Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Obedientia servorum Obedience of servants 6:5 Servi, obedite dominis carnalibus cum timore et tremore, in simplicitate cordis vestri, sicut Christo: [n. 344] 6:5 Servants, be obedient to those who are your lords according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in the simplicity of your heart, as to Christ. [n. 344] 6:6 non ad oculum servientes, quasi hominibus placentes, sed ut servi Christi, facientes voluntatem Dei ex animo, [n. 345] 6:6 Not serving to the eye, as it were pleasing men: but, as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart. [n. 345] 6:7 cum bona voluntate servientes, sicut Domino, et non hominibus: [n. 348] 6:7 With a good will serving, as to the Lord, and not to men. [n. 348] 6:8 scientes quoniam unusquisque quodcumque fecerit bonum, hoc recipiet a Domino, sive servus, sive liber. [n. 349] 6:8 Knowing that whatsoever good thing any man shall do, the same shall he receive from the Lord, whether he be bond or free. [n. 349] 6:9 Et vos domini, eadem facite illis, remittentes minas: scientes quia et illorum et vester Dominus est in caelis: et personarum acceptio non est apud eum. [n. 350] 6:9 And you, masters, do the same things to them, forbearing threatenings: knowing that the Lord both of them and you is in heaven. And there is no respect of persons with him. [n. 350] 343. Instructis duabus connexionibus, scilicet viri et mulieris, patris et filii, hic instruit connexionem servi ad dominum. Et 343. Once he has given advice concerning the two relationships of husband to wife, and father to children, he now instructs them regarding the relation of servant to master. circa hoc facit duo. In reference to this he does two things: Primo instruit servum; first, he instructs the servant; secundo dominum, ibi et vos, domini, et cetera. second, the master, at masters, do the same. Iterum prima in tres. The first has three parts: Primo enim ponit monitionem; first, he sets down the admonition; secundo exponit, ibi non ad oculum servientes, etc.; second, he explains it, at not serving to the eye; tertio ostendit retributionem, ibi scientes quoniam unusquisque, et cetera. third, he indicates the reward, at knowing that. 344. Iterum prima in tres. Quia primo monet ad obedientiam; secundo ad reverentiam; tertio ad cordis simplicitatem. 344. Again, the first part has three subdivisions; he admonishes them: first, to obedience; second, to reverence; third, to simplicity of heart. Secunda, ibi cum omni timore, et cetera. Tertia, ibi in simplicitate, et cetera. The second he does at with fear; the third at in simplicity. Monet enim eos ad obedientiam ex imperio Domini. Unde dicit servi, obedite dominis carnalibus. For he instructs them to obey as by a command of the Lord. Hence he states servants, be obedient to those who are your lords according to the flesh. Monet eos ad reverentiam, dicens cum timore, interius. Mal. I, 6: si ego dominus, ubi est timor meus? Et tremore, exterius. Ps. II, 11: servite Domino in timore, et cetera. He cautions them regarding reverence, saying with interior fear: if I be a master, where is my fear? (Mal 1:6) And exterior trembling: serve the Lord with fear; and rejoice unto him with trembling (Ps 2:11). Et in simplicitate cordis. Sap. I, 1: in simplicitate cordis quaerite illum. Lc. XII, v. 42: fidelis servus, et cetera. Iob I, 8: numquid considerasti servum meum Iob, etc., et, paulo post: vir simplex, et cetera. And this must be in the simplicity of your heart: seek him in simplicity of heart (Wis 1:1); have you considered my servant Job, a simple and upright man, and fearing God, and avoiding evil? (Job 1:8) Sic enim serviendum est Christo. Unde dicit sicut Christo. Sap. I, 1: in simplicitate cordis quaerite illum. I Par. XXIX, 17: Domine Deus, in simplicitate cordis mei laetus obtuli universa. Dicit etiam sicut Christo, quia a Domino Christo est quod dominus aliquid possit. Rom. XIII, 2: qui potestati resistit, Dei ordinationi resistit. Et ideo serviendum est eis sicut Christo, in his quae non sunt contra fidem, nec contra ipsum. In this way is Christ to be served; thus he says as to Christ. Seek him in simplicity of heart (Wis 1:1); O Lord God, I also in the simplicity of my heart have joyfully offered all these things (1 Chr 29:17). He also mentions as to Christ since whatever power a master has comes from Christ the Lord. Therefore, he who resists the power resists the ordinance of God (Rom 13:2). They must be served as Christ is in whatever is not contrary to faith nor contrary to Christ himself. 345. Exponit autem in simplicitate, et 345. He explains in simplicity of heart: primo removet quod simplicitati contrariatur; first, he repudiates what is against simplicity; secundo docet modum convenientem, ibi facientes voluntatem Dei, et cetera. second, he teaches the appropriate way of acting, at doing the will of God. 346. Contrarium autem simplicitatis est, quod servus habeat respectum ad oculum et non ad complacentiam domini. Talis enim servus non habet simplicitatem et rectam intentionem. Et ideo hoc prohibet, dicens non ad oculum servientes, scilicet domino propter lucrum temporale tantum, quasi hominibus placentes, id est complacere volentes. Gal. I, 10: si adhuc hominibus placerem, Christi servus non essem. Sed ut servi Christi. Col. III, 24: Domino Christo servite. 346. It is against simplicity that a servant be concerned with what the eye sees instead of what pleases his lord. For such a servant does not possess simplicity and rectitude of intention. Hence he forbids this saying not serving to the eye, namely, the master, on account of a temporal advantage only, as it were pleasing men. If I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ (Gal 1:10). But, as the servants of Christ; serve the Lord Christ (Col 3:24). 