Lectio 8 Lecture 8 Viri et mulieres Husbands and wives 5:22 Mulieres viris suis subditae sint, sicut Domino: [n. 317] 5:22 Let women be subject to their husbands, as to the Lord: [n. 317] 5:23 quoniam vir caput est mulieris, sicut Christus caput est Ecclesiae: ipse, salvator corporis ejus. [n. 318] 5:23 Because the husband is the head of the wife, as Christ is the head of the Church. He is the savior of his body. [n. 318] 5:24 Sed sicut Ecclesia subjecta est Christo, ita et mulieres viris suis in omnibus. 5:24 Therefore as the Church is subject to Christ: so also let the wives be to their husbands in all things. 5:25 Viri, diligite uxores vestras, sicut et Christus dilexit Ecclesiam, et seipsum tradidit pro ea, [n. 319] 5:25 Husbands, love your wives, as Christ also loved the Church and delivered himself up for it: [n. 319] 5:26 ut illam sanctificaret, mundans lavacro aquae in Verbo vitae, [n. 323] 5:26 That he might sanctify it, cleansing it by the laver of water in the Word of life: [n. 323] 5:27 ut exhiberet ipse sibi gloriosam Ecclesiam, non habentem maculam, aut rugam, aut aliquid hujusmodi, sed ut sit sancta et immaculata. [n. 324] 5:27 That he might present it to himself, a glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. [n. 324] 316. Supra Apostolus posuit praecepta generalia ad omnes, hic ponit ea quae pertinent ad speciales quasdam personas et status. Et quia secundum Philosophum in Politicis domus habet tres connexiones, sine quibus non est perfecta, scilicet viri et mulieris, patris et filii, domini et servi; ideo, haec tria prosequens, instruit: 316. Up until now the Apostle has set down general precepts applicable to everyone, and at this point he expresses those which pertain to particular persons or classes. According to the Philosopher in the Politics, a home must possess three relationships if it is to be complete, namely, that of the husband and wife, of the father and the children, and that between the master and his servants. Hence these three are dealt with when the Apostle instructs: primo mulierem et virum; first, the husband and wife; secundo patrem et filium, cap. VI, ibi filii, obedite, etc.; second, the father and child, at children, obey (Eph 6:1); tertio servos et dominos, ibi servi, obedite, et cetera. third, the servants and masters, at slaves, be obedient (Eph 6:5). Prima in duas. The first has two divisions: Primo enim monet mulieres de subiectione; first, he cautions the women to be subject; secundo viros de dilectione, ibi viri, diligite, et cetera. second, he admonishes the men to love, at husbands, love. Prima in duas. The first is again twofold: Primo ponit admonitionem; first, he gives an admonition; secundo eius rationem, ibi quoniam vir caput est, et cetera. second, he explains the reason for it, at because the husband is the head. 317. Dicit ergo mulieres viris suis subditae sint, quia certe mulier, si primatum habeat, contraria est viro suo, ut dicitur Eccli. c. XXV, 30. Et ideo specialiter monet eas de subiectione. Et hoc sicut domino, quia proportio viri ad uxorem quodammodo est sicut servi ad dominum, quantum debet regi mandato domini; sed differentia est in hoc, quod dominus utitur servis suis quo ad id quod est sibi utile: sed vir utitur uxore et liberis ad utilitatem communem. Et ideo dicit sicut domino; non quod vere sit dominus, sed sicut dominus. I Petr. III, 1: mulieres subditae sint viris suis, et cetera. 317. Hence he states: let women be subject to their husbands because a woman, if she have superiority, is contrary to her husband (Sir 25:30). So he especially warns them about subjection. This is as to a lord since the relation of a husband to his wife is, in a certain way, like that of a master to his servant, insofar as the latter ought to be governed by the commands of his master. The difference between these two relationships is that the master employs his servants in whatever is profitable to himself; but a husband treats his wife and children in reference to the common good. Thus he mentions as to a lord; the husband is not really a lord, but is as a lord. Let wives be subject to their husbands (1 Pet 3:1). 318. Deinde subdit rationem suam. Circa quod tria facit. Primo eam proponit; secundo exemplum inducit, ibi sicut Christus, etc.; tertio ex exemplo intentum concludit, ibi sed sicut, et cetera. 