Lectio 5 Lecture 5 Tempus Pauli apud Petrem Paul’s time with Peter 1:18 deinde post annos tres veni Jerosolymam videre Petrum, et mansi apud eum diebus quindecim: [n. 46] 1:18 Then, after three years, I went to Jerusalem to see Peter: and I tarried with him fifteen days. [n. 46] 1:19 alium autem apostolorum vidi neminem, nisi Jacobum fratrem Domini. [n. 48] 1:19 But I saw none of the other apostles, except James the brother of the Lord. [n. 48] 1:20 Quae autem scribo vobis, ecce coram Deo, quia non mentior. [n. 49] 1:20 Now the things which I write to you, behold, before God, I do not lie. [n. 49] 1:21 Deinde veni in partes Syriae, et Ciliciae. [n. 50] 1:21 Afterwards, I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia. [n. 50] 1:22 Eram autem ignotus facie ecclesiis Judaeae, quae erant in Christo: 1:22 And I was unknown by face to the churches of Judea, which were in Christ: 1:23 tantum autem auditum habebant quoniam qui persequebatur nos aliquando, nunc evangelizat fidem, quam aliquando expugnabat: 1:23 But they had heard only: he, who persecuted us in times past now preaches the faith which once he impugned. 1:24 et in me clarificabant Deum. 1:24 And they glorified God in me. 46. Postquam superius Apostolus ostendit se non accepisse Evangelium ab homine ante conversionem suam, nec tempore suae conversionis, hic probat quod nec etiam post conversionem accepit ipsum ab homine; sed potius hic ostendit quomodo doctrina sua fuit ab hominibus approbata. 46. After showing above that he did not receive the Gospel from man before his conversion nor at the time of his conversion, the Apostle now proves that neither after his conversion did he receive it from man; but he shows, rather, how his teaching was approved by men. Et circa hoc duo facit. About this he does two things. Primo enim manifestat quomodo doctrina sua fuit ab apostolis approbata; First, he shows how his teaching was approved by the apostles; secundo ostendit qualiter fuit approbata ab aliis fidelibus, ibi deinde veni in partes, et cetera. second, he shows how it was approved by the rest of the faithful, at afterwards, I came into the regions. Et primo narrat factum; First, he states the fact; secundo confirmat veritatem dicti, ibi ecce coram Deo, et cetera. second, he confirms the truth of his statement, at before God, I do not lie. 47. Dicit ergo: licet non iverim ad apostolos, ut instruerer ab eis circa principium meae conversionis, quia iam eram instructus a Christo, tamen ex affectu caritatis compulsus, post annos tres, scilicet conversionis meae, veni Ierosolymam, quoniam iamdiu desideravi videre Petrum, non ut discerem ab eo, sed ut visitarem eum. Iob c. V, 24: visitans speciem tuam, et cetera. Et mansi apud eum diebus quindecim, repertus ab eo, ut verax apostolus. 47. He says therefore: although I did not go to the apostles to be instructed by them in the beginning of my conversion, because I had already been instructed by Christ, yet, being moved by a feeling of charity, after three years, i.e., after my conversion, I went to Jerusalem, because I had long desired to see Peter, not to be taught by him but to visit him; and visiting your beauty you shall not sin (Job 5:24). And I tarried with him fifteen days, and I was discovered by him to be a true apostle. Et dicit diebus quindecim, quia numerus iste componitur ex octo et septem. Octonarius autem est numerus Novi Testamenti, in quo expectatur octava resurgentium; septenarius autem, numerus Veteris Testamenti, quia celebrat septimam diem. Mansit autem apud Petrum diebus quindecim, conferens cum eo de mysteriis Veteris Testamenti et Novi. And he says fifteen days, because that number is the sum of eight and seven. Eight is the number of the New Testament, in which the eighth day of those who will rise is awaited; but seven is the number of the Old Testament, because it celebrates the seventh day. And so he stayed with Peter fifteen days, conversing with him on the mysteries of the Old and New Testament. 