Lectio 10 Lecture 10 Duo in carne una Two in one flesh 5:31 Propter hoc relinquet homo patrem et matrem suam, et adhaerebit uxori suae, et erunt duo in carne una. [n. 333] 5:31 For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother: and shall cleave to his wife. And they shall be two in one flesh. [n. 333] 5:32 Sacramentum hoc magnum est, ego autem dico in Christo et in Ecclesia. [n. 334] 5:32 This is a great sacrament: but I speak in Christ and in the Church. [n. 334] 5:33 Verumtamen et vos singuli, unusquisque uxorem suam sicut seipsum diligat: uxor autem timeat virum suum. [n. 335] 5:33 Nevertheless, let every one of you in particular love his wife as himself: and let the wife fear her husband. [n. 335] 331. Supra exhortatus est Apostolus Ephesios ad amorem uxorum dupliciter, scilicet exemplo dilectionis Christi ad Ecclesiam, item ex amore hominis ad seipsum, hic tertio hortatur eos per auctoritatem Scripturae. 331. The Apostle exhorted the Ephesians above to love their wives. He did this in two ways: both by offering the example of Christ’s love for the Church, and by the love a man has for himself. Now he gives a third encouragement drawn from the authority of Scripture. Et circa hoc tria facit: Regarding this he does three things: primo auctoritatem inducit; first, he brings in the authoritative text; secundo eam mystice exponit, ibi sacramentum hoc, etc.; second, he explains it mystically, at this is a great sacrament; tertio adaptat eam secundum litteralem sensum ad propositum suum, ibi verumtamen et vos, et cetera. third, he adapts it according to its literal meaning to the case in question, at nevertheless, let every one of you. 332. Auctoritas haec dicitur Gen. II, 24 dicta est ab Adam vidente uxorem, scilicet de costa sua formatam. 332. The authoritative text is Genesis, words spoken by Adam when he saw his wife who had been formed from his rib (Gen 2:24). Sed contra dicitur Matth. XIX, 4 s. quod Deus hoc dixit. Yet does not this contradict Matthew which states that God himself spoke these words? (Matt 19:4–5) Respondeo: Adam ut a Deo inspiratus hoc dixit; Deus autem ut Adam inspirans et docens. Nos autem hoc idem dicimus et multa alia, quae dixit Dominus, Spiritu Dei docente; unde dicitur Matth. X, 20: non enim vos estis qui loquimini, et cetera. I reply that Adam spoke them as inspired by God, and God spoke them insofar as he was inspiring and teaching Adam. We use the same expressions; there are many words which the Lord spoke by those whom the Spirit of God instructed. For it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaks in you (Matt 10:20). 333. Notandum hic est quod in praedicta auctoritate triplex coniunctio viri ad mulierem designatur. Prima per affectum dilectionis, quia est tantus affectus utriusque ut patres relinquant. II Esdr. IV, 25: diligit homo uxorem suam magis quam patrem, et multi dementes facti sunt propter uxores suas, et cetera. Ibi multa. Hoc autem naturale est, quia appetitus naturalis est concors debitae actioni. Constat autem, quod omnibus agentibus superioribus inest appetitus ut propinent et communicent inferioribus, et ideo amor naturalis inest eis versus inferiora. Et quia homo respectu patris et matris est inferior, non superior, ideo ad uxorem, cuius est superior, et ad filios naturaliter plus afficitur quam ad parentes, et etiam quia uxor sibi coniungitur ad actum generationis. 333. It should be noted that in the above mentioned authority a threefold union of a man and wife is designated. The first union is through the devotion of their love, for it is strong enough in each that they both left their fathers behind. So a man loves his wife better than his father or mother. Many have lost their heads completely for their wives (3 Esd 4:25–26), and much more concerning this is stated there (3 Esd 4). But this is natural, for natural desires are harmonious with actions that must be performed. It is evident that a desire exists in all higher agents that they administer to, and communicate with, lower agents. Thus a natural love for the lower is present in them. Now a man is an inferior in relation to his father and mother, not a superior; hence he is naturally more drawn towards his wife and children, to whom he is superior, than to his parents. And also because his wife is intimately united to him in the act of procreation. Secunda