1:6 Miror quod sic tam cito transferimini ab eo qui vos vocavit in gratiam Christi in aliud evangelium: [n. 16]
1:6 I wonder that you are so soon removed from him who called you into the grace of Christ, unto another gospel. [n. 16]
1:7 quod non est aliud, nisi sunt aliqui qui vos conturbant, et volunt convertere Evangelium Christi. [n. 20]
1:7 Which is not another: only there are some who trouble you and would pervert the Gospel of Christ. [n. 20]
1:8 Sed licet nos aut angelus de caelo evangelizet vobis praeterquam quod evangelizavimus vobis, anathema sit. [n. 22]
1:8 But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach a gospel to you besides that which we have preached to you, let him be anathema. [n. 22]
1:9 Sicut praediximus, et nunc iterum dico: si quis vobis evangelizaverit praeter id quod accepistis, anathema sit. [n. 28]
1:9 As we said before, so now I say again: if any one preach to you a gospel, besides that which you have received, let him be anathema. [n. 28]
1:10 Modo enim hominibus suadeo, an Deo? an quaero hominibus placere? si adhuc hominibus placerem, Christi servus non essem. [n. 29]
1:10 For do I now persuade men, or God? Or do I seek to please men? If I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ. [n. 29]
16. In superioribus praecessit salutatio, sequitur in sequentibus epistolaris narratio, in qua arguit Apostolus eorum errorem; secundo eos monet ad correctionem, V cap., ibi state ergo, et cetera.
16. The greeting given, it is followed by the epistle message, in which the Apostle refutes their error; second, he admonishes them with a view to their correction, at stand fast (Gal 5:1).
Errorem autem eorum arguit dupliciter, et per auctoritatem Evangelici documenti, et per rationem Veteris Testamenti, III cap., ibi o insensati, et cetera.
He refutes their error two ways: namely, on the authority of the Gospel teaching; and by reason of the Old Testament, at O senseless Galatians (Gal 3:1).
Arguit autem errorem ipsorum, ostendendo auctoritatem Evangelicae doctrinae.
He refutes their error by showing the authority of the Gospel teaching.
Primo ostendendo ipsorum levitatem quantum ad levem dimissionem Evangelicae doctrinae;
First, by showing their fickleness in lightly dismissing the Gospel teaching;
secundo commendando auctoritatem ipsius doctrinae Evangelicae: ut sic quanto dignius est quod dimittunt, tanto eorum error appareat maior, ibi notum enim vobis facio, et cetera.
second, by commending the authority of the Gospel teaching, as he intimates that in view of the precious value of that which they so lightly regard, their error is seen to be so much the greater, at for I give you to understand (Gal 1:11).
Circa primum duo facit.
Regarding the first he does two things.
Primo enim exaggerat culpam;
First, he enlarges upon their guilt;
secundo infligit poenam, ibi sed licet nos, et cetera.
second, he inflicts a punishment, at but though we.
Culpam autem exaggerat et seductorum et seducentium, ibi nisi sunt, et cetera.
Concerning the first, he enlarges upon the guilt both of the seduced and of those who seduced them, at only there are some that trouble you.
17. Circa primum tria facit. Primo enim aggravat culpam seductorum ex animi levitate.
17. As to the first he does three things. First, he enlarges upon the guilt of those who were misled for their fickleness of mind.
Unde dicit miror, quasi dicat: cum sciatis tot bona quae dicta sunt provenire vobis per Christum, et quod cum fueritis ita bene instructi per me, tamen sic, id est, intantum et tam vehementer, ut videamini iam obliti, tam cito, id est, in tam brevi tempore, transferimini, ut alludat nomini. Galatia enim translatio dicitur. Quasi dicat: vos estis Galatae, quia tam cito transferimini. Eccli. XIX, 4: qui cito credit, levis est corde.
Hence he says, I wonder. As if to say: although you are aware of the many good things already mentioned that come to you through Christ, and although I instructed you well, nevertheless you are thus, i.e., so far and so completely removed, that you seem already to have forgotten; so soon, i.e., in such a short time, you are removed. With this word he alludes to their name, for Galatia means ‘transferred’. As if to say: you are Galatians, because you are so quickly transferred. He that is hasty to give credit is light of heart (Sir 19:4).
