Evangelium Pauli non ex hominibus
Paul’s Gospel not from man
1:15 Cum autem placuit ei, qui me segregavit ex utero matris meae, et vocavit per gratiam suam, [n. 39]
1:15 But when it pleased him who separated me from my mother’s womb and called me by his grace, [n. 39]
1:16 ut revelaret Filium suum in me, ut evangelizarem illum in gentibus: continuo non acquievi carni et sanguini, [n. 43]
1:16 To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the gentiles: immediately I did not condescend to flesh and blood. [n. 43]
1:17 neque veni Jerosolymam ad antecessores meos apostolos: sed abii in Arabiam, et iterum reversus sum Damascum: [n. 45]
1:17 Neither did I go to Jerusalem, to the apostles who were before me: but I went into Arabia, and again I returned to Damascus. [n. 45]
39. Postquam autem Apostolus ostendit quod ipse non accepit ab homine Evangelium ante suam conversionem, nunc hic probat quod non accepit ipsum ab homine post conversionem suam. Et
39. After showing that he did not receive the Gospel from man before his conversion, the Apostle now proves that he did not receive it from man after his conversion.
circa hoc duo facit.
About this he does two things.
Primo ostendit quod non recepit Evangelium ab homine tempore conversionis suae;
First, he shows that he did not receive the Gospel from man at the time of his conversion;
secundo quod nec etiam post conversionem suam, ibi deinde post annos tres, et cetera.
second, that neither did he receive it after his conversion, at then, after three years (Gal 1:18).
Circa primum duo facit.
Regarding the first he does two things.
Quia primo ostendit quod non accepit Evangelium ab apostolis, neque didicit;
First, he shows that he did not receive or learn the Gospel from the apostles;
secundo quod non ab aliis fidelibus, ibi sed abii in Arabiam, et cetera.
second, nor from any other believer, at I went into Arabia.
Circa primum tria facit.
As to the first he does three things.
Primo ostendit causam efficientem suae conversionis;
First, he shows the efficient cause of his conversion;
secundo finem, ibi ut revelaret, etc.;
second, the end, at to reveal his Son;
tertio modum, ibi continuo non acquievi, et cetera.
third, the manner, at immediately I did not condescend.
40. Circa primum notat causam suae conversionis, quae duplex est, scilicet beneplacitum Dei, quod est divina electio, et convertentis vocatio. Quantum ad primum dicit cum autem placuit, scilicet Deo, non quando volui ego, sed quando placitum fuit sibi, quia non est volentis neque currentis, etc., ut dicitur Rom. IX, 16. Ps. CXLVI, 11: beneplacitum est Domino, et cetera. Phil. II, 13: Deus est qui operatur in nobis, et cetera.
40. In regard to the first point, he notes the twofold cause of his conversion, namely, the good pleasure of God, which is divine election, and the call of the one converting. Regarding the first he says, when it pleased him, namely, God: not when I willed, but when it pleased him, because it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs (Rom 9:16); the Lord takes pleasure in those who fear him (Ps 147:11); for it is God who works in us (Phil 2:13).
Qui, scilicet Deus, me, scilicet rebellem I Cor. XV, 9: ego sum minimus apostolorum, etc., quoniam persecutus sum, et cetera. Act. c. IX, 1: Saulus adhuc spirans minarum, et cetera. Persecutorem: Saule, Saule, quid me persequeris, etc. blasphemum I Tim. I, v. 13: qui fui blasphemus, et cetera.
Who, namely, God, separated me, namely, a rebel: I am the least of the apostles, who am not worthy to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the Church of God (1 Cor 15:9); Saul, as yet breathing out threatenings (Acts 9:1); and a persecutor: Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? (Acts 9:4); and a blasphemer: who before was a blasphemer (1 Tim 1:13).
Me, talem, inquam, segregavit ex utero matris meae. Vel ad litteram: qui fecit me nasci ex ventre matris meae.
Me, and such a one, I say, he separated from my mother’s womb. Or, literally: who made me to be born from my mother’s womb.
41. Et vere dicitur Deus segregare ex utero, licet sit opus naturae, quae est quasi instrumentum Dei, quia opera etiam nostra attribuuntur Deo, sicut principali auctori, Is. c. XXVI, 12: omnia enim opera nostra operatus es in nobis, etc., sicut et effectus principali agenti attribuuntur. Ideo dicitur Iob X, v. 11: pelle et carnibus vestisti me, et cetera. Et ab hoc utero segregatus est ad iustificationem, quia eiusdem est iustificare, cuius est condere. Ps. XXI, 11: de ventre matris meae, et cetera.
41. It is indeed true to say that God separates one from the womb, even though it is a work of nature, which is, as it were, an instrument of God, because even our own works are attributed to God as to their principal author: for you have wrought all our works for us (Isa 26:12), as any effect is attributed to the principal agent: you have clothed me with skin and flesh (Job 10:11). And he was separated from this womb to be justified, for the same one justifies who makes: from my mother’s womb you are my God (Ps 22:10).
