Lectio 5 Lecture 5 Receptio Pauli Galatis The Galatians’ reception of Paul 4:12 Estote sicut ego, quia et ego sicut vos: fratres, obsecro vos. Nihil me laesistis. [n. 228] 4:12 Be as I am, because I also am as you: brethren, I beseech you. You have not injured me at all. [n. 228] 4:13 Scitis autem quia per infirmitatem carnis evangelizavi vobis jampridem: [n. 230] 4:13 And you know how, through infirmity of the flesh, I preached the Gospel to you heretofore: [n. 230] 4:14 et tentationem vestram in carne mea non sprevistis, [n. 232] neque respuistis: sed sicut angelum Dei excepistis me, sicut Christum Jesum. [n. 233] 4:14 And your temptation in my flesh you did not despise, [n. 232] nor reject: but received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus. [n. 233] 4:15 Ubi est ergo beatitudo vestra? testimonium enim perhibeo vobis, quia, si fieri posset, oculos vestros eruissetis, et dedissetis mihi. [n. 234] 4:15 Where then is your blessedness? For I bear you witness that, if it could be done, you would have plucked out your own eyes and would have given them to me. [n. 234] 4:16 Ergo inimicus vobis factus sum, verum dicens vobis? [n. 235] 4:16 Am I then become your enemy, because I tell you the truth? [n. 235] 4:17 Aemulantur vos non bene: sed excludere vos volunt, ut illos aemulemini. [n. 238] 4:17 They are not zealous in your regard in a good way: but they would exclude you, that you might be zealous for them. [n. 238] 4:18 Bonum autem aemulamini in bono semper: et non tantum cum praesens sum apud vos. [n. 240] 4:18 But be zealous for that which is good in a good thing always: and not only when I am present with you. [n. 240] 228. Postquam reprehendit Apostolus Galatas, hic ostendit se hoc non ex odio fecisse. Et 228. After censuring the Galatians, the Apostle here shows that he did not do so out of hatred. And primo ostendit se non habere veram causam odii ad eos ullam; first, he shows that he has no true cause of hatred toward them; secundo quod nec habet causam aestimatam, ibi ergo inimicus factus sum vobis, etc.; second, that he has no supposed cause, at am I then become your enemy; tertio assignat causam praemissae reprehensionis, ibi filioli mei, et cetera. third, he tells precisely why he rebuked them, at my little children (Gal 4:19). Circa primum duo facit. As to the first, he does two things: Primo ostendit, quod non habet causam odii ad eos; first, he shows that he has no reason for hating them; secundo quod magis habet causam amoris, ibi scitis autem quod per infirmitatem, et cetera. second, that contrariwise he has reason for loving them, at and you know how, through infirmity of the flesh. 229. Circa primum notandum est, quod consuetudo est boni pastoris in correctione subditorum asperis dulcia miscere, ne scilicet ex nimia severitate frangantur. Lc. X, 34 legitur de Samaritano, quod in curatione sauciati infudit vinum et oleum. E contra, de malis pastoribus dicitur Ez. XXXIV, 4: cum austeritate imperabatis eis. 229. With respect to the first it should be noted that it is customary for a good pastor in correcting his subjects to mingle gentleness with severity, lest they be discouraged by too great severity. For it is written in Luke 10 that the Samaritan in caring for the wounded man poured in oil and wine. On the other hand, it is written of evil pastors in Ezekiel: you ruled over them with vigor (Ezek 34:4). Et ideo Apostolus sicut bonus praelatus ostendit, quod non ex odio increpat eos, blande loquendo eis quantum ad tria. Primo quantum ad caritatis nomen. Unde dicit fratres, Ps. CXXXII, 1: ecce quam bonum et quam iucundum habitare fratres in unum. Secundo quantum ad modestiae verbum. Unde dicit obsecro vos, Prov. XVIII, 23: cum obsecrationibus loquitur pauper. Tertio quantum ad excusationem. Unde dicit nihil me laesistis, et ego non sum talis, quod habeam odio illos, qui me non offendunt. Therefore, as a good prelate, the Apostle shows that he does not rebuke them in a spirit of hatred, for his words are gentle in three respects. First, as to the charitable name he uses, for he says, brethren: behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity (Ps 133:1). Second, as to his suppliant language, when he says: I beseech you: the poor will speak with supplications (Prov 18:28). Third, as to freeing