1:1 Paulus, apostolus non ab hominibus, neque per hominem, sed per Jesum Christum, et Deum Patrem, qui suscitavit eum a mortuis: [n. 2]
1:1 Paul, an apostle, not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead: [n. 2]
1:2 et qui mecum sunt omnes fratres, ecclesiis Galatiae.
1:2 And all the brethren who are with me: to the churches of Galatia.
1:3 Gratia vobis, et pax a Deo Patre, et Domino nostro Jesu Christo, [n. 10]
1:3 Grace be to you, and peace from God the Father and from our Lord Jesus Christ, [n. 10]
1:4 qui dedit semetipsum pro peccatis nostris, ut eriperet nos de praesenti saeculo nequam, secundum voluntatem Dei et Patris nostri, [n. 14]
1:4 Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present wicked world, according to the will of God and our Father: [n. 14]
1:5 cui est gloria in saecula saeculorum. Amen. [n. 15]
1:5 To whom is glory forever and ever. Amen. [n. 15]
2. Scribit ergo Apostolus Galatis hanc epistolam, in qua ostendit, quod, veniente gratia Novi Testamenti, debet proiici Vetus Testamentum, ut impleta veritate deseratur figura, quibus duabus, scilicet gratia et veritate, adeptis, perveniatur ad veritatem iustitiae et gloriae. Acquiruntur autem illa duo, si observantia legalium dimissa, observantiae Evangelii Christi ferventer insistamus.
2. The Apostle therefore writes the Galatians this epistle in which he shows that with the coming of the grace of the New Testament, the Old Testament should be cast out, so that with the fulfillment of the truth, the figure may be abandoned, and with the attainment of these two, namely, grace and truth, one may arrive at the truth of justice and glory. And these two are acquired, if, abandoning the observance of the legalia, we concentrate fervently on observing the Gospel of Christ.
Ordo autem huius epistolae congruus est, ut post duas epistolas ad Corinthios, in quarum prima agitur de sacramentis Ecclesiae, in secunda de ministris horum sacramentorum, necessarie sequatur epistola ad Galatas, in qua agitur de cessatione sacramentorum Veteris Testamenti.
The order of this epistle is fitting in that, after the two epistles to the Corinthians, in the first of which it is a question of the sacraments of the Church, and in the second, of the ministers of these sacraments, there should necessarily follow the epistle to the Galatians, treating of the termination of the sacraments of the Old Testament.
Dividitur autem haec epistola in duas partes, in salutationem, et epistolarem narrationem, ibi miror quod, et cetera.
This epistle is divided into two parts: namely, into a greeting, and the setting forth of the epistle, at I wonder that you are so soon removed (Gal 1:6).
In salutatione autem
In the greeting, however:
primo ponitur persona salutantis;
first, the person who sends the greeting is mentioned;
secundo ponuntur personae salutatae, ibi ecclesiis Galatiae, etc.;
second, the persons greeted are mentioned, at to the churches of Galatia;
tertio bonum optatum, ibi gratia vobis, et cetera.
third, the good he wishes them, at grace be to you.
Circa primum, primo, ponitur persona salutans principaliter, quae describitur ex nomine et ex auctoritate.
As to the first, mention is made first of the person principally sending the greeting; and he is described by his name and his authority.
3. Ex nomine quidem cum dicit Paulus, quod congruit humilitati suae, quia interpretatur humilis. Unde dicitur I Cor. XVI, 9: ego sum minimus apostolorum, et cetera.
3. By his name, indeed, when he says Paul which, because it means ‘humble’, accords with his humility. Hence it is said: I am the least of the apostles, who am not worthy to be called an apostle (1 Cor 15:9).
Item congruit officio suo, quia secundum alium modum interpretatur os tubae, in quo specialiter est officium praedicationis significatum. Is. LVIII, 1: quasi tuba exalta vocem tuam, et cetera.
Furthermore, it accords with his office, because in another sense it means ‘the mouth of the trumpet’, in which the office of preaching is specially signified. Lift up your voice like a trumpet (Isa 58:1).
4. Ex auctoritate autem describitur, cum dicitur apostolus. Ubi duo ponuntur, scilicet eius auctoritas, et auctoritatis origo.
4. He is described by his authority, when he says, an apostle. Here two things are mentioned, namely, his authority and its source.
Auctoritas, quia apostolus, qui idem est quod missus.
Authority, because he says apostle, which is the same as ‘sent’.
Sciendum est autem, quod Apostolus in quibusdam epistolis scribit se servum, ostendens nomen humilitatis, ut in Epistola ad Romanos; in quibusdam vero scribit se apostolum, ostendens auctoritatem suam. Cuius ratio est, quia Romani superbi erant, et ideo Apostolus, ut inducat eos ad humilitatem, scribit se servum, in exemplum humilitatis. Galatis vero, quia stulti erant et superbi, ut frangat eos, nominat se apostolum; et ideo hic ponit auctoritatem suam.
