Lectio 1 Lecture 1 Obedientia filiorum Obedience of children 6:1 Filii, obedite parentibus vestris in Domino: hoc enim justum est. [n. 337] 6:1 Children, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is just. [n. 337] 6:2 Honora patrem tuum, et matrem tuam, quod est mandatum primum in promissione: [n. 338] 6:2 Honor your father and your mother, which is the first commandment with a promise: [n. 338] 6:3 ut bene sit tibi, et sis longaevus super terram. [n. 340] 6:3 That it may be well with you, and you may live long upon the earth. [n. 340] 6:4 Et vos patres, nolite ad iracundiam provocare filios vestros: sed educate illos in disciplina et correptione Domini. [n. 342] 6:4 And you, fathers, do not provoke your children to anger: but bring them up in the discipline and correction of the Lord. [n. 342] 336. Supra monuit virum et uxorem, quae est una connexio familiae, hic monet patrem et filios, quae est secunda connexio domus. Et 336. He had previously given advice to husband and wife which is one relationship in the family. Now he cautions the fathers and children, which is the home’s second relationship: primo facit mentionem, quomodo filii se debeant habere ad parentes; first, he mentions how the children should behave toward their parents; secundo quomodo, e converso, patres ad filios, ibi nolite, et cetera. second, how, conversely, fathers should be related to their children, at do not provoke. Prima in duas. Primo proponit monitionem; The first has two sections: first, he sets down the warning; secundo ostendit rationem, ibi hoc enim est iustum, et cetera. second, he gives the reason, at for this is just. 337. Dicit ergo filii, obedite, et cetera. Notandum est hic quod patres debent naturaliter instruere filios moribus, filii autem, instruentibus parentibus, naturaliter debent eis obedire, sicut infirmi obediunt medicis. Unde proprium filiorum est obedientia. Col. III, v. 20: filii, obedite, scilicet patribus, per omnia, hoc est enim beneplacitum Domino, et cetera. Dicit autem in Domino, quia non est obediendum parentibus, nec alicui in his quae sunt contra Deum. Act. V, 29: obedire oportet Deo magis quam hominibus. 337. He begins, children, obey your parents. Note here that fathers have a natural duty to instruct their children in moral conduct. The children, on the other hand, have a natural duty, while their parents are instructing them, to be obedient to them—as the sick are to obey doctors. Hence the proper characteristic of children is obedience. Children, obey your parents in all things; for this is well pleasing to the Lord (Col 3:20). He says in the Lord because neither parents, nor anyone else, ought to be obeyed in what is contrary to God. It is necessary to obey God rather than men (Acts 5:29). Et per hoc solvitur auctoritas modo allegata: si quis venit ad me, et non odit patrem, etc.; quia hoc intelligitur inquantum sunt contra Deum. The authoritative text previously brought forward is to be explained in this way also. If any man come to me, and hate not his father and mother . . . he cannot be my disciple (Luke 14:26) is to be understood insofar as they are against God. 338. Rationem autem assignat ex duobus, scilicet ex iustitia, et utilitate: quod autem sit iustum patet ac probatur, quia lex divina nihil mandat nisi iustum. Ps. XVIII, 9: iustitiae Domini, et cetera. Sed hoc mandat lex divina. Ex. XX, 12 et Deut. V, 16: honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, et cetera. Eccli. III, 8: qui timet Deum, honorat patrem, et cetera. Honor autem importat exhibitionem reverentiae his qui supra nos sunt; sed quia parentes habemus supra nos, utitur nomine honoris. Dicit ergo hoc enim iustum est, honora patrem tuum et matrem, et cetera. Eccli. III, 7: qui honorat patrem suum vita vivet longiore, et qui obedit patri refrigerabit matrem. Et hoc intelligitur tripliciter, quod filii debent parentes honorare, quia debent eis reverentiam sicut maioribus, obedientiam sicut instructoribus, sustentamenta sicut nutrientibus cum fortes erunt. 338. The reason he gives for this arises from two sources: from justice and from a utility. That it is just is evident and proved from the fact that the divine law commands only what is just. The justices of the Lord are right (Ps 19:8). And the divine law commands: honor your father and mother, as the Lord your God has commanded you (Exod 20:12; Deut 5:16). He who fears the Lord honors his parents and will serve them as his masters that brought him into the world (Sir 3:8). Honor implies a manifestation of reverence to those who are over us; and since we have parents over us, the word ‘honor’ is used. Hence he affirms: for this is just, honor your father and your mother. He who honors his father shall enjoy a long life; and he who obeys his father shall be a comfort to his mother (Sir 3:7). That children ought to honor their parents is to be understood in three ways. They must venerate them as elders; show obedience to them as teachers; and give them sustenance as the ones who had nourished them when they were strong. 