48. Et ne credatur quod licet non sit instructus a Petro, esset tamen etiam instructus ab aliis, subdit quod nec ab aliis fuit instructus. Unde dicit alium autem apostolorum, a quo instruerer, vidi neminem, id est nullum, nisi Iacobum fratrem Domini. Illum enim vidit in Ierusalem. 48. But lest anyone suppose that, although he was not instructed by Peter, he might have been instructed by others, he adds that he was not instructed by others. Hence he says, but of the other apostles, by whom I might be instructed, I saw none, i.e., no one, except James, the brother of the Lord, for he saw him in Jerusalem. Circa istum Iacobum sciendum est, quod iste fuit episcopus Ierosolymorum, et fuit vocatus Iacobus Minor, eo quod vocatus fuerat post Iacobum alium. Dicuntur autem multa de isto Act. XV, 13 ss. Ipse etiam fecit epistolam canonicam. Regarding James, it should be known that he was the bishop of Jerusalem and named James the Lesser, because he had been called after another James. Many things are recorded of him (Acts 15:13ff). He also wrote a canonical epistle. Quare autem dicatur frater Domini, a diversis diversimode dicitur. Elvidius enim dicit, quod ideo dicitur frater Domini, quia fuit filius Beatae Virginis. Dicit enim quod Beata Virgo Christum concepit et peperit, et post partum Christi concepit de Ioseph, et peperit alios filios. Sed hic error est damnatus et reprobatus. Item patet esse falsum, quia Iacobus non fuit filius Ioseph, sed Alphaei. Now there are various explanations why he is called the brother of the Lord. Elvidius says that it was because he was the son of the Blessed Virgin. For according to him, the Blessed Virgin conceived and gave birth to Christ, and after the birth of Christ she conceived of Joseph and brought forth other sons. But this error is condemned and refuted. Furthermore, it is clearly false, because James was not the son of Joseph but of Alpheus. Alii vero dicunt, quod Ioseph ante Beatam Virginem habuit aliam uxorem, de qua habuit filium Iacobum et alios, qua mortua, accepit in uxorem Beatam Virginem, de qua natus est Christus, non tamen cognita a Ioseph, sed per Spiritum Sanctum, ut in Evangelio dicitur. Quia ergo ex patre nominantur cognationes, et Ioseph putabatur pater Christi, ideo iste Iacobus, licet non fuit filius Virginis, tamen vocabatur frater Domini. Sed hoc est falsum, quia si Dominus matrem virginem noluit nisi virgini commendare custodiendam, quomodo sustinuisset sponsum eius, virginem non fuisse, et sic perstitisse? Others say that before the Blessed Virgin, Joseph had another wife of whom he had James and other children, and that after she died, he took as a wife the Blessed Virgin, from whom Christ was born, although she was not known by Joseph, but, as it is said in the Gospel, he was conceived by the Holy Spirit. But because progeny are named after their father, and Joseph was considered the father of Christ, for that reason, James, too, although he was not the son of the Virgin, was nevertheless called the brother of the Lord. But this is false, because if the Lord did not want as mother anyone but a virgin entrusted to the care of a virgin, how would he have allowed her husband not to be a virgin and still endure it? Ideo alii dicunt, et in Glossa tangitur, quod Iacobus iste fuit filius Mariae Cleophae, quae fuit soror Virginis. Dicunt enim quod Anna mater Beatae Virginis nupsit primo Ioachim, ex quo peperit Mariam, matrem Domini, quo mortuo, nupsit Cleophae fratri Ioachim, ex quo peperit Mariam Cleophae, et ex hac natus est Iacobus Minor, Iudas et Simon, quo mortuo, dicitur quod nupsit adhuc cuidam tertio, qui vocatus est Salome, ex quo concepit et peperit aliam Mariam, quae dicta est Salome, et de hac natus est Iacobus Maior, et Ioannes, frater eius. Therefore others say, and this is mentioned in a Gloss, that James was the son of Mary of Cleophas, who was a sister of the Virgin. For they say that Anne, the mother of the Blessed Virgin, first married Joachim, of whom