Lectio 5 Lecture 5 Manifestatio luce Manifestation by the light 5:12 Quae enim in occulto fiunt ab ipsis, turpe est et dicere. [n. 297] 5:12 For the things that are done by them in secret, it is a shame even to speak of. [n. 297] 5:13 Omnia autem, quae arguuntur, a lumine manifestantur: [n. 298] 5:13 But all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light: [n. 298] 5:14 omne enim, quod manifestatur, lumen est. Propter quod dicit: surge qui dormis, et exsurge a mortuis, et illuminabit te Christus. [n. 300] 5:14 For all that is made manifest is light. Wherefore he says: rise, you who sleep, and arise from the dead: and Christ shall enlighten you. [n. 300] 296. Supra posuit Apostolus monitiones, hic assignat rationes earum. Duas autem monitiones posuit. Prima ut non communicarent operibus tenebrarum; secunda ut redarguerent peccatores. Secundum hoc ergo duo facit. 296. The Apostle explained his warnings above, and now he gives the reasons for them. He had given two warnings: the first was that they should not associate in the works of darkness, the second that they should reprove sinners. Hence he does two things: Primo ponit rationem primae monitionis; first, he gives the reason for the first warning; secundo rationem secundae, ibi omnia enim quae arguuntur, et cetera. second, the reason for the second, at but all things that are reproved. 297. Dicit ergo: bene dixi: nolite communicare, immo debetis et tales increpare et redarguere. Quare? Quia quae in occulto fiunt ab ipsis, turpe est dicere. Hoc autem est de vitiis carnalibus in quibus est turpitudo magna, quia minimum est ibi de bonis rationis, cum huiusmodi actus communes sint nobis et brutis. 297. Thus he asserts: I said well that you ought not to have fellowship but rather reprimand and refute such as these. Why? Because the things that are done by them in secret, it is a shame even to speak of. This is characteristic of carnal vices which possess a great depravity; they have the least amount of rational good since actions of this type are common to us and the beasts. 298. Sequitur omnia quae arguuntur, et cetera. Hic ponit Apostolus rationem secundae monitionis, et facit duo. 298. After this, at but all things that are reproved, the Apostle gives the reason for the second warning, and he makes two points: Primo enim ponit rationem; first, he sets down the reason; secundo assignat confirmationem, ibi propter quod dicit, et cetera. second, he produces a confirmation of it, at wherefore he says. 299. Quantum ergo ad primum, vult probare quod eos deceat delinquentes arguere, et hoc probat sic: quidquid ostenditur malum esse redarguitur, omnis enim redargutio manifestatio quaedam est; sed omnis manifestatio fit per lumen, vos autem estis lux; ergo decet vos arguere et eos manifestare. 299. Regarding the first, he wants to prove that it is fitting for them to refute delinquents. He proves it this way: whatever is shown to be evil is to be refuted, for every refutation is a certain manifestation; but every manifestation occurs through the light, and you are the light; hence it is fitting for you to refute and reveal those who are evil. Ponit autem huius rationis maiorem, ibi omnia autem quae arguuntur, et cetera. Minorem autem ponit, ibi omne quod, et cetera. Quasi dicat: ideo decet eos arguere, quia, ut dicitur I Cor. II, 15: spiritualis iudicat omnia, et ipse a nemine iudicatur. Unde Glossa sic exponit: omnia, scilicet peccata quae arguuntur a lumine, id est, a bonis et sanctis hominibus, qui sunt filii lucis, manifestantur, scilicet per confessionem. Prov. XXVIII, 13: qui autem confessus fuerit et reliquerit ea, misericordiam consequetur. Omne autem, scilicet malum, quod manifestatur per confessionem, lumen est, id est in lumine vertitur. He expresses the major of this reasoning at but all things that are reproved are made manifest by the light. And the minor is expressed in for all that is made manifest is light. As though he said: for this reason it is fitting for you to refute them because, the spiritual man judges all things; and he himself is judged of no man (1 Cor 2:15). Thus a Gloss offers the following interpretation: all sins that are reproved by the light that is, by the good and holy men who are the children of the light, are made manifest through a confession. But he that shall confess and forsake them shall obtain mercy (Prov 28:13). For all evil that is made manifest through confession, is light, that is, is turned into light. 300. Deinde confirmat hoc per auctoritatem, dicens propter quod dicit: surge, et cetera. Glossa sic exponit: propter hoc quod sit lumen, dicit, scilicet Spiritus Sanctus: o tu qui dormis, surge, et cetera. 