on to the new life, at see therefore, brethren (Eph 5:15). Prima iterum dividitur in tres. The first part has three subdivisions: Primo excludit vetustatem vitiorum; first, he rejects the old sins; secundo proponit poenam eorum, ibi hoc autem scitote, etc.; second, he sets forth their punishment, at for know this (Eph 5:5); tertio excludit fallaciam, ibi nemo vos seducat, et cetera. third, he precludes a fallacy, at let no man deceive you (Eph 5:6). Prima iterum in duas. The first section has two parts: Primo excludit quaedam vitia principalia; first, he bars certain principal vices; secundo excludit quaedam adiuncta, ibi aut turpitudo, et cetera. second, he rejects some vices associated with them, at or obscenity. 272. Excludit autem tria vitia, scilicet luxuriam naturalem, quae est cum non sua, unde dicit fornicatio. Os. IV, 12: spiritus enim fornicationum decepit eos. I Cor. VI, v. 18: fugite fornicationem. Sic faciebat Iob c. XXXI, 1: pepigi foedus cum oculis meis, ut nec cogitarem de virgine. Dicitur autem fornicatio a fornice, id est arcu triumphali, iuxta quem erant lupanaria. Prov. XX: intravit super eos fornicatio, et cetera. 272. He eliminates three vices. There is a natural voluptuousness committed with another outside of wedlock; whence he says fornication. For the spirit of fornication has deceived them (Hos 4:12); flee from fornication (1 Cor 6:18). Job did this: I made a covenant with my eyes, that I would not so much as think upon a virgin (Job 31:1). This is called fornication from the word ‘fornix,’ that is, the triumphal arch near which brothels were situated. Fornication came in upon them (Prov 20). Et omnis immunditia, id est omnis pollutio contra naturam, scilicet quae non ordinatur ad generationem. Gal. V, 12: manifesta sunt opera carnis, quae sunt fornicatio, immunditia, luxuria, et cetera. And all uncleanness designates every impurity against nature, namely, when the act is not ordered toward the generation of offspring. Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are: fornication, uncleanness, immodesty, lust (Gal 5:19). Tertio excludit avaritiam, dicendo aut avaritia. Third, he bans avarice in mentioning covetousness. 273. Sed quare hoc? Numquid est idem cum peccatis carnalibus? 273. But why this? Is it to be classed with carnal sins?