coniunctio est per conversationem. Unde dicit: et adhaerebit uxori suae, et cetera. Eccli. XXV, 1: in tribus beneplacitum est spiritui meo, et cetera. The second union is through living together. Thus he says and he shall cleave to his wife. With three things my spirit is pleased, which are approved before God and men: the concord of brethren, and the love of neighbors, and man and wife that agree well together (Sir 25:1–2). Tertia est per carnalem coniunctionem, ibi: et erunt duo in carne una, id est in carnali opere. In qualibet enim generatione est virtus activa et passiva; sed in plantis utraque est in eodem, in perfectis autem animalibus distinguuntur. Et ideo in actu generationis ita se habent masculus et foemina in animalibus sicut in plantis solo eodem uno corpore fit. The third is their carnal union: and they shall be two in one flesh, that is, in their carnal intercourse. For in any act of generation there is an active and a passive power. In plants both powers are in the same plant, but in the perfect animals they are distinguished. And hence in the act of generation among animals the male and female become, as in plants, only one and the same body. 334. Consequenter exponit eam mystice, et dicit sacramentum hoc magnum est, idest sacrae rei signum, scilicet coniunctionis Christi et Ecclesiae. Sap. VI, 24: non abscondam a vobis sacramentum Dei. 334. He goes on to interpret this mystically, and he says this is a great sacrament, it is the symbol of a sacred reality, namely, the union of Christ and the Church. I will not hide from you the mysteries of God (Wis 6:24). Notandum est hic, quod quatuor sacramenta dicuntur magna, scilicet baptismus ratione effectus, quia delet culpam et aperit ianuam paradisi; confirmatio ratione ministri, quia solum a pontificibus et non ab aliis confertur; Eucharistia ratione continentiae, quia totum Christum continet; item matrimonium ratione significationis, quia significat coniunctionem Christi et Ecclesiae. Notice here that four sacraments are termed great: baptism by reason of its effect, since it blots out sin and opens the gate of paradise; confirmation by reason of its minister, since it is conferred only by bishops and not by others; the Eucharist because of what it contains, the whole Christ; and matrimony by reason of its signification, for it symbolizes the union of Christ and the Church. Et ideo si mystice exponatur, debet sic exponi littera praecedens: propter hoc relinquet homo, scilicet Christus, patrem et matrem. Reliquit, inquam, patrem, inquantum est missus in mundum et incarnatus. Io. XVI, v. 28: exivi a Patre, et veni in mundum, et cetera. Et matrem, scilicet synagogam. Ier. XII, 7: reliqui domum meam, et dimisi haereditatem meam, et cetera. Et adhaerebit uxori suae, Ecclesiae. Matth. ult.: ecce vobiscum sum omnibus diebus, et cetera. If, therefore, the text is mystically interpreted, the preceding passage should be explained as follows: for this cause shall a man, namely, Christ, leave his father and mother. I say leave his father, because he was sent into the world and became incarnate—I came forth from the Father and am come into the world (John 16:28)—and his mother who was the synagogue—I have forsaken my house, I have left my inheritance, I have given my dear soul into the hand of her enemies (Jer 12:7). And he shall cleave to his wife, the Church. Behold, I am with you all days, even to the consummation of the world (Matt 28:20). 335. Consequenter argumentatur secundum sensum litteralem exponendo praedictum exemplum. Quaedam enim sunt in Sacra Scriptura Veteris Testamenti, quae tantum dicuntur de Christo, sicut illud Ps. XXI, 17: foderunt manus meas, etc.; et illud Is. VII, 14: ecce virgo concipiet, et cetera. Quaedam vero de Christo et aliis exponi possunt, sed de Christo principaliter, de aliis vero in figura Christi, sicut praedictum exemplum. 