Vel: ex utero matris meae, scilicet synagogae, cuius uterus est collegium Pharisaeorum, qui nutriebant alios in Iudaismo. Matth. XXIII, v. 15: circuitis mare et aridam, ut faciatis, et cetera. Sic ergo mater sua fuit synagoga. Cant. c. I, 5: filii matris meae pugnaverunt contra me, et cetera. Uterus eius sunt Pharisaei. Ex hoc ergo utero est segregatus per Spiritum Sanctum ad fidem Evangelii. Rom. I, 1: segregatus in Evangelium Dei.
Or: from my mother’s womb, i.e., the synagogue, whose womb is the college of Pharisees who trained him in Judaism: you go round about the sea and the land to make one proselyte (Matt 23:15). Thus, therefore, was the synagogue his mother: the sons of my mother have fought against me (Song 1:5). The Pharisees are its womb. And from this womb he was separated by the Holy Spirit unto faith in the Gospel: separated unto the Gospel of God (Rom 1:1).
Vel mater sua est Ecclesia Christi; uterus eius, collegium apostolorum. Segregavit ergo Deus ipsum ab utero Ecclesiae, id est, a collegio apostolorum in officium apostolatus et praedicationis ad gentes, quando dixit apostolis, Act. XIII, 2: segregate mihi Barnabam et Paulum, et cetera.
Or his mother is the Church of Christ, and the womb, the college of apostles. Hence God separated him from the womb of the Church, i.e., from the college of apostles, for the office of apostleship and preacher to the gentiles, when he said to the apostles: separate for me Saul and Barnabas (Acts 13:2).
Vocat autem synagogam matrem suam, quia Pharisaeus erat, quasi magnus in ea, dum dicitur Pharisaeus, et ex Pharisaeis, quia zelator legis erat. Supra: abundantius autem aemulator, et cetera.
Again, he calls the synagogue his mother, because he was a Pharisee and an outstanding one, for which reason he is called a Pharisee and of the Pharisees, because he was zealous for the law: being more abundantly zealous for the traditions of my fathers (Gal 1:14).
42. Quantum autem ad aliam causam dicit et vocavit, et cetera. Est autem duplex vocatio. Una est exterior, et sic dicit: vocavit me caelesti voce. Act. IX, 4: Saule, Saule, quid me persequeris? et cetera. Vade in civitatem, et cetera. Sic etiam alios apostolos vocavit.
42. Now as regards the other cause, he says, and called me by his grace. But there are two kinds of call. One is exterior, and so he says: he called me with a voice from heaven. Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me . . . go into the city, and there it shall be told you what you must do (Acts 9:4, 6). In a similar fashion he called the other apostles.
Alia est interior, et sic vocavit per quemdam instinctum interiorem, quo Deus per gratiam tangit cor, ut convertatur ad ipsum, et sic vocavit a mala via in bonam, et hoc per gratiam suam, non nostris meritis. Rom. VIII, 30: quos praedestinavit, hos et vocavit, et cetera. Is. XLV, 13: suscitavit eum ad iustitiam, et cetera. Amos, V, 8: qui vocat aquas maris, et cetera.
The other call is interior, and in this way he calls through a certain interior instinct, whereby God touches the heart to be turned to him, as when he calls one from the path of evil to good; and this by his grace and not our own merits: and whom he predestined, them he also called (Rom 8:30); I have raised him up to justice (Isa 45:13); that calls the waters of the sea and pours them out upon the face of the earth: the Lord is his name (Amos 5:8).
43. Finis autem conversionis ponitur, cum dicit ut revelaret filium, etc., qui quidem finis est Christus.
43. The end of his conversion is stated when he says, to reveal his Son in me. Hence Christ is the end.
Ordinatur autem conversio sua ad Christum dupliciter, scilicet facto, et sic dicit ut revelaret Filium suum, id est, in eo quod circa me fecit, convertendo me et dimittendo peccata mihi, revelaret quanta sit mihi facta misericordia. I Tim. I, 15 s.: Christus Iesus venit in hunc mundum peccatores salvos facere, et cetera. Sed ideo misericordiam Dei consecutus sum, quia ignorans, et cetera. Sic ergo revelavit in eius conversione Filium suum, et hoc inquantum Filius dicitur gratia Dei. Item revelavit eum in eius operatione; unde dicebat ipse, Rom. XV, 18: non enim audeo aliquid loqui eorum, quae per me non effecit Christus in obedientiam gentium, in verbo, in factis, et virtute, et cetera. Et hoc inquantum Filius virtus est Dei. Item revelavit eum in eius praedicatione; unde ipse dicebat, I Cor. I, 23: nos praedicamus, etc., usque et Dei sapientiam. Et hoc inquantum Filius eius dicitur Dei sapientia.