was born Mary, the mother of the Lord; but when Joachim died, she married Joachim’s brother, Cleophas, from whom she bore Mary of Cleophas, and from her were born James the Lesser, Jude and Simon. Then after Cleophas died, she married a third man who was called Salome, of whom she conceived and bore another Mary, called Salome, from whom were born James the Greater and his brother John. Sed huic opinioni dupliciter contradicit Hieronymus. Primo quia Salome non est nomen viri, ut etiam in Graeco apparet, sed est nomen mulieris, quae fuit soror Beatae Virginis, et ex Zebedaeo genuit Iacobum Maiorem et Ioannem, sicut Maria Cleophae ex Alphaeo genuit Iacobum Minorem, Iudam et Simonem. Dicitur autem frater Domini iste Iacobus, specialiter inter alios suos consobrinos, et hoc propter duo, primo propter similitudinem effigiei, quia similis erat Christo in facie; et propter similitudinem vitae, quia imitabatur Christum in moribus. Vel quia Alphaeus pater eius fuit de cognatione Ioseph. Et ideo quia Iudaei cognationis lineam texere solent a maribus, et Christus putabatur filius Ioseph, ut dicitur Lc. III, 23, ideo specialiter dictus est frater Domini, et non alii, qui solum ex matre coniuncti erant ei. Accipitur autem hic frater cognatione. But this opinion is denied on two counts by Jerome: first of all, because Salome is not a man’s name, as is plain in Greek, but the name of the woman who was the sister of the Blessed Virgin and who begot James the Greater and John, of Zebedee, just as Mary Cleophas begot James the Lesser, Jude and Simon, of Alpheus. Now this James is singled out from his other brothers and called the brother of the Lord for two reasons: first, because of a likeness in appearance, for he had a facial resemblance to Christ; and because of a likeness in their lives, for he imitated the manners of Christ. Or he is called the brother of Christ, because Alpheus, his father, was related to Joseph. Accordingly, because the Jews were accustomed to draw up the lines of ancestry on the father’s side, and Christ was considered the son of Joseph (Luke 3:23), he, rather than the others, was called the brother of the Lord, because they were related to him only on his mother’s side. Furthermore, brother is taken here in the sense of kinsman. Nam in Scriptura fratres aliquando dicuntur natura. Matth. I, 2: Iacob autem genuit Iudam et fratres eius. Cognatione, sicut omnes consanguinei sunt fratres. Gen. XIII, 8: ne, quaeso, sit iurgium inter te et me, fratres enim sumus. gente, et sic omnes unius linguae dicuntur fratres. Deut. XVII, 15: non poteris alterius gentis hominem regem facere, qui non sit frater tuus. Affectione, et sic omnes amici, et qui habent eumdem affectum dicuntur fratres. II Cor. II, 13: eo quod non invenerim Titum fratrem meum, et cetera. Religione, et sic omnes Christiani qui habent unam regulam vitae, dicuntur fratres. Matth. XXIII, v. 8: fratres estis, et cetera. Ps. CXXXII, 1: ecce quam bonum et quam iucundum habitare fratres in unum, et cetera. Communiter autem omnes homines dicuntur fratres, quia ab uno Deo gubernati et educati. Mal. II, 10: numquid non unus est Pater omnium nostrum, et cetera. For in the Scriptures some are called brothers, who are so by nature: Jacob begot Judas and his brothers (Matt 1:2). Others, who are kinsmen, such as blood relations, are brothers: let there be no quarrel, I beseech you, between me and you . . . for we are brothers (Gen 13:8). Others, who are so by race; hence all who speak the same tongue are called brothers: you may not make a man of another nation king, that is not your brother (Deut 17:15). Others, who are so by affection; hence all who are friends and who have the same love are called brothers: because I found not Titus my brother (2 Cor 2:13). Others who are so by religion; hence all Christians who have one rule of life are called brothers: for one is your master; and all you are brothers (Matt 23:8); behold how good and how pleasant it is for brothers to dwell together in unity (Ps 133:1). And in general, all men are called brothers, because they are ruled and protected by one God: have we not all one Father? (Mal 2:10). 