Now it should be noted that the Apostle in some epistles calls himself servant, thereby showing a spirit of humility, as in the Epistle to the Romans; in others he calls himself apostle, thereby showing his authority. The reason for this is that the Romans were proud, and so the Apostle, in order to induce them to humility, calls himself a servant as an example of humility. But to the Galatians, who were stupid and proud, he calls himself an apostle in order to break them down; hence he here sets forth his authority.
5. Originem autem auctoritatis suae describit, cum dicit non ab hominibus, et cetera. Et
5. He describes the source of his authority when he says, not of men.
primo removet originem aestimatam;
First, he removes what is, according to their opinion, the source;
secundo assignat veram, ibi sed per Iesum Christum, et cetera.
second, he presents the true source, at but by Jesus Christ.
6. Origo autem aestimata erat, quia intantum Galatae seducti erant a pseudo, quod crederent Apostolum non esse eiusdem auctoritatis qua alii apostoli erant, quia non fuit doctus a Christo vel conversatus cum eo, sed esset missus ab eis, quasi minister eorum. Opinionem ergo istam removet, cum dicit non ab hominibus, et cetera.
6. The source in their opinion was in keeping with the fact that the Galatians had been so deceived by false teachers as to believe that the Apostle did not enjoy the same authority as the other apostles, as having neither been taught by Christ nor lived with him, but sent by them as their minister. He therefore removes this opinion when he says, not of men, neither by man.
Quidam enim mittebantur a toto collegio apostolorum et discipulorum. Et ideo ostendens se non esse ab eis missum, dicit non ab hominibus. Quidam enim mittebantur ab aliquo apostolorum speciali, sicut Paulus aliquando mittebat Lucam et Titum. Et ideo ostendens, quod nec sic missus sit, dicit neque per hominem, id est, per aliquem apostolorum in speciali, sed per Spiritum Sanctum, qui dicit, Act. XIII, 2: segregate mihi, et cetera.
For some had been sent by the whole college of apostles and disciples; hence, to show that he had not been sent by them, he says, not of men. Others had been sent by some particular apostle, as Paul sometimes sent Luke and Titus. Therefore, to show that he had not been sent in that manner, he says, neither by man, i.e., not by any apostle in particular, but by the Holy Spirit, who says: separate for me Saul and Barnabas, for the work to which I have taken them (Acts 13:2).
7. Causa autem originis huius auctoritatis vera est Christus Iesus, et ideo dicit sed per Iesum Christum, et Deum Patrem.
7. But because the true cause of the origin of this authority is Christ Jesus, he says, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father.
Haec autem distinctio, cum dicit per Iesum Christum et Deum Patrem, potest accipi, vel quantum ad personam Patris, et personam Filii, et tunc alius est in persona Deus Pater, et alius Iesus Christus. Ab utroque autem missus est Beatus Apostolus Paulus ad praedicandum, et a tota Trinitate, quia inseparabilia sunt opera Trinitatis. Non fit autem mentio de persona Spiritus Sancti, quia cum sit unio et nexus duorum, positis personis duabus, scilicet Patris et Filii, intelligitur etiam Spiritus Sanctus.
Now the distinction expressed when he says, by Jesus Christ and God the Father, can be taken with respect to the person of the Father and the person of the Son; and then God the Father is one person and Jesus Christ another. For the Blessed Apostle Paul was sent to preach by both, and indeed, by the whole Trinity, because the works of the Trinity are inseparable. Yet no mention is made of the person of the Holy Spirit, because, since he is the union and joining of the two, by mentioning two persons, namely, Father and Son, the Holy Spirit too is understood.
Vel potest sumi distinctio praedicta quantum ad naturam assumptam, scilicet humanam, quia secundum naturam divinam non est distinctio inter Deum Patrem et Iesum Christum. Et tunc missus est Paulus per Deum Patrem, sicut per auctorem, et per Iesum Christum, sicut per ministrum. Rom. c. XV, 8: dico Iesum Christum ministrum fuisse, et cetera.
Or, the aforesaid distinction can be taken with respect to the assumed nature, i.e., the human, because according to the divine nature there is not a distinction between God the Father and Jesus Christ. In this sense, then, Paul was sent by God the Father as by the chief sender, and by Jesus Christ as by a minister. For I say that Christ Jesus was minister of the circumcision (Rom 15:8).
