Lectio 9 Lecture 9 Amor sponsalis Spousal love 5:28 Ita et viri debent diligere uxores suas ut corpora sua. Qui suam uxorem diligit, seipsum diligit. [n. 326] 5:28 So also ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. [n. 326] 5:29 Nemo enim umquam carnem suam odio habuit: sed nutrit et fovet eam, sicut et Christus Ecclesiam: [n. 327] 5:29 For no man ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, as also Christ does the Church: [n. 327] 5:30 quia membra sumus corporis ejus, de carne ejus et de ossibus ejus. 5:30 Because we are members of his body, of his flesh and of his bones. 325. Supra induxit viros ad dilectionem uxorum, ex parte Christi, vel exemplo dilectionis quam habet Christus ad Ecclesiam, hic ostendit idem ex parte ipsiusmet viri. Et facit duo: 325. Above he urged husbands to love their wives, he appealed to Christ and to the example of Christ’s love for the Church. Here he demonstrates the same thing from the point of view of the husband himself. He makes two points: primo ponit rationem; first, he gives the reason; secundo confirmat eam per exemplum, ibi sicut et Christus, et cetera. second, he verifies it through an example, at as Christ. 326. Ratio est talis: vir et mulier sunt quodammodo unum; unde sicut caro subditur animae, ita mulier viro; sed nullus unquam habuit carnem suam odio: ergo nec uxorem. Dicit ergo qui suam uxorem diligit, seipsum diligit. Matth. XIX, 6: itaque non sunt duo, sed una caro. Et ideo sicut peccaret contra naturam qui seipsum odio haberet, ita qui uxorem. Eccli. XXV, 1 s.: in tribus beneplacitum est spiritui meo, quae sunt probata coram Deo et hominibus: concordia fratrum, amor proximorum, et vir et mulier bene sibi consentientes. 326. The reason is as follows. A husband and wife are somehow one; hence, as the flesh is subject to the soul, so is the wife to the husband; but no one ever held his own flesh in contempt, therefore neither should anyone his wife. Whence he states: he who loves his wife loves himself. Therefore, now they are not two, but one flesh (Matt 19:6). Just as a man sins against nature in hating himself, so does he who hates his wife. With three things my spirit is pleased, which are approved before God and men: the concord of brethren, and the love of neighbors, and man and wife that agree well together (Sir 25:1–2). 327. Quod autem sic debeant se diligere, probat dicens nemo enim carnem suam unquam odio habuit; quod patet per effectum, quia probatio dilectionis exhibitio est operis. Nam id quod pro viribus conservamus, diligimus. Sed quilibet nutrit et fovet carnem suam propter conservationem. I Tim. ult.: habentes autem alimenta et quibus tegamur, et cetera. 327. He proves that they ought to love one another in saying for no man ever hated his own flesh. This love is evident in what happens since love is verified when it is expressed in action. For we love anything whose powers we sustain. But everyone nourishes and cherishes his own flesh in order to sustain it. But, having food and wherewith to be covered, with these we are content (1 Tim 6:8). 328. Sed contra Lc. XIV, 26: qui non odit uxorem, etc., non potest esse meus discipulus. 328. But is not this contrary to what is written: if any man come to me, and hate not his father and mother and wife and children and brethren and sisters, yes and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple (Luke 14:26)? Respondeo. Dicendum est quod, ut Apostolus dicit, sic homo uxorem debet diligere sicut se; se autem debet homo diligere infra Deum; sic ergo uxorem debet diligere, scilicet infra Deum. Dicit autem qui non odit uxorem, non quia praecipiat eam odire, quod esset peccatum mortale praecipere, sed praecipit eam ita ut se diligere; nunc autem minor dilectio est quasi quoddam odium respectu eius quod summe et plus diligitur, scilicet respectu Dei; ita nemo carnem suam odit, et cetera. I reply. The Apostle affirms that a man ought to love his wife as he does himself; but he must love himself less than God; hence he should also love his wife less than God. In stating he who does not hate his wife, he is not commanding that she be hated—which would be to command a mortal sin—but that she be loved as the man loves himself. Now love in a lesser degree is like a certain hatred in comparison with whatever is loved most or to a greater degree, in this case, God. Likewise, no man ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it. 329. Sed contra: qui diligit aliquem, non vult, nec appetit ab eo separari; sed sancti volunt a carne separari. Rom. VII, 24: infelix ego homo, quis me liberabit de corpore mortis huius? Phil. I, 23: desiderium habens dissolvi, et cetera. 