335. Next, the point is argued by interpreting the above example according to its literal meaning. For there are certain passages in the Old Testament which can be said only of Christ. For instance: they have dug my hands and feet: they have numbered all my bones (Ps 22:16); or behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son; and his name shall be called Emmanuel (Isa 7:14). Other passages, however, can be explained as referring to Christ and others; to Christ principally, and to others as they were types of Christ. The above example (Gen 2:24) is of this category. Et ideo primo exponendum est de Christo et postea de aliis. Et ideo dicit verumtamen et vos singuli, unusquisque uxorem suam diligat, quasi dicat: de Christo dicitur principaliter et si non singulariter, quia exponendum et implendum est in aliis in figura Christi. Dicit autem sicut semetipsum, quia sicut unusquisque se diligit in ordine ad Deum, ita debet uxorem diligere, non inquantum trahit ad peccatum. Lc. XIV, 26: si quis venit ad me, et non odit patrem et matrem, et uxorem suam, etc., sequitur: non potest meus esse discipulus. Thus it must first be interpreted in reference to Christ, and afterwards concerning others. Hence he says nevertheless, let every one of you in particular love his wife, as though he asserted: the above example is principally related of Christ, but not only about him since it must be interpreted and fulfilled in other persons as types of Christ. He states as himself because, just as everyone loves himself in relation to God, so he ought to love his wife in this way, and not inasmuch as she draws him into sin. If any man come to me, and hate not his father and mother and wife . . . he cannot be my disciple (Luke 14:26). Sed quid de uxore? Uxor autem virum suum timeat, scilicet timore reverentiae et subiectionis, quia debet ei esse subiecta. But what about the wife? And let the wife fear her husband, with the fear of reverence and submission since she must be subject to him. Caput 6 Chapter 6 Admonitiones Ecclesiae Admonitions to the Church Lectio 1 Lecture 1 Obedientia filiorum Obedience of children 6:1 Filii, obedite parentibus vestris in Domino: hoc enim justum est. [n. 337] 6:1 Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is just. [n. 337] 6:2 Honora patrem tuum, et matrem tuam, quod est mandatum primum in promissione: [n. 338] 6:2 Honor your father and your mother, which is the first commandment with a promise: [n. 338] 6:3 ut bene sit tibi, et sis longaevus super terram. [n. 340] 6:3 That it may be well with you, and you may live long upon the earth. [n. 340] 6:4 Et vos patres, nolite ad iracundiam provocare filios vestros: sed educate illos in disciplina et correptione Domini. [n. 342] 6:4 And you, fathers, do not provoke your children to anger: but bring them up in the discipline and correction of the Lord. [n. 342] 336. Supra monuit virum et uxorem, quae est una connexio familiae, hic monet patrem et filios, quae est secunda connexio domus. Et 336. He had previously given advice to husband and wife which is one relationship in the family. Now he cautions the fathers and children, which is the home’s second relationship: primo facit mentionem, quomodo filii se debeant habere ad parentes; first, he mentions how the children should behave toward their parents; secundo quomodo, e converso, patres ad filios, ibi nolite, et cetera. second, how, conversely, fathers should be related to their children, at do not provoke. Prima in duas. Primo proponit monitionem; The first has two sections: first, he sets down the warning; secundo ostendit rationem, ibi hoc enim est iustum, et cetera. second, he gives the reason, at for this is just. 337. Dicit ergo filii, obedite, et cetera. Notandum est hic quod patres debent naturaliter instruere filios moribus, filii autem, instruentibus parentibus, naturaliter debent eis obedire, sicut infirmi obediunt medicis. Unde proprium filiorum est obedientia. Col. III, v. 20: filii, obedite, scilicet patribus, per omnia, hoc est enim beneplacitum Domino, et cetera. Dicit autem in Domino, quia non est obediendum parentibus, nec alicui in his quae sunt contra Deum. Act. V, 29: obedire oportet Deo magis quam hominibus. 337. He begins, children, obey your parents. Note here that fathers have a natural duty to instruct their children in moral conduct. The children, on the other hand, have a natural duty, while their parents are instructing them, to be obedient to them—as the sick are to obey doctors. Hence the proper characteristic of children is obedience. Children, obey your parents in all things; for this is well pleasing to the Lord (Col 3:20). He says in the Lord because neither parents, nor anyone else, ought to be obeyed in what is contrary to God. It is necessary to obey God rather than men (Acts 5:29).