18. Secundo aggravat eorum culpam ex eo quod dimiserunt.
18. Second, he amplifies their guilt on the part of that which they have abandoned.
Si enim ratio recedit et transfertur a malo, commendabilis est et bene facit, sed quando recedit a bono, tunc est culpabilis. Et sic isti a bono translati erant. Et ideo dicit eis: et si mirandum sit quod tam cito et sic transferimini, addit tamen materiam admirationis, quod scilicet transferimini ab eo, scilicet a Deo, et fide eius, qui vos vocavit in gratiam Christi, id est, in participationem aeterni boni, quam habemus per Christum. I Petr. II, v. 9: gratias agentes Deo, qui vos vocavit in admirabile lumen suum. Item II Petr. II, 21: melius erat eis viam veritatis non agnoscere, quam, et cetera.
For if reason withdraws and is removed from evil, it is worthy of praise and does well; but when it departs from the good, it is culpable. And this is how they were removed from good. So he says to them: although it is amazing that you are so quickly and so far removed, there is additional reason for wonder, namely, because you have removed yourselves from him, i.e., from God, and from faith in him who called you into the grace of Christ, i.e., into the sharing of the eternal good which we have through Christ: giving thanks to God who has called you into his marvelous light (1 Pet 2:9). Again: for it had been better for them not to have known the way of justice than, after they have known it, to turn back from that holy commandment which was delivered to them (2 Pet 2:21).
19. Tertio aggravat eorum culpam ex eo ad quod conversi sunt, quia non sunt conversi ad bonum, sed ad malum.
19. Third, he amplifies their guilt on the part of that to which they have turned, because they have been turned not to good but to evil.
Unde dicit in aliud evangelium, id est, veteris legis, quae Annuntiatio bona est inquantum annuntiat quaedam bona, scilicet temporalia et carnalia. Is. I, 9: si volueritis et audieritis me, et cetera. Sed tamen non est perfecta et simpliciter, sicut Evangelium; quia non annuntiat perfecta et maxima bona, sed parva et minima. Sed lex nova est perfecte et simpliciter Evangelium, id est, bona annuntiatio, quia annuntiat maxima bona, scilicet caelestia, spiritualia et aeterna. Et licet sit aliud Evangelium secundum traditionem pseudo, tamen secundum meam praedicationem non.
Hence he says, unto another gospel, i.e., of the old law, which is a good message only insofar as it does announce some good things, namely, temporal and carnal: if you be willing and will hearken to me, you shall eat the good things of the land (Isa 1:19). Yet it is not completely perfect as is the Gospel, because it does not announce the perfect and loftiest goods, but small and slight ones. But the new law is perfectly and in the full sense a Gospel, i.e., a good message, because it announces the greatest goods, namely, heavenly, spiritual and eternal. And although it is another gospel according to the tradition of the deceivers, yet according to my preaching it is not.
Est enim aliud in promissis, sed non est aliud in figura, quia idem continetur in Veteri Testamento et in Novo: in Veteri quidem ut in figura, in Novo vero ut in re et expresse. Et sic est aliud evangelium quantum ad ea quae exterius apparent, sed quantum ad ea quae interius sunt et continentur, non est aliud.
For it is different in the promises, but not in the figure, because the same thing is contained in the Old Testament and in the New: in the Old, indeed, as in a figure, but in the New as in reality and expressly. Therefore it is another gospel if you consider the outward appearances; but as to the things that are contained and exist within, it is not another gospel.
20. Licet autem non sit aliud in se, tamen potest esse aliud ex culpa aliorum, scilicet seducentium. Et ideo eorum culpam exaggerans, dicit nisi sunt aliqui, scilicet seductores, qui vos conturbant, id est, puritatem sensus vestri, qua imbuti fuistis per fidei veritatem, obfuscant. Quia, licet idem contineatur quantum ad interiorem intellectum per vetus et novum testamentum, ut dictum est, tamen si post susceptionem Novi Testamenti reiteratur Vetus, videtur ostendi quod Novum non sit perfectum, et quod illud sit aliud ab isto. Et ideo dicit quod non est aliud, nisi sunt, etc., quia isti pseudo post fidei Evangelicae susceptionem cogebant eos circumcidi, ostendendo per hoc, quod circumcisio est aliquid aliud quam baptismus et efficit aliquid quod baptismus non potest efficere, et ideo isti conturbant vos. Infra V, 12: utinam abscindantur qui vos conturbant, et cetera.
