Filii et haeres
Sons and heirs
4:6 Quoniam autem estis filii, misit Deus Spiritum Filii sui in corda vestra, clamantem: Abba, Pater. [n. 210]
4:6 And because you are sons, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying: Abba, Father. [n. 210]
4:7 Itaque jam non est servus, sed filius: quod si filius, et haeres per Deum. [n. 216]
4:7 Therefore, now he is not a servant, but a son. And if a son, an heir also through God. [n. 216]
210. Supra Apostolus ostendit beneficium Iudaeis exhibitum, hic ostendit hoc beneficium etiam ad gentiles pertinere. Et
210. Above, the Apostle revealed the gift bestowed on the Jews; here he shows that this gift pertains also to the gentiles.
primo proponit ipsum beneficium;
First, he mentions the gift;
secundo modum adipiscendi, ibi misit Deus Spiritum, etc.;
second, the means of obtaining it, at God has sent the Spirit;
tertio manifestat eius fructum, ibi itaque iam non est, et cetera.
third, he discloses the fruit of this gift, at therefore, now he is not a servant.
211. Dicit ergo, quod beneficium adoptionis filiorum Dei non solum pertinet ad eos qui sub lege erant sed etiam ad gentiles. Et ideo dicit: quoniam estis filii Dei, etc., id est quod sitis filii Dei, ista de causa factum est, quia non solum Iudaei, sed etiam omnes alii, qui in Filium Dei credunt, adoptantur in filios, et cetera. Io. I, 12: dedit eis potestatem filios Dei fieri, et cetera.
211. He says therefore that the gift of adoption of sons pertains not only to those who were under the law but to the gentiles as well. Hence he says: because you are sons of God, i.e., you are the sons of God, because not only the Jews but all others who believe in the Son of God are adopted as sons: he gave them power to be made sons of God, to them that believe in his name (John 1:12).
212. Modus autem adipiscendi illud donum est per missionem Spiritus Filii Dei in corda vestra. Augustinus autem dicit, quod Christus in carne existens praedicavit Iudaeis principaliter, gentibus autem perfunctorie. Rom. XV, 8: dico Christum Iesum ministrum fuisse circumcisionis, et cetera. Et ideo quidquid pertinet ad statum Iudaeorum, convenienter attribuitur Christo.
212. The manner in which that gift is obtained is by the sending of the Spirit of the Son of God into your hearts. Augustine says, however, that Christ, existing in the flesh, preached in a principal manner to the Jews, but to the gentiles as a matter of course: for I say that Christ Jesus was minister of the circumcision for the truth of God to confirm the promises made unto the fathers (Rom 15:8). Accordingly, whatever pertains to the condition of the Jews is fittingly adapted to Christ.
Et quia possent dicere isti, Galatas non esse adoptatos in filios Dei, cum Christus ex eis carnem non sumpserit, nec eis praedicaverit, unde non videbantur in aliquo Christo coniungi, ideo Apostolus modum huius adoptionis demonstrans, dicit quod et si non fuerunt coniuncti Christo secundum carnem, scilicet quantum ad gentem, neque secundum praedicationem, tamen fuerunt coniuncti per Spiritum, et ex hoc adoptati sunt in filios Dei. Unde conversio gentilium specialiter attribuitur Spiritui Sancto. Et ideo Petrus, quando fuit reprehensus a Iudaeis, quod ivisset praedicare gentibus, excusavit se per Spiritum Sanctum, dicens, Act. XI, 12, non posse resistere Spiritui Sancto, cuius instinctu hoc fecerat. Et ideo, quia misit Deus, Pater, Spiritum Filii sui in corda nostra, Iudaeorum scilicet et gentium, coniungimur Christo, et per hoc adoptamur in filios Dei.
And because they might have said that the Galatians had not been adopted as sons of God, since Christ did not assume flesh from them or preach to them, for that reason the Apostle, elucidating the manner of this adoption, says that although they were not related to Christ according to the flesh, i.e., according to race, or by reason of preaching, yet they were united to him through the Spirit and thereby adopted and made sons of God. Hence the conversion of the gentiles is in a special way attributed to the Holy Spirit. Consequently, Peter, when he was blamed by the Jews for going to preach to the gentiles, excused himself through the Holy Spirit, saying that he could not resist the Holy Spirit by whose inspiration he had done this (Acts 11). And so, because God the Father sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, i.e., the hearts of the Jews and gentiles, we are united to Christ and by that fact are adopted as sons of God.
213. Sed sciendum est, quod si alicubi in Scriptura invenitur Spiritus Sanctus mitti a Patre, Io. XIV, 26, Paracletus autem Spiritus Sanctus, quem mittet Pater, etc., aliquando vero a Filio, Io. XV, 26, cum venerit Paracletus, quem ego mittam vobis, etc., nihilominus tamen Spiritus Sanctus communis est Patri et Filio, et ab utroque procedit et ab utroque datur. Et ideo est, quod ubicumque invenitur quod Pater mittat Spiritum Sanctum, fit mentio de Filio, sicut in praemissa auctoritate dicitur quem mittet Pater in nomine meo. Et, similiter, ubi dicitur mitti a Filio, fit mentio de Patre; unde dicit quem mittam vobis a Patre. Et etiam hic cum dicit misit Deus, Pater, Spiritum Sanctum, statim fit mentio de Filio, cum dicit Filii sui.