Quia vero Galatae derogabant Apostolo, quod non fuisset conversatus cum Christo sicut alii, nec missus ab eo, ideo in hoc specialiter magnificat se, quia illi fuerunt missi per Christum adhuc viventem in carne mortali, ipse vero a Christo iam glorificato missus est, ideo dicit qui, scilicet Deus Pater, suscitavit eum, scilicet Iesum Christum, inquantum hominem, a mortuis. Quasi dicat: apostolus sum, non ab hominibus, scilicet collegio apostolorum, nec per hominem, scilicet Christum in mortali carne viventem, sed sum apostolus per Christum iam suscitatum et glorificatum. Rom. VI, 9: Christus resurgens a mortuis, et cetera.
But because the Galatians belittled the Apostle for neither having lived with Christ, as did the others, nor having been sent by him, he extols himself on this very point, because they had been sent by Christ yet living in mortal flesh, whereas he had been sent by Christ now glorified. This is why he says, who, namely, God the Father, raised him, namely, Jesus Christ as man, from the dead. As though to say: I am an apostle not of men, i.e., not by the college of apostles, neither by man, namely, Christ living in mortal flesh, but I am an apostle through Christ now risen and glorified. Christ rising again from the dead, dies now no more (Rom 6:9).
Et quia praesens vita significatur per sinistram, futura vero per dexteram, inquantum ista est caelestis et spiritualis, illa vero temporalis, ideo Petrus, qui vocatus fuit a Christo adhuc in carne mortali posito, ponitur in bulla Papae in sinistra parte; Paulus vero, qui vocatus fuit a Christo iam glorificato, ponitur in parte dextera.
And because the present life is signified by the left side and the future life by the right, inasmuch as the latter is heavenly and spiritual, and the former temporal, Peter, who was called while Christ was yet in mortal flesh, appears in papal bulls on the left side, but Paul, who was called by Christ now glorified, is set on the right side.
8. Consequenter cum dicit et qui mecum sunt, etc., ponuntur personae adiunctae salutantes, quas describit a dulci familiaritate, quia mecum sunt, scilicet ad solatium et adiutorium. Prov. XVIII, 19: frater qui iuvatur a fratre, et cetera. Ps. CXXXII, 1: ecce quam bonum, et cetera.
8. Then when he says, and all the brethren who are with me, he refers to the persons who join with him in sending the greeting. These he describes in terms of sweet familiarity, because they are with me, namely, for consolation and help. A brother that is helped by his brother is like a strong city (Prov 18:19). Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity (Ps 133:1).
Item ab inseparabili caritate, cum dicit fratres, Io. XIII, 35: in hoc cognoscent omnes, et cetera.
And in terms of inseparable charity, when he says, brethren. By this shall all men know that you are my disciples, if you have love one for another (John 13:35).
Item ab universalitate, cum dicit omnes; quod ideo addit, quia isti forte erant intantum seducti, quod dictum Pauli non reputarent.
And in terms of universality, when he says, all. He adds this because they might be so deceived as not to respect the words of Paul.
Et ideo dicit omnes qui mecum sunt, ut ostendat eos testes esse veritatis suae, et facile intelligant se errare, dum ab omnibus reprehenduntur. II Cor. II, 6: sufficit illi qui eiusmodi est obiurgatio haec, quae fit a pluribus, et cetera.
Hence he says, all who are with me, to show them as witnesses to his truthfulness and make it easy for them to understand that they are wrong, when they are rebuked by everyone else. To him who is such a one, this rebuke is sufficient which is given by many (2 Cor 2:6).
9. Personas autem salutatas ponit, cum dicit ecclesiis Galatiae, et cetera.
9. He mentions the persons greeted when he says, to the churches of Galatia.
Ubi sciendum quod sicut in Glossa tangitur, Brennus dux Senonum olim congregato exercitu intravit Italiam, qua pertransita, venit in Graeciam ante tempus Alexandri Magni, ubi cum essent aliqui de gente sua remanentes, in una parte Graeciae miscuerunt se Graecis; unde illa provincia Gallograecia dicta est; deinde illi Galatae sunt appellati, quasi albi. Et licet Graeci sint acuti ingenii, tamen illi Galatae stulti erant et instabiles et ad intelligendum tardiores, sicut et indociles Galli, unde originem traxerunt. Et ideo infra dicit eis: o insensati Galatae, et cetera. Istis ergo scribit epistolam hanc et isti sunt personae salutatae.
Here it should be noted that, as is mentioned in a Gloss, Brennus, leader of the Senones, once gathered an army, and having entered Italy through which he passed, came into Greece before the time of Alexander the Great. There some of the invaders remained in a certain district of Greece and intermarried with the Greeks. For this reason that province came to be called Gallic Greece and the inhabitants Galatians, as it were, ‘white’. But whereas the Greeks are natively intelligent, those Galatians were stupid and inconstant and slow to understand, as the indocile Gauls from whom they descended. This is why he later says, O senseless Galatians (Gal 3:1). To these people, therefore, he writes this epistle, and they are the ones greeted.