339. Deinde assignat dignitatem huius praecepti, dicens quod est mandatum primum. Contra: immo mandatum primum est, quod est colendus unus Deus. 339. He goes on to indicate the dignity of this precept, saying which is the first commandment. On the contrary, the first commandment is that the one God must be worshipped. Respondeo. Mandata continentur in duabus tabulis. Prima continet ea quae ordinantur ad Deum; secunda ea quae ad proximum: et in hac secunda primum mandatum est de honore parentum. Et hoc duplici de causa. Primo, quia in illa secunda tabula nullum est praeceptum affirmativum nisi istud, quia naturale est nobis ut parentibus serviamus, non autem sic aliis proximis, ideo nullum est aliud affirmativum. Sed natura dictat, ut non inferat homo proximis nocumentum, et ideo prohibetur. Quia ergo primum plus et prius habet de debito, ideo primum. I reply. The commandments were contained on two tablets. The first contained those whose reference was to God; the second those which referred to one’s neighbors. On this second tablet the first commandment is to honor one’s parents. And this is for two reasons. First, it is the only affirmative precept on the second tablet since it is natural for us to serve our parents, which is not true of our other fellow men, and hence there is no other affirmative command. Rather, nature dictates that a man should not harm his neighbors, and hence this is forbidden. Therefore, the first possesses a prior and greater obligation and so is the first. Secundo, quia Deus honorandus est sicut principium nostri esse, et quia parentes sunt etiam principium nostri esse, et quia, ut dicitur VI Ethic., tria habemus a parentibus, scilicet esse, vivere, et disciplinam, ideo conveniens est, ut post mandata ordinata ad Deum, primum esset ordinatum ad parentes. The second reason is that God must be honored as the source of our existence, and our parents also as the source of our existence. The sixth book of the Ethics points out that we have three things from our parents: existence, life and education. Thus it is fitting that after the commandments related to God, the first would be in reference to our parents. 340. Vel, primum quo ad promissionem, quia isti soli additur promissio. Et huius est duplex ratio. Una est, quia homines in aliis quae agunt quaerunt utilitatem propriam, et quia a parentibus iam senibus nullam expectant utilitatem, nisi a Deo provenientem. 340. Or, first may refer to the promise which is annexed to this one only. There are two reasons for this. One is that men, in doing things for others, seek their own good; and they can expect no advantage from parents who have already grown old, unless a reward come from God. Secunda ratio est, ne aliquis credat quod honoratio parentum non sit meritoria quia naturalis est, ideo addit ut sit longaevus super terram. In Veteri autem Testamento promittebantur promissiones temporales, quia populus ille parvulus erat et ideo gratiose instruendus sub paedagogo, sicut parvulus. Tamen in illis parvis munusculis populum illum parvum decentibus, figurabantur magna bona, scilicet spiritualia. Et ideo potest hoc referri secundum sensum litteralem ad bona temporalia. Et sic dicit in promissione, ut bene sit tibi; id est ut bonis promissis abundes. Nam qui gratus est in minoribus beneficiis, meretur maiora recipere; maxima autem beneficia habemus a parentibus, scilicet esse, nutrimentum et disciplinam. Quando ergo quis gratus est his, fit dignus ut maiora recipiat. Et ideo dicit ut bene sit tibi; quia, ut dicitur I Tim. IV, 8: pietas ad omnia utilis est, promissionem habens vitae, quae nunc est, et futurae. Et ideo addit et sis longaevus super terram, quasi super gratiam et beneficium vitae, quam habes a parentibus. Prov. III, 16: longitudo dierum in dextera eius, et in sinistra illius divitiae et gloria. The second reason is lest anyone imagine that honoring one’s parents was not meritorious because it is natural; on this account he adds that you may live long upon the earth. In the Old Testament temporal promises were pledged because the people then were immature and hence were graciously taught as children under a pedagogue. Nevertheless, in those little gifts which were suited to a young people, great spiritual favors were symbolized. Therefore this text can refer, according to its literal meaning, to temporal goods; which is why he says with a promise, that it may be well with you, that is, that you may abound in the promised benefits. For he who is grateful in receiving lesser favors deserves to receive greater ones. Now we have the greatest of benefits from our parents: existence, nourishment, and education. Therefore, when anyone is grateful for these, he becomes worthy to receive greater. Thus he remarks that it may be well with you. For, godliness is profitable to all things, having promise of the life that now is and of that which is to come (1 Tim 4:8). He joins and you may live long upon the earth as though in addition to the grace and favor of life which you enjoy from your parents. Length of days is in her right hand: and in her left hand riches and glory (Prov 3:16). 341. Sed contra. Multi devoti parentibus cito moriuntur. 