213. But it should be noted that if in certain passages of Scripture the Holy Spirit is said to be sent by the Father—but the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name (John 14:26)—and in others to be sent by the Son—but when the Paraclete comes, whom I will send you from the Father (John 15:26)—the Holy Spirit is nonetheless common to Father and Son and proceeds from both and is sent by both. Accordingly, wherever it is said that the Father sends the Holy Spirit, mention is made of the Son, as in the aforesaid passage: whom the Father will send in my name; and where he is said to be sent by the Son, mention is made of the Father; hence he says, whom I will send to you from the Father (John 15:26). Even here, when he says, God the Father has sent the Holy Spirit, mention is made at once of the Son, for he adds, of his Son.
Nec refert si alicubi dicatur Spiritus Sanctus solum a Patre procedere, quia, ex quo Filius mittit eum, manifestum est quod ab ipso procedit. Unde Spiritus Sanctus dicitur Spiritus Filii, sicut mittentis, et sicut a quo procedit, et sicut a quo habet Spiritus Sanctus quidquid habet, sicut et a Patre. Io. c. XVI, 14: ille me clarificabit, quia de meo accipiet, et cetera.
Nor does it matter that at times the Holy Spirit is only said to proceed from the Father, for the fact that the Son sends him shows that he proceeds from him. Accordingly, the Holy Spirit is called the Spirit of the Son as of the one sending and as of the one from whom he proceeds, as well as of the one from whom the Holy Spirit has whatever he has, just as of the Father: he shall glorify me, because he shall receive of mine (John 16:14).
214. Dicit autem in corda, quia duplex est generatio. Una carnalis, quae fit per semen carnale missum in locum generationis: quod quidem semen, licet sit quantitate parvum, tamen virtute continet totum.
214. But he says, into your hearts, because there is a twofold generation: one is carnal and comes about through fleshly seed sent to the place of generation. This seed, small as it is, contains in effect the whole.
Alia est spiritualis, quae fit per semen spirituale transmissum in locum spiritualis generationis; qui quidem locus est mens seu cor hominis, quia in filios Dei generamur per mentis renovationem. Semen autem spirituale est gratia Spiritus Sancti. I Io. ult.: qui natus est ex Deo, non peccat: quoniam generatio Dei conservat eum, et cetera. Et hoc semen est virtute continens totam perfectionem beatitudinis. Unde dicitur pignus et arra beatitudinis Ephes. I, 14; Ez. XXXVI, 26: dabo spiritum novum, et cetera.
The other is spiritual, which comes about by spiritual seed transmitted to the place of spiritual generation, i.e., man’s mind or heart, because they are born sons of God through a renewal of the mind. Furthermore, the spiritual seed is the grace of the Holy Spirit: whoever is born of God does not sin: but the generation of God preserves him and the wicked one does not touch him (1 John 5:18). This seed contains, in effect, the whole perfection of beatitude; hence it is called the pledge and deposit of beatitude (Eph 1:14); I will put a new spirit within you (Ezek 36:26).
215. Clamantem, id est clamare facientem, Abba, Pater, non magnitudine vocis, sed magnitudine et fervore affectus. Tunc enim clamamus Abba, Pater, quando per affectum accendimur calore Spiritus Sancti ad desiderium Dei. Rom. VIII, 15: non accepistis spiritum servitutis, et cetera.
215. Crying, i.e., making us cry, Abba, Father, not with a loudness of voice but with a great fervor of love. For we cry, Abba, Father, when our affections are kindled by the warmth of the Holy Spirit to desire God: you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear; but you have received the Spirit of adoption of sons, whereby we cry: Abba, Father (Rom 8:15).
Abba, Pater, et cetera. Idem autem est in significatione, abba, quod est Hebraeum, et pater, quod est Latinum, et patir, quod est Graecum. Et utrumque ponit ut ostendat quod gratia Spiritus Sancti communiter se habet quantum ad utrumque populum, quantum est ex se.
Abba, Father. Abba in Hebrew and pater in Latin and patir in Greek all have the same meaning. And he makes mention of both languages [Hebrew and Greek] to show that the grace of the Holy Spirit, as such, is related in a common way to both peoples.
216. Consequenter cum dicit itaque iam non est servus, etc., ponit fructum huius beneficii.
216. Then when he says, therefore, now he is not a servant, but a son, he mentions the fruit of this gift.
Et primo quantum ad remotionem omnis mali, a quo liberamur per adoptionem Spiritus Sancti et haec est liberatio a servitute. Et quantum ad hoc dicit itaque, scilicet quia Spiritus clamat in nobis, Pater, iam, a tempore gratiae, non est aliquis nostrum, qui in Christum credimus, servus, in timore scilicet serviens. Io. XV, 15: iam non dicam vos servos, sed amicos, et cetera. Rom. VIII, 15: non accepistis spiritum servitutis, et cetera. Sed est filius. Rom. VIII, 16: ipse Spiritus testimonium reddit spiritui nostro, quod sumus filii Dei.