300. Next, he verifies this by an authority, at wherefore he says: ‘rise’, which a Gloss interprets: in order that light might prevail he—the Holy Spirit—says: rise, you who sleep, and arise from the dead and Christ shall enlighten you. Sed haec non est consuetudo Pauli. Et ideo dicendum est, quod Apostolus introducit figuram positam Is. LX, 1: surge, illuminare, Ierusalem, etc., dicens propter quod dicit, scilicet Scriptura, surge a negligentia boni operis, tu scilicet qui dormis. Prov. VI, 9: usquequo, piger, dormies? Ps. XL, 9: numquid qui dormit, non adiiciet, ut resurgat? Et exurge a mortuis, id est, ab operibus mortuis, seu mortificantibus. Hebr. IX, 14: emundabit conscientiam nostram ab operibus mortuis, et cetera. Is. XXVI, 19: vivent mortui tui, interfecti mei resurgent. Exurge ergo, et illuminabit te Christus. Ps. XXVI, 1: Dominus illuminatio mea, et cetera. Idem XII, 4: illumina oculos meos, ne unquam obdormiam in morte. But this is not customary for Paul. Hence it must be said that the Apostle is introducing the image found elsewhere: arise, be enlightened, O Jerusalem; for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord has risen upon you (Isa 60:1). Thus wherefore it says refers to Scripture. Rise from a neglect of good works, you who sleep. How long will you sleep, O sluggard? (Prov 6:9) Shall he that sleeps rise again no more? (Ps 41:8) And arise from the dead, that is, from dead or destructive actions. Christ will cleanse our conscience from dead works (Heb 9:14). Your dead men shall live, my slain shall rise again (Isa 26:19). Rise therefore and Christ shall enlighten you. The Lord is my light and my salvation; whom shall I fear? (Ps 27:1) Enlighten my eyes that I never sleep in death (Ps 13:3). Sed numquid possumus per nos resurgere a peccato, quia dicit: surge, et illuminabit te Christus? Respondeo. Dicendum est, quod ad iustificationem impii duo requiruntur, scilicet liberum arbitrium cooperans ad resurgendum et ipsa gratia. Et certe hoc ipsum habet liberum arbitrium a gratia praeveniente, et postea meritorie operari a gratia subsequente. Unde dicitur Thren. ult.: converte nos, Deus, et convertemur. Yet are we capable of rising from sin ourselves since it says: rise . . . and Christ shall enlighten you? I reply. Two things are requisite for the justification of a sinner, namely, a free decision cooperating in the act of rising from sin, and grace itself. And certainly the free decision itself is had from prevenient grace, while the meritorious actions that follow are from subsequent grace. Convert us, O Lord, to you, and we shall be converted (Lam 5:21). Lectio 6 Lecture 6 Intelligite volutatem Dei Understand God’s will 5:15 Videte itaque, fratres, quomodo caute ambuletis: non quasi insipientes, sed ut sapientes: [n. 302] 5:15 See therefore, brethren, how you walk circumspectly: not as unwise, but as wise: [n. 302] 5:16 redimentes tempus, quoniam dies mali sunt. [n. 303] 5:16 Redeeming the time, because the days are evil. [n. 303] 5:17 Propterea nolite fieri imprudentes, sed intelligentes quae sit voluntas Dei. [n. 305] 5:17 Wherefore, do not become imprudent: but understanding what is the will of God. [n. 305] 301. Supra prohibuit fallaciarum carnalium vetustatem, hic hortatur ad contrariam novitatem. Et 301. Above he forbade the old ways of carnal illusions, and now he exhorts them to the contrary newness. He encourages them: primo hortatur ad novitatem contrariam fallaciae; first, toward a newness opposed to the former illusions; secundo ad novitatem contrariam luxuriae, ibi et nolite inebriari, et cetera. second, toward a newness opposed to voluptuousness, at and do not be drunk (Eph 5:18). Prima in tres. The first section contains three parts: Primo inducit ad cautelam contrariam fallaciae; first, he gives them a caution against the fallacy; secundo ostendit novitatem cautelae, ibi redimentes tempus, etc.; second, he shows them the NECESSITY [IT SEEMS THAT THIS IS AN ERROR IN THE LATIN, NEWNESS SHOULD PROBABLY BE NECESSITY, CF. 303 BELOW] of this precaution, at redeeming the time; tertio docet modum cautelae, ibi propterea nolite fieri, et cetera. third, he teaches them how to act according to it, at wherefore, do not become imprudent. 