329. But there are objections to this. When anyone loves something he never wants nor desires to be separated from it. Yet the saints wanted to be separated from the flesh. Unhappy man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death? (Rom 7:24) having a desire to be dissolved and to be with Christ (Phil 1:23). Praeterea, nullus affligit quod diligit, sed sancti affligunt carnem suam in hoc mundo. I Cor. IX, 27: castigo corpus meum, et cetera. Besides, nobody afflicts what he loves, but the saints punished their flesh while they were in this world. I chastise my body and bring it into subjection (1 Cor 9:27). Praeterea, quidam occidunt se, sicut auditum est frequenter. Item de Iuda. Moreover, some people even kill themselves, as is frequently heard of. Judas did this. Respondeo. Caro potest considerari in se: et sic non habetur odio, sed naturaliter quilibet appetit eam esse et fovet eam ut sit. Vel potest considerari caro inquantum est alicuius impeditiva quod volumus, et sic odio quodammodo habetur per accidens. Nam omne quod volumus, aut est bonum, aut malum: si bonum, vel est ut finis ultimus, scilicet vita aeterna, a qua impedimur per carnem. II Cor. V, 6: quamdiu sumus in hoc corpore, peregrinamur a Domino. Et quia naturaliter appetimus finem nostrum et bene esse, nec hoc possumus quamdiu in hac carne sumus, ideo vellemus eam abiicere; non sicut malum odio habitum sed sicut bonum minus dilectum, impediens maius bonum. I reply. The flesh, when considered in itself, is not held in contempt, but everyone naturally wants it to exist and nourishes it for this end. On the other hand, the flesh can be considered as an obstacle to what we will, and thus, through circumstance, it can be detested in a certain way. For everything that we will is either good or evil. If good, it may be the ultimate end, eternal life, from which we are held back by the flesh. While we are in the body we are absent from the Lord (2 Cor 5:6). And since we naturally desire our fulfillment and well-being—nor can we enjoy these while we are in the flesh—we will to discard it, not as an evil held in contempt, but as a good we love less than the greater good it impedes. Et sic exponendae sunt auctoritates supra inductae: infelix, et cetera. Item: desiderium habens, etc.; vel consimiles. The authoritative texts quoted above—unhappy man that I am (Rom 7:24) and having a desire to be dissolved (Phil 1:23)—and others like them, are to be explained in this way. Vel illud quod volumus est bonum non ut finis sed disponens ad finem, sicut sunt habitus virtutum; hoc autem bonum impeditur per carnis lasciviam. Et ideo sancti affligunt et macerant carnem suam, ut subdatur spiritui ad repressionem concupiscentiarum, quia caro concupiscit impediens acquisitionem virtutum nos disponentium ad bonum ultimum. Et ideo qui sic affligit carnem suam, ut subdatur spiritui, non odit eam, sed procurat bonum eius, quia bonum eius est quod subiiciatur spiritui, sicut bonum hominis est quod subiiciatur Deo. Ps. LXXII, 28: mihi autem adhaerere Deo bonum est. Or, we may will a good that is not the end, but disposes for the end; for example, virtuous habits. But this type of good is opposed by the immoral tendencies of the flesh. On this account do the saints discipline and punish their flesh in order that it might submit to the spirit for the curbing of sensual desires. For, in desiring such, the flesh blocks our acquisition of the virtues which dispose us for the ultimate good. Therefore, whoever punishes his flesh that it might submit to his spirit does not hate it, but rather obtains its own good which is that it be subject to the spirit—just as the good of man is to be subject to God: it is good for me to adhere to my God (Ps 73:28). Et sic intelligitur: castigo corpus meum, etc., et consimiles. Unde hoc non oportebat fieri in statu innocentiae, quamdiu homo subditus fuit Deo, et caro totaliter subdita fuit spiritui, in qua quidem mutua subiectione consistebat donum originalis iustitiae. I chastise my body (1 Cor 9:27) and similar passages are to be understood in this way. This would not have been necessary in the state of innocence as long as man was subject to God, and the flesh totally submissive to the spirit; the gift of original justice consisted precisely in this mutual submission. Sed aliquando illud quod volumus est malum, et ideo, sicut boni carnem affligunt vel deponere volunt, inquantum impeditiva est boni quod appetunt, ita mali, inquantum caro est impeditiva mali quod appetunt, eam occidunt et se suspendunt, sicut Iudas. On the other hand we sometimes will what is evil. Hence, just as holy persons discipline, or wish to discard, their flesh inasmuch as it is an obstacle to the good they desire, so also the wicked, insofar as the flesh blocks the evil they desire, will kill it and commit suicide, as Judas did. 330. Deinde ostendit quod virum oportet uxorem diligere, et hoc per exemplum. Unde dicit sicut et Christus Ecclesiam, scilicet dilexit, sicut aliquid sui, quia membra sumus corporis. Supra IV, 25: sumus enim invicem membra. Dicit autem de carne eius propter eamdem participationem naturae. Lc. ult.: spiritus autem carnem et ossa non habet, et cetera. 