Now his conversion is ordained to Christ in two ways: first of all, by his works. Hence he says, to reveal his Son, i.e., by what he did in my regard, by converting me and forgiving my sins, he revealed what a great act of mercy was bestowed on me: Jesus Christ came into this world to save sinners, of whom I am the chief (1 Tim 1:15); but I obtained the mercy of God, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief (1 Tim 1:13). Thus, therefore, in his conversion he revealed his Son in the sense that the Son is called the grace of God. Likewise, he revealed him in his action; hence he says: for I dare not speak of any of those things which Christ works not by me, for the obedience of the gentiles by word and deed, by virtue of signs and wonders (Rom 15:18). And this inasmuch as the Son is the power of God. Furthermore, he revealed him in his preaching. Hence he said: we preach Christ crucified . . . and the wisdom of God (1 Cor 1:23). And this inasmuch as the Son is called the wisdom of God.
Item ordinatur ad Christum sua conversio verbo, et sic dicit ut evangelizarem illum in gentibus, quia, aliis apostolis evangelizantibus Christum Iudaeis, Paulus de mandato Domini ivit ad gentes convertendas. Is. c. XLIX, 6: parum enim est mihi, ut sis mihi servus, etc., dedi te in lucem, et cetera. Act. XIII, v. 47: sic enim praecepit, et cetera. Infra: ecce testem populis dedi eum, ducem ac praeceptorem gentibus.
Second, his conversion is ordained to Christ by his words. Hence he says, that I might preach him among the gentiles, because, whereas the other apostles preached the Gospel of Christ to the Jews, Paul, on the Lord’s command, went to convert the gentiles: it is a small thing that you should be my servant . . . I have given you to be the light of the gentiles (Isa 49:6); for so the Lord has commanded us (Acts 13:47); behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, for a leader and a master to the gentiles (Isa 55:4).
44. Modus autem suae conversionis est perfectus, et quantum ad effectum; unde dicit continuo non acquievi carni et sanguini, id est, statim ita perfecte fui conversus, quod omnis carnalis affectus recessit a me. Eccli. c. XI, 23: facile est enim in oculis domini subito honestare pauperem.
44. The manner of his conversion is perfect, and this with regard to its effect; hence he says, immediately I did not condescend to flesh and blood, i.e., at once I was so completely converted that all carnal affection left me: it is easy in the eyes of God on a sudden to make the poor man rich (Sir 11:23).
Et accipitur hic caro et sanguis pro vitiis carnalibus. I Cor. XV, 50: caro et sanguis regnum Dei non possidebunt, et cetera. Infra V, 17: caro concupiscit, et cetera. Vel pro affectu et amore ad carnaliter sibi coniunctos. Matth. c. XVI, 17: caro et sanguis non revelavit tibi, et cetera. Sic Apostolus et vitia sua superavit, et suos Iudaeos contempsit.
Flesh and blood are here taken for vices of the flesh: flesh and blood cannot possess the kingdom of God (1 Cor 15:50); for the flesh lusts against the spirit (Gal 5:17). Or they are taken for the affection and love borne toward blood relatives. Flesh and blood has not revealed it to you (Matt 16:17). Thus the Apostle overcame his own vices and scorned his fellow Jews.
Item quantum ad intellectum; quia ita fuit instructus a Christo, quod non fuit ei necesse instrui ab apostolis. Et ideo dicit nec veni Ierosolymam, ut scilicet ab eis instruerer.
Furthermore, his conversion was perfect with respect to his understanding, because he was so instructed by Christ that there was no need to be instructed by the apostles; hence he says, neither did I go to Jerusalem, i.e., to be instructed by them.
45. Item non fuit necesse instrui ab aliis fidelibus. Et ideo dicit sed abii in Arabiam, etc., quasi dicat: non ivi ad loca ubi erant alii fideles, ut me instruerent, sed ivi in Arabiam, ubi non erant edocti in fide, sed infideles. Et iterum reversus sum Damascum, scilicet ad parentes. Iob XXXVIII, 25: quis dedit vehementissimo imbri cursum, et cetera.
45. Again, it was not necessary for him to be instructed by any other of the faithful; hence he says, but I went into Arabia. As if to say: I did not go to places where there were believers who might instruct me, but I went to Arabia where they were not instructed in the faith but were unbelievers. And again I returned to Damascus, i.e., to his parents: who gave a course to violent showers, or a way for noisy thunder? (Job 38:25).
Sed contra dicitur Act. IX, 25 quod demiserunt eum de muro per sportam, et cetera. Cum autem venisset Ierusalem, tentabat se iungere discipulis. Venit ergo Ierusalem.
But someone might object that it is said: in Damascus they let him down in a basket . . . and when he was come into Jerusalem, he essayed to join himself to the disciples (Acts 9:25–26). Therefore, according to this, he went to Jerusalem.
Dicendum est quod venit, sed non ut instrueretur. Vel, melius, dicendum est quod non statim venit, sed post aliquod tempus, et ideo sequitur deinde post annos, et cetera.
To this I answer that he did go, but not to be instructed. Or, better still, he did not go at once but after some time. Hence he says in the next verse, then, after three years I went to Jerusalem (Gal 1:18).
Tempus Pauli apud Petrem
Paul’s time with Peter