318. Next, he adds his reason; regarding it he makes three points: first, he offers it for consideration; second, he introduces an example, at as Christ; third, from the example he draws his conclusion, at as the Church. Ratio autem haec est, quoniam vir est caput mulieris, in capite autem viget sensus visus, Eccle. II, 14: sapientis oculi in capite eius, et ideo vir debet gubernare mulierem ut caput eius. I Cor. XI, 3: caput quidem mulieris vir. The reason for this subjection is that the husband is the head of the wife, and the sense of sight is localized in the head—the eyes of a wise man are in his head (Eccl 2:14)—and hence a husband ought to govern his wife as her head. The head of the woman is the man (1 Cor 11:3). Deinde ponit exemplum, cum dicit sicut Christus caput est Ecclesiae. Supra I, 22 s.: ipsum dedit caput supra omnem Ecclesiam, quae est corpus ipsius, et hoc non ad utilitatem suam, sed Ecclesiae, quia ipse est salvator corporis eius. Act. IV, 12: non est enim aliud nomen sub caelo datum hominibus, in quo oporteat nos salvos fieri. Is. c. XII, 2: ecce Deus salvator meus, et cetera. Ex hoc autem concludit intentionem, cum dicit sed sicut, et cetera. Quasi dicat: non est conveniens, quod membrum repugnet ipsi capiti in aliquo; nunc autem, sicut Christus caput est Ecclesiae, suo modo, ita vir est caput mulieris: non debet ergo mulier inobediens esse viro, sed sicut Ecclesia subiecta est Christo, Ps. LXI, 2: nonne Deo subiecta erit anima mea, etc., ita et mulieres viris suis. Gen. III, v. 16: sub viri potestate eris. Et hoc in omnibus, scilicet quae non sunt contra Deum; quia dicitur Act. V, 29: obedire oportet Deo magis, quam hominibus. Then he brings in his example when he says: as Christ is the head of the Church. God has made him head over all the Church, which is his body (Eph 1:22–23). This is not for his own utility, but for that of the Church since he is the savior of his body. For there is no other name under heaven given to men, whereby we must be saved (Acts 4:12). Behold, God is my savior; I will deal confidently and will not fear (Isa 12:2). From this he draws the conclusion he intended, saying therefore, as the Church is subject to Christ. As though he said: it is not proper for an organ to rebel against its head in any situation; but as Christ is head of the Church in his own way, so a husband is the head of his wife; therefore the wife must be obedient to her husband as the Church is subject to Christ. Shall not my soul be subject to God? (Ps 62:1), so also let the wives be to their husbands. And you shall be under your husband’s power (Gen 3:16), in all things which are not contrary to God, since we ought to obey God rather than men (Acts 5:29). 319. Deinde cum dicit viri, diligite uxores vestras, etc., monet viros ad dilectionem uxorum. Et 319. After this, at husbands, love your wives, he admonishes the husbands that they are to love their wives. primo facit hoc, First, he does this. secundo assignat rationem huius, ibi sicut Christus, et cetera. Second, he gives his reason, at as Christ. 320. Dicit ergo viri, diligite uxores vestras, quia certe ex amore, quem habet vir ad uxorem, magis caste vivit et pacifice uterque se habet. Si autem vir aliam magis diligit, quam suam, se et suam discrimini exponit. Col. III, 19: viri, diligite uxores vestras, et nolite amari esse ad illas. 320. He states: husbands, love your wives. For certainly it is from the love he has for his wife that he will live more chastely and both of them will enjoy a peaceful relationship. If he should love another more than his own wife, he exposes himself and his wife to division. Husbands, love your wives and be not bitter towards them (Col 3:19). 321. Tangit autem rationem huius triplicem. 321. He then treats of the threefold reason for this. Primam sumit ex exemplo Christi, cum dicit sicut et Christus, etc.; First, he draws one reason from the example of Christ, at as Christ; secundam ex parte viri, ibi qui suam uxorem diligit, etc.; second, another one from the husband himself, at he who loves his wife (Eph 5:28); tertiam ex parte mandati divini, ibi propter hoc relinquet, et cetera. third, another from a divine commandment, at for this cause shall a man leave (Eph 5:31). Circa primum tria facit. Concerning the first he does three things: Primo proponit exemplum dilectionis Christi; first, he offers the example of Christ’s love; secundo signum, ibi et tradidit, etc.; second, he shows the sign of that love, at and delivered himself up; tertio concludit intentum ita et viri, et cetera. third, finally he deduces his intended conclusion, at so also ought men (Eph 5:28). 322. Dicit ergo: sicut et Christus dilexit Ecclesiam. Supra eodem: estote imitatores Dei sicut filii charissimi, et cetera. 322. Thus he says: as Christ also loved the Church; be therefore followers of God, as most dear children; and walk in love, as Christ also has loved us and has delivered himself for us (Eph 5:1–2). 323. Signum autem dilectionis Christi ad Ecclesiam ostenditur, quia tradidit semetipsum pro ea. Gal. II, 20: dilexit me, et tradidit semetipsum pro me, et cetera. Is. LIII, 12: tradidit in mortem animam suam, et cetera. 323. The sign of Christ’s love for the Church is that he delivered himself up for it. The Son of God who loved me and delivered himself for me (Gal 2:20). He has delivered his soul unto death (Isa 53:12).