347. Et quomodo? Facientes voluntatem Dei, scilicet implendo mandata eius opere. Ps. CII, 20: facientes verbum illius, sicut Christus Io. VI, 38, descendi de caelo, non ut facerem voluntatem meam, sed voluntatem eius, qui misit me. Haec est enim voluntas eius qui misit me, scilicet ut obediam hominibus propter Deum. Et ideo dicit sicut servi Christi, et sicut servientes Domino, non hominibus, scilicet non propter se, sed propter Dominum. 347. And how? Doing the will of God, by carrying his commands into action. Carry out his word (Ps 103:20), just as Christ did: I came down from heaven, not to do my own will but the will of him that sent me. Now this is the will of the Father who sent me (John 6:38–39), that I obey men for the sake of God. And thus he states as servants of Christ, being of service to the Lord and not to men; that is, not for their own sakes but for that of the Lord. 348. Quomodo? Ex animo. Col. III, v. 23: quodcumque facitis, ex animo operamini, sicut Domino, et non hominibus. Item, idem subiungit hic dicens sicut Domino et non hominibus. Cum bona voluntate, id est recta intentione. Col. IV, 12: stetis perfecti et pleni in omni voluntate Dei. 348. How should this be done? From the heart. Whatsoever you do, do it from the heart, as to the Lord, and not to men (Col 3:23); he says the same here: as to the Lord, and not to men; and do it with a good will, that is, with the right intention; that you may stand perfect and full in all the will of God (Col 4:12). 349. Deinde subiungit remunerationem, dicens scientes. I Io. V, 13: scripsi vobis ut sciatis, et cetera. Quoniam unusquisque, (. . .) sive servus sive liber. Sine personarum acceptione. Non enim est personarum acceptio apud Deum. Gal. III, 28: non est servus neque liber, non est masculus neque foemina, omnes enim vos unum estis in Christo Iesu. Act. X, v. 34 s.: in veritate comperi quoniam non est personarum acceptor Deus, sed in omni gente, qui timet Deum et operatur iustitiam, et cetera. Eccle. IX, 10: quodcumque potest facere manus tua, instanter operare, et cetera. Recipiet a Domino pro remuneratione. Col. III, 24: scientes quod a Domino accipient retributionem haereditatis. 349. Next, he mentions the reward, saying knowingthese things I write to you that you may know (1 John 5:13)—that any man . . . whether he be bond or free is without acknowledgment of personage. For there is no respect of persons with God. There is neither Jew nor Greek; there is neither bond nor free; there is neither male or female. For you are all one in Christ Jesus (Gal 3:28). In very deed I perceive that God is not a respecter of persons. But, in every nation, he that fears him and works justice is acceptable to him (Acts 10:34–35). Whatever your hand is able to do, do it earnestly: for neither work, nor reason, nor wisdom, nor knowledge, shall be in hell, whither you are hastening (Eccl 9:10). What he does the same shall he receive from the Lord, as a recompense. Knowing that you shall receive of the Lord the reward of inheritance (Col 3:24). 350. Deinde cum dicit et vos, domini, etc., instruit dominos, et facit duo. Primo ponit monitionem; secundo subdit rationem, ibi scientes quia et illorum, et cetera. 350. Then he goes on to give advice to masters, and he makes two points: first, he sets down a warning, at masters, do the same; second, he adds the reason, at knowing that the Lord. Dicit ergo et vos, domini, eadem faciatis, eadem scilicet identitate proportionis, ut sicut illi ex animo et bona voluntate, ita et vos faciatis. Eccli. XXXIII, 31: si est tibi aliquis servus fidelis, sit tibi sicut anima tua. Remittentes minas, non solum verba, vel flagella. He states, therefore, and you, masters, do the same, namely, with a proportional identity: as servants act from the heart and with a good will, so also should you act. If you have a faithful servant, let him be to you as your own soul (Sir 33:31)—forbearing threatenings, and not only blows and whippings. Et quare? Rationem subdit, dicens scientes quia et illorum et vester Dominus est in caelis. Nam idem Dominus omnium, Rom. X, v. 12. Quasi dicat: conservi estis, et ideo debetis vos bene habere ad eos. Matth. XVIII, v. 33: oportuit et te misereri conservi tui. Et personarum acceptio non est apud Deum. Rom. II, 11 idem dicitur; Lc. XX, 21: non accipis personam hominum; Act. X, 34 idem. Why? He gives the reason when he says knowing that the Lord both of them and you is in heaven. For the same is Lord over all (Rom 10:12). It is as though he were saying: you are fellow servants, and hence you ought to behave well towards them. Should not you then have had compassion also on your fellow servant? (Matt 18:33). And there is no respect of persons with him (Rom 2:11). You do not respect any person (Luke 20:21). And Acts also says the same (Acts 10:34). Lectio 3 Lecture 3 Colluctatio spiritualis Spiritual warfare 6:10 De cetero, fratres, confortamini in Domino, et in potentia virtutis ejus. [n. 352] 6:10 Finally, brethren, be strengthened in the Lord and in the power of his virtue. [n. 352] 6:11 Induite vos armaturam Dei, ut possitis stare adversus insidias diaboli: [n. 353] 6:11 Put on the armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the deceits of the devil. [n. 353] 6:12 quoniam non est nobis colluctatio adversus carnem et sanguinem, sed adversus principes, et potestates, adversus mundi rectores tenebrarum harum, contra spiritualia nequitiae, in caelestibus. [n. 354] 6:12 For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood; but against principalities and powers, against the rulers of the world of this darkness, against the spirits of wickedness in the high places. [n. 354]