20. Yet though it is not in itself another gospel, it can be another, if you consider the guilt of the others, i.e., of the deceivers. Hence in enlarging upon the guilt of the latter he says, only there are some, namely, the seducers, who trouble you, i.e., sully the purity of your understanding with which you were imbued with the truth of faith. Because although the same thing is contained, so far as the inward understanding is concerned, in the Old and New Testament, as has been said, yet if the Old is embraced after accepting the New, that seems to show that the New is not perfect, and that the one is different from the other. Hence he says, which is not another, only there are some who trouble you, because those deceivers were compelling them to be circumcised after professing faith in the Gospel, showing thereby that circumcision is something different from baptism and does something that baptism cannot do, and for that reason they are troubling you. Would that even those who trouble you were cut off (Gal 5:12).
21. Et vere conturbant, quia volunt convertere Evangelium Christi, id est, veritatem Evangelicae doctrinae in figuram legis, quod est absurdum et turbatio maxima.
21. And they do indeed bring you trouble, because they would pervert the Gospel of Christ, i.e., the truth of the Gospel teaching, into the figure of the law—which is absurd and the greatest of troubles.
In illud enim debet aliquid converti ad quod ordinatur; Novum autem Testamentum et Evangelium Christi non ordinatur ad Vetus, sed potius e contrario lex vetus ordinatur ad legem novam, sicut figura ad veritatem; et ideo figura converti debet ad veritatem, et lex vetus in Evangelium Christi, non autem veritas in figuram, neque Evangelium Christi in legem veterem: quod patet ex ipso usu loquendi. Non enim dicimus quod homo sit similis imagini hominis, sed potius e converso, imago est similis homini. Ier. XV, 9: ipsi convertentur ad te, etc.; et Lev. XXVI, 10: novis supervenientibus, et cetera.
For a thing ought to be converted into that to which it is ordained. But the New Testament and the Gospel of Christ are not ordained to the Old, but contrariwise, the old law is ordained to the new law, as a figure to the truth. Consequently the figure ought to be converted into the truth, and the old law to the Gospel of Christ, not the truth into the figure, or the Gospel of Christ into the old law. This is plain from the way we ordinarily speak; for we do not say that a man resembles the image of a man, but contrariwise, that the image resembles the man: they shall be turned to you and you shall not be turned to them (Jer 15:19); the new coming on, you shall cast away the old (Lev 26:10).
22. Consequenter post exaggerationem culpae ponitur inflictio poenae, cum dicit sed licet, et cetera.
22. Then after enlarging upon their guilt, the inflicting of the penalty is set forth when he ways, but though we.
Et circa hoc duo facit.
And with respect to this he does two things.
Primo promulgat sententiam;
First, he promulgates the sentence;
secundo rationem sententiae assignat, ibi modo enim hominibus, et cetera.
second, he gives a reason for the sentence, at for do I now persuade.
Circa primum duo facit.
As to the first he does two things.
Primo ostendit auctoritatem suae sententiae;
First, he presents authority for his sentence;
secundo profert eam, ibi sicut praedixi, et cetera.
second, he passes sentence, at as we said before.
23. Ostendit autem auctoritatem suae sententiae multam esse, eo quod non solum in perversores et in seductores subditos, sed etiam in pares, sicut sunt alii apostoli, et etiam in superiores, sicut sunt angeli, si huius criminis, scilicet conversionis Evangelii in veterem legem, rei essent, efficaciam haberet.
23. He shows that his authority for passing sentence is great on the ground that it would affect not only the perverters and seducers, who are subject to him, but also his own equals, as the other apostles, and even those above him, as the angels, were they guilty of this crime, namely, of turning the Gospel into the old law.
Et ideo dicit: quia nostrae sententiae auctoritas quam ego promulgo (quae est excommunicatio), non solum in illos qui talia intendunt, efficaciam habet, sed licet nos, scilicet apostoli, aut angelus, bonus vel malus, de caelo veniens evangelizet, praeter quam quod evangelizatum est a nobis, anathema sit, id est, reus erit huius sententiae, quam promulgamus.
Hence he says: because the authority behind the sentence which we pass (which is excommunication) has efficacy, not only over those who are doing these things, then though we, namely, the apostles, or an angel, good or evil, coming from heaven, preach a gospel besides that which we have preached, let him be anathema, i.e., subject to this sentence that we pass.
24. Ad evidentiam autem dictorum tria inquirere oportet. Primo quid significat hoc nomen, anathema.
24. To elucidate the foregoing, three things should be investigated. First, the meaning of this word, anathema.