First, as to removing all evil, from which we are freed through adoption by the Holy Spirit. This is freedom from bondage. With respect to this he says: therefore, i.e., because the Spirit cries Father in us, now, from the time of grace, he, i.e., each one of us who believes in Christ, is not a servant, i.e., serving in fear—I will not now call you servants but friends (John 15:15); you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear: but you have received the Spirit of adoption of sons (Rom 8:15)—but a son: for the Spirit himself gives testimony to our spirit that we are the sons of God (Rom 8:16).
Licet enim conditione servi simus, quia dicitur Lc. XVII, 10: cum feceritis omnia quae praecepta sunt vobis, dicite: servi inutiles sumus, tamen non sumus servi malevoli, ex timore scilicet servientes, quia tali servo debentur tortura et compedes; sed sumus servi boni et fideles, et amore servientes, et ideo libertatem per Filium consequimur. Io. VIII, v. 36: si Filius vos liberaverit, vere liberi eritis.
For although we be in the condition of servants, because it is said in Luke: when you shall have done all these things that are commanded you, say: we are unprofitable servants (Luke 17:10), we are not ill-disposed servants, i.e., serving in fear—for such a servant is deserving of torture and chains—but we are good and faithful servants, serving out of love. For that reason we obtain freedom through the Son: if, therefore, the Son shall make you free, you shall be free indeed (John 8:36).
217. Secundo, ponit fructum quantum ad consecutionem omnis boni, et quantum ad hoc dicit quod si filius, et haeres per Deum, Rom. VIII, 17: si filii et haeredes, haeredes quidem Dei, et cetera. Haec autem haereditas est plenitudo omnis boni, cum nihil aliud sit quam ipse Deus, secundum illud Ps. XV, 5: Dominus pars haereditatis meae, et cetera. Gen. c. XV, 1: dixit ad Abraham: ego ero merces tua magna nimis, et cetera.
217. Second, he mentions the fruit as to its effect of attaining every good. With regard to this he says: and, if a son, an heir also through God: and if sons, heirs also: heirs indeed of God and joint heirs with Christ (Rom 8:17). Now this inheritance is the fullness of all good, for it is nothing other than God himself, according to a psalm: the Lord is the portion of my inheritance (Ps 16:5). He said to Abraham: I am your reward, exceedingly great (Gen 15:1).
Dicit autem per Deum, quia sicut Iudaei haereditatem adepti sunt per Dei repromissionem et iustitiam, ita et gentiles per Deum, id est per Dei misericordiam. Rom. XV, 9: gentes autem super misericordia honorare Deum, et cetera.
He says, through God, because as the Jews obtained the inheritance through the promise and justice of God, so the gentiles too received it through God, i.e., through the mercy of God: but the gentiles are to glorify God for his mercy (Rom 15:9).
Vel per Deum, id est per Dei operationem. Is. XXVI, 12: omnia opera nostra operatus es in nobis, Domine.
Or, through God, i.e., through the working of God: you have wrought all our works for us, O Lord (Isa 26:12).
Reversio ad idolos
Reversion to false gods
4:8 Sed tunc quidem ignorantes Deum, iis, qui natura non sunt dii, serviebatis. [n. 218]
4:8 But then indeed, not knowing God, you served those who, by nature, are not gods. [n. 218]
4:9 Nunc autem cum cognoveritis Deum, immo cogniti sitis a Deo: quomodo convertimini iterum ad infirma et egena elementa, quibus denuo servire vultis? [n. 220]
4:9 But now, after you have known God, or rather are known by God: how do you turn again to the weak and needy elements which you desire to serve again? [n. 220]
4:10 Dies observatis, et menses, et tempora, et annos. [n. 225]
4:10 You observe days and months and times and years. [n. 225]
4:11 Timeo vos, ne forte sine causa laboraverim in vobis. [n. 226]
4:11 I am afraid of you, lest perhaps I have labored in vain among you. [n. 226]
218. Posita dignitate beneficii gratiae, et ostensa per exemplum humanum, hic Apostolus arguit Galatas, qui hanc gratiam contemnebant, utpote ingrati tanto beneficio. Et
218. Having disclosed the pre-eminence of the gift of grace and explained it with a human example, the Apostle here censures the Galatians, who scorned this grace, for being ungrateful for so great a gift.
primo arguit eos de ingratitudine;
First, he censures them for ingratitude;
secundo excusat se, quod hoc non facit ex odio et livore, ibi fratres, obsecro vos, non me laesistis, et cetera.
second, he excuses himself, explaining that he does not do this out of hatred or spite, at brethren, I beseech you (Gal 4:12).
Circa primum tria facit.
As to the first he does three things:
Primo commemorat statum pristinum;
first, he calls to mind their earlier state;
secundo extollit et commendat beneficium susceptum, ibi nunc autem cum cognoveritis, etc.;
second, he extols and commends the gift they have received, at but now, after that you have known God;
tertio exaggerat peccatum commissum, ibi quomodo convertimini, et cetera.
third, he amplifies the sin committed: how do you turn again to the weak and needy elements?