341. Yet it is objected: many who are devoted to their parents die quickly. Et ideo sciendum quod haec temporalia non sunt bona absolute, nisi inquantum ordinata ad spiritualia, et ideo intantum homini bona, inquantum per ea iuvatur ad spiritualia. Unde fortuna non est dicenda bona, si est impediens a virtute. Et ideo longitudo vitae intantum est bona, inquantum ad servitia Dei est ordinata. Et ideo quandoque subtrahitur ne impediat. Sap. IV, 11: raptus est, ne malitia mutaret intellectum eius. Therefore it must be realized that these temporal goods are not absolute except insofar as they are related to spiritual benefits. They are good for a man to the degree that he is aided by them towards spiritual realities. If it is an obstacle to virtue, fortune must not be termed good. Hence, a long life is good in the measure that it is related to the service of God. It is sometimes not given lest it thwart this service. He was taken away lest wickedness should alter his understanding, or deceit beguile his soul (Wis 4:11). Vel potest referri ad sensum spiritualem, ut sis longaevus in terra viventium. Ps. CXLII, v. 10 s.: Spiritus tuus bonus deducet me in terram rectam; propter nomen tuum, Domine, vivificabis me. Or, he could be referring to a spiritual meaning, that you may live long in the land of the living. Your good Spirit shall lead me into the right land; for your name’s sake, O Lord, quicken me (Ps 143:10–11). 342. Consequenter instructis filiis, instruuntur parentes. Circa quod duo facit: primo ponit unum prohibitivum; secundo aliud inductivum, ibi sed educate eos, et cetera. 342. After he has instructed the children, he counsels the parents. Regarding which he makes two points: first, he places one restriction; second, he gives an incentive, at but bring them up. Dicit ergo: et vos, patres, nolite provocare filios vestros ad iracundiam, non quod in omnibus assentiatis voluntati eorum. When he says and you, fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, it is not that the fathers must give in to their will in all matters. Ubi notandum est quod alius est principatus patris ad filium, et domini ad servum, quia dominus utitur servo suo ad utilitatem propriam, sed pater utitur filio ad utilitatem filii. Et ideo est necesse quod patres instruant filios propter utilitatem suam, non tamen minis arcendo aut subiiciendo. Et ideo dicitur Col. III, 21: patres, nolite ad indignationem provocare filios vestros, ut scilicet non pusillo animo fiant, quia talis provocatio non animat ad bonum. Here it must be noted that the authority of a father with respect to his child is different from that of a master with respect to his servant. For the master employs his servant to his own advantage, but the father manages his child for the child’s advantage. It is necessary that fathers educate their children for the children’s own good; not, however, by excessively restricting or subjecting them. Fathers, provoke not your children to indignation, lest they be discouraged (Col 3:21). Because such provocation does not inspire them to good. Quomodo ergo? Subdit sed educate illos in disciplina, scilicet verberum, et correctione, scilicet verborum, id est corripite eos et educate, ut serviant Domino. Vel: in disciplina, eos ad bonum inducendo, et correctione a malis retrahendo. How then should they? He adds but bring them up in the discipline of spankings and the correction of words. That is, correct and educate them that they might be of service to the Lord. Or, in the discipline may designate that they should encourage them to do good, and correction to restrain them from evils. Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Obedientia servorum Obedience of servants 6:5 Servi, obedite dominis carnalibus cum timore et tremore, in simplicitate cordis vestri, sicut Christo: [n. 344] 6:5 Servants, be obedient to those who are your lords according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in the simplicity of your heart, as to Christ. [n. 344] 6:6 non ad oculum servientes, quasi hominibus placentes, sed ut servi Christi, facientes voluntatem Dei ex animo, [n. 345] 6:6 Not serving to the eye, as it were pleasing men: but, as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart. [n. 345] 6:7 cum bona voluntate servientes, sicut Domino, et non hominibus: [n. 348] 6:7 With a good will serving, as to the Lord, and not to men. [n. 348] 6:8 scientes quoniam unusquisque quodcumque fecerit bonum, hoc recipiet a Domino, sive servus, sive liber. [n. 349] 6:8 Knowing that whatsoever good thing any man shall do, the same shall he receive from the Lord, whether he be bond or free. [n. 349] 6:9 Et vos domini, eadem facite illis, remittentes minas: scientes quia et illorum et vester Dominus est in caelis: et personarum acceptio non est apud eum. [n. 350] 6:9 And you, masters, do the same things to them, forbearing threatenings: knowing that the Lord both of them and you is in heaven. And there is no respect of persons with him. [n. 350] 343. Instructis duabus connexionibus, scilicet viri et mulieris, patris et filii, hic instruit connexionem servi ad dominum. Et 343. Once he has given advice concerning the two relationships of husband to wife, and father to children, he now instructs them regarding the relation of servant to master. circa hoc facit duo. In reference to this he does two things: Primo instruit servum; first, he instructs the servant;