330. Then he indicates that a man must love his wife through an example. Thus he says, Christ also loved the Church as something of his very self because we are members of his body. For we are members one of another (Eph 4:25). He mentions of his flesh on account of his sharing the same nature with us. For a spirit does not have flesh and bones, as you see me to have (Luke 24:39). Vel dicit de carne, mystice, quantum ad debiles qui sunt carnei, et de ossibus eius, quantum ad fortes qui sunt ossei. Or, he says this mystically so that of his flesh refers to the weak who are of the flesh, and of his bones would refer to the strong who are hard as bone. Lectio 10 Lecture 10 Duo in carne una Two in one flesh 5:31 Propter hoc relinquet homo patrem et matrem suam, et adhaerebit uxori suae, et erunt duo in carne una. [n. 333] 5:31 For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother: and shall cleave to his wife. And they shall be two in one flesh. [n. 333] 5:32 Sacramentum hoc magnum est, ego autem dico in Christo et in Ecclesia. [n. 334] 5:32 This is a great sacrament: but I speak in Christ and in the Church. [n. 334] 5:33 Verumtamen et vos singuli, unusquisque uxorem suam sicut seipsum diligat: uxor autem timeat virum suum. [n. 335] 5:33 Nevertheless, let every one of you in particular love his wife as himself: and let the wife fear her husband. [n. 335] 331. Supra exhortatus est Apostolus Ephesios ad amorem uxorum dupliciter, scilicet exemplo dilectionis Christi ad Ecclesiam, item ex amore hominis ad seipsum, hic tertio hortatur eos per auctoritatem Scripturae. 331. The Apostle exhorted the Ephesians above to love their wives. He did this in two ways: both by offering the example of Christ’s love for the Church, and by the love a man has for himself. Now he gives a third encouragement drawn from the authority of Scripture. Et circa hoc tria facit: Regarding this he does three things: primo auctoritatem inducit; first, he brings in the authoritative text; secundo eam mystice exponit, ibi sacramentum hoc, etc.; second, he explains it mystically, at this is a great sacrament; tertio adaptat eam secundum litteralem sensum ad propositum suum, ibi verumtamen et vos, et cetera. third, he adapts it according to its literal meaning to the case in question, at nevertheless, let every one of you. 332. Auctoritas haec dicitur Gen. II, 24 dicta est ab Adam vidente uxorem, scilicet de costa sua formatam. 332. The authoritative text is Genesis, words spoken by Adam when he saw his wife who had been formed from his rib (Gen 2:24). Sed contra dicitur Matth. XIX, 4 s. quod Deus hoc dixit. Yet does not this contradict Matthew which states that God himself spoke these words? (Matt 19:4–5) Respondeo: Adam ut a Deo inspiratus hoc dixit; Deus autem ut Adam inspirans et docens. Nos autem hoc idem dicimus et multa alia, quae dixit Dominus, Spiritu Dei docente; unde dicitur Matth. X, 20: non enim vos estis qui loquimini, et cetera. I reply that Adam spoke them as inspired by God, and God spoke them insofar as he was inspiring and teaching Adam. We use the same expressions; there are many words which the Lord spoke by those whom the Spirit of God instructed. For it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaks in you (Matt 10:20). 333. Notandum hic est quod in praedicta auctoritate triplex coniunctio viri ad mulierem designatur. Prima per affectum dilectionis, quia est tantus affectus utriusque ut patres relinquant. II Esdr. IV, 25: diligit homo uxorem suam magis quam patrem, et multi dementes facti sunt propter uxores suas, et cetera. Ibi multa. Hoc autem naturale est, quia appetitus naturalis est concors debitae actioni. Constat autem, quod omnibus agentibus superioribus inest appetitus ut propinent et communicent inferioribus, et ideo amor naturalis inest eis versus inferiora. Et quia homo respectu patris et matris est inferior, non superior, ideo ad uxorem, cuius est superior, et ad filios naturaliter plus afficitur quam ad parentes, et etiam quia uxor sibi coniungitur ad actum generationis. 333. It should be noted that in the above mentioned authority a threefold union of a man and wife is designated. The first union is through the devotion of their love, for it is strong enough in each that they both left their fathers behind. So a man loves his wife better than his father or mother. Many have lost their heads completely for their wives (3 Esd 4:25–26), and much more concerning this is stated there (3 Esd 4). But this is natural, for natural desires are harmonious with actions that must be performed. It is evident that a desire exists in all higher agents that they administer to, and communicate with, lower agents. Thus a natural love for the lower is present in them. Now a man is an inferior in relation to his father and mother, not a superior; hence he is naturally more drawn towards his wife and children, to whom he is superior, than to his parents. And also because his wife is intimately united to him in the act of procreation.