302. Dicit ergo itaque, scilicet ex praemissis, videte quomodo caute ambuletis. Cautio est quaedam conditio prudentiae, per quam aliquis vitat impedimenta agendorum, et hanc cautelam debent omnes habere. Prov. c. IV, 23: oculi tui videant recta, et palpebrae tuae praecedant gressus tuos. 302. Whence he states therefore from the preceding see how you walk circumspectly. Caution is one of the conditions of prudence by which a person avoids hindrances in accomplishing what he has to do. Everyone ought to possess this caution. Let your eyes look straight on and let your eyelids go before your steps (Prov 4:25). Hoc autem pertinet ad sapientes, et ideo dicit non quasi insipientes, qui scilicet nesciunt vitare impedimenta. Ps. LXXV, 6: turbati sunt omnes insipientes corde. Sed ut sapientes. Eccle. II, 14: sapientis oculi in capite eius: stultus in tenebris ambulat. Quidam dicunt: si non caste, tamen caute. Sed sic non accipit Apostolus, sed dicit caute, ac si diceret: cavete ab hominibus contrariis castitati. This is a characteristic of wise men, thus he adds not as unwise who do not know how to avoid the obstacles. All the foolish of heart were troubled (Ps 76:5). But as wise: the eyes of a wise man are in his head: the fool walks in darkness (Eccl 2:14). Some say: if you do not act chastely, nonetheless act cautiously. The Apostle does not take it in such a sense; when he says circumspectly it is as though he said: beware of men who thwart chastity. 303. Necessitatem autem huius cautelae ostendit, cum dicit redimentes tempus, etc.; quod potest exponi dupliciter. 303. He explains the necessity of this precaution when he says redeeming the time, which can be interpreted in two ways. Redimit enim aliquis quandoque rem suam, dando enxenia vel aliquid pro ea, sicut dicitur aliquis redimere vexationem suam dando enxenia, vel pecuniam, vel quando dimittit de iure suo. Dicit ergo: totum tempus hoc est tempus calumniae, et ideo sitis redimentes tempus, quoniam dies mali sunt. Ex quo peccavit Adam, ex tunc semper paratae sunt insidiae impellentes ad peccatum. Non sic autem in statu innocentiae, in quo non oportebat hominem ab aliquo licito abstinere, quia in eius voluntate non erat impellens aliquid ad peccatum. Modo autem oportet nos tempus redimere, quoniam dies mali sunt, id est debemus malitiam dierum vitare, diem malum praecavere, ut dicitur Eccle. VII, 15, et etiam a quibusdam licitis abstinere. I Cor. c. X, 23: omnia mihi licent, sed non omnia aedificant. In hunc autem modum dicitur aliquis vexationem suam redimere, quia dimittit aliquid de iure suo perire. On certain occasions a man redeems his property by offering a gift or something else for it; for instance, someone is said to compensate for a grievance he caused by offering a gift or money, or by renouncing something which is rightfully his. In this sense he would be saying: the whole of time is now a time of deception, hence you should be redeeming the time, because the days are evil. At the time Adam sinned, and from then on, snares have always been set to thrust men into sin. It was not that way in the state of innocence when it was unnecessary for a man to abstain from anything which was licit, since there was nothing in his will driving him to sin. But now we have to redeem the time, because the days are evil; we must avoid the depravity of the days, and beware beforehand of the evil day (Eccl 7:15). To do this we must renounce even certain things which are lawful: all things are lawful for me; but all things do not edify (1 Cor 10:23). In this way a person is said to redeem a grievance he caused since he permits something that is rightfully his to be forfeited. 304. Vel aliter: redimentes tempus, et cetera. Contingit quandoque quod aliquis per magnum tempus vitae vivit in peccato, et hoc est tempus perditum. 304. There is another interpretation of redeeming the time. For it sometimes happens that a person lives a great part of his life in sin, and this is time lost. Sed quomodo redimet, cum homo non sufficiat ad debita persolvenda? Respondeo. Dicendum est quod tanto magis debet vacare operibus bonis, quanto prius instetit malis. I Petr. I: sufficit enim praeteritum tempus ad voluntatem gentium consumendam his, qui ambulaverunt in luxuriis, vinolentiis, desideriis, et cetera. Sed prima expositio est melior. But how is he to redeem it when man is incapable of paying his debts? I reply that he ought to devote himself to good works to an even greater degree than he had previously pursued sinful ones. For the time past is sufficient to have fulfilled the will of the gentiles, for them who have walked in riotousness, lusts, excesses of wine, revellings, banquetings, and unlawful worshipping of idols (1 Pet 4:3). The first interpretation, however, is better. 305. Deinde cum dicit propterea nolite fieri, etc., docet modum cautelae, dicens: propterea, scilicet ut possitis tempus redimere, nolite fieri imprudentes. 305. Then, when he says wherefore, do not become imprudent, he goes on to teach them how to abide by the precaution, saying: wherefore that you may be able to redeem the time, do not become imprudent.