them of blame; hence he says, you have not injured me at all, and I am not the type of person who hates those who do not offend me. 230. Secundo ostendit se ad eos habere causam amoris, cum dicit scitis autem, quod per infirmitatem, et cetera. Ubi tria ponit ex quibus homines se diligere consueverunt. Primum est mutuum societatis auxilium, et ex hoc etiam amor in hominibus confirmatur, secundum illud Lc. XXII, v. 28: vos estis, qui permansistis mecum, et cetera. Et quantum ad hoc dicit scitis autem, etc., ubi 230. Second, he shows that he has reason to love them, when he says: you know how, through infirmity of the flesh, I preached the Gospel to you heretofore. Here he touches on three things that usually cause men to love one another. The first is the mutual help of fellowship, and this is also the cause of love being consolidated among men, according to Luke: and you are they who have continued with me in my temptations (Luke 22:28). Touching upon this he says: and you know how, through infirmity of the flesh, I preached the Gospel to you heretofore. Herein he does two things: primo commemorat tribulationem quam passus est apud eos; first, he recalls the tribulation he suffered among them; secundo ostendit quomodo ei astiterunt et tentationem vestram, et cetera. second, he shows how they stood by him and your temptation. 231. Dicit ergo quantum ad primum: dico quod nihil me laesistis, imo servivistis mihi. Scitis enim, id est recordari poteritis, quod evangelizavi vobis iampridem, id est transacto tempore, per infirmitatem carnis, id est cum infirmitate et afflictione carnis meae, vel cum multis tribulationibus quas patiebar a Iudaeis (qui sunt de carne mea) me persequentibus. I Cor. II, 3: cum timore et tremore multo fui apud vos. II Cor. XII, 9: virtus in infirmitate perficitur. 231. He says, therefore, with respect to the first: I say that you have not injured me at all; rather you have come to my aid. For you know, i.e., are able to recall, how I preached the Gospel to you heretofore, i.e., in times past, through infirmity of the flesh, i.e., with infirmity and affliction in my flesh, or with the many tribulations I suffered from the Jews who are of my flesh and persecuted me: and I was with you in weakness and in fear and in much tribulation (1 Cor 2:3); power is made perfect in infirmity (2 Cor 12:9). 232. Et licet haec infirmitas fuerit causa spernendi me, et tentationis vestrae, secundum illud Zach. XIII, 7: percute pastorem, et dispergentur oves, etc., vos tamen tentationem vestram, quae erat in carne mea, id est tribulationem meam, quae erat vobis causa tentationis, non sprevistis. Eccli. XI, 2: non spernas hominem in visu suo. Quia, ut dicit Dominus Lc. X, 2: qui vos spernit, me spernit, et cetera. Neque respuistis doctrinam meam et me, quin velletis esse socii tribulationum. Is. XXXIII, 1: vae qui spernis, nonne et ipse sperneris, et cetera. 232. And although this infirmity might have been reason for scorning me and a cause of temptation for you, according to Zacharias: strike the shepherd and the sheep will be scattered (Zech 13:7): nevertheless, your temptation, which was in my flesh, i.e., my tribulation, which was a source of temptation for you, you did not despise: do not despise a man for his look (Sir 11:2) because as the Lord says in Luke: he that despises you, despises me (Luke 10:16). Nor did you reject me and my teaching, but you were willing to share my tribulations: woe to you that despise; shall you not also be despised? (Isa 33:1). 233. Secundum autem, quod confirmat inter homines dilectionem, est mutuus amor et mutua dilectio ad invicem, secundum illud Prov. VIII, 17: ego diligentes me diligo, et cetera. Et quantum ad hoc dicit sed sicut angelum Dei excepistis me, id est ita honorifice sicut nuntium verba Dei nuntiantem. I Thess. II, v. 13: cum accepissetis a nobis verbum auditus Dei, et cetera. Et inde est, quod praedicatores dicuntur angeli. Mal. II, 7: legem requirent ex ore eius, et cetera. 