49. Consequenter cum dicit quae autem scribo vobis, etc., confirmat per iuramentum quod dixerat, quasi dicat: ea quae nunc scribo vobis de me, ecce in manifesto sunt, ita quod satis constat quia non mentior. Et hoc dico, coram Deo, id est, teste Deo. 49. Then when he says, now the things which I write to you, behold, before God I do not lie, he confirms his statements with an oath. As if to say: the things I now write to you about myself, behold, are so well known that it is obvious I do not lie. And this I say before God, i.e., with God as my witness. Iurat autem hic Apostolus non ex levitate, sed ex necessitate istorum, quibus necessarium erat, ut crederent. Nisi enim hoc faceret, non crederent ei. II Cor. II, 17: coram Deo in Christo loquimur. Rom. I, 9: testis est mihi Deus, et cetera. The Apostle here takes an oath not for a slight reason, but for the sake of those for whom it was necessary, that they might believe. For had he not sworn, they would not have believed him. Before God, in Christ we speak (2 Cor 2:17); God is my witness (Rom 1:9). Quid ergo dicit Dominus: sit sermo vester, est, est; non, non; quod amplius est, a malo est? But what does the Lord say? Let your speech be: yes, yes; no, no. And that which is over and above these is of evil (Matt 5:37). Dicendum est, quod est a malo eius qui non credit, vel a malo poenae quo cogitur quis iurare. The answer to this is that it is of the evil of him who does not believe, or of the evil of punishment which compels one to swear. 50. Consequenter cum dicit deinde veni, etc., ostendit quomodo fuit approbatus ab aliis ecclesiis Iudaeae. Ubi tria facit. Primo ostendit ubi fuit conversatus, quia in Cilicia. Unde dicit deinde veni in partes Syriae et Ciliciae, scilicet patriae; unde etiam fuit raptus: quia dicitur Act. XXII, 3: erat autem Paulus a Tharso Ciliciae, et cetera. 50. Then when he says, afterwards, I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia, he shows how he was approved by the other churches of Judea. Here he does three things: first he shows where he lived, namely in Cilicia. Hence he says, then I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia, i.e., his native land, where he was caught up into paradise: because it is said: Paul was born at Tarsus in Cilicia (Acts 22:3). Secundo quomodo fuit cognitus ab eis, quia non facie, sed auditu tantum et fama. Unde dicit eram enim ignotus facie ecclesiis Iudaeae quae erant in Christo, id est, in fide Christi. II Cor. VI, 8: sicut qui ignoti et cogniti. Unde patet quod ecclesiae Iudaeae non docuerunt me. Tantum enim auditum habebant, scilicet de me per famam, quoniam qui persequebatur, et cetera. Second, how he was known by the others, namely, not by sight but by report and reputation. Hence he says, I was unknown by face to the churches of Judea, which were in Christ, i.e., in the faith of Christ: as unknown and yet known (2 Cor 6:8). Hence it is evident that the churches of Judea did not teach me. But they had heard only, i.e., of me, from reports that he who persecuted us in times past, now preaches the faith which once he impugned. Tertio quomodo approbatus est ab eis, quia in me glorificabant Deum, id est, in mea conversione magnificum probabant, qui gratia sua me convertit. Is. XLIII, 20: glorificabit me bestia, et cetera. Third, how he was approved by them, because they glorified God in me, i.e., in my conversion they glorified him who converted me by his grace: the beast of the field shall glorify me (Isa 43:20). Caput 2 Chapter 2 Contentio de Lege Controversy about the Law Lectio 1 Lecture 1 Praedicens in Jerusalem Preaching in Jerusalem 2:1 Deinde post annos quatuordecim, iterum ascendi Jerosolymam cum Barnaba, assumpto et Tito. [n. 51] 2:1 Then, after fourteen years, I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. [n. 51]