233. The second thing that strengthens love among men is mutual love and affection toward one another: I love them that love me (Prov 8:17). As to this he says: but you received me as an angel of God, i.e., with the honor accorded to a messenger announcing God’s words: when you received of us the word of the hearing of God, you received it not as the word of men but (as it is indeed) the word of God (1 Thess 2:13). For this reason preachers are called angels: they shall seek the law at the priest’s mouth, because he is the angel of the Lord of hosts (Mal 2:7). Et non solum sicut angelum recepistis, sed sicut Iesum Christum, id est ac si Christus ipse venisset, qui Christus profecto in ipso ad eos venerat, et in eo loquebatur, secundum illud II Cor. ult.: an experimentum quaeritis eius, qui in me loquitur Christi? Matth. X, 40: qui vos recipit, me recipit, et cetera. And not only as an angel did you receive me, but even as Christ Jesus, i.e., as though Christ himself had come, who, indeed, had come to them in him and spoke in him: do you seek a proof of Christ that speaks in me? (2 Cor 13:3). He that receives you receives me (Matt 10:40). Deinde increpat eos, quod sic deteriorati erant. Unde dicit ubi est ergo beatitudo vestra? Quasi dicat: nonne ex hoc homines beatificabant vos, quod me honorastis, et praedicationem meam recepistis? Iob IV, v. 6: ubi est timor tuus, et fortitudo tua, patientia tua, et perfectio viarum tuarum? But he then rebukes them for their change of heart; hence he says, where then is your blessedness? As if to say: did not men think you blessed for honoring me and accepting my preaching? Where is your fear, your fortitude, your patience and the perfection of your ways? (Job 4:6) 234. Tertium, quod amorem confirmat est mutua beneficentia. Et quantum ad hoc dicit testimonium perhibeo, quod si fieri posset, id est iuste fieri potuisset illud enim fieri potest, quod iuste fit vel ad utilitatem Ecclesiae fuisset, oculos eruissetis et dedissetis mihi, quasi dicat: ita me diligebatis, quod non solum mihi vestra exteriora, sed etiam oculos vestros dedissetis mihi. 234. The third thing that strengthens love is doing good to one another. As to this he says: for I bear you witness that, if it could be done, i.e., had been just to do so (for that can be done which it is just to do) or had been to the advantage of the Church, you would have plucked out your own eyes and would have given them to me. As if to say: you loved me so much that you would have given me not only your external goods but your very eyes. 235. Consequenter cum dicit ergo inimicus factus sum vobis, etc., ponit causam aestimati odii, et 235. Then when he says: am I then become your enemy, because I tell you the truth?, he states the cause of a supposed hatred. primo unam ex parte Apostoli; First, the cause on the part of the Apostle; secundo aliam ex parte pseudo, ibi aemulantur vos, et cetera. second, on the part of the false brethren, at they are not zealous in your regard in a good way. 236. Dicit ergo: ex quo mihi tot bona fecistis, estne credendum, quod factus sim inimicus vobis, verum dicens vobis? 236. He says therefore: if you have done me so much good, are you to believe that I am become your enemy because I tell you the truth? Verbum autem hoc, quod dicit inimicus, dupliciter potest intelligi. Uno scilicet modo, quod ipse habeat eos odio, et isto modo legitur sic tunc: factus sum inimicus, id est habeo vos odio. Et sic hoc quod sequitur verum dicens vobis, potest aestimari ut signum odii, quod tamen est signum dilectionis, scilicet dicere verum, suo tamen loco et tempore. The word enemy used here can be interpreted in two ways: in one way as meaning that he hates them; in this case the interpretation is have I become your enemy, i.e., do I hate you? Hence what follows, namely, because I tell you the truth, can be taken as an indication of hatred, even though telling the truth at the proper time and place is a sign of love. Alio modo potest intelligi inimicus passive, scilicet quod ipse habeatur odio ab eis. Et tunc sic legitur: ego factus sum inimicus vobis, id est habetis me odio; et hoc ideo, quia dico vobis verum, ut sic dicens verum vobis ponatur, ut sit causa odii. Nam homines veritatem dicentes, a malis odio habentur. Veritas enim odium parit. Amos c. V, 10: odio habuerunt in porta corripientem, et cetera. In another way, the word enemy can be taken in a passive sense, i.e., so that he is hated by them; then have I become your enemy, i.e., do you hate me? and this because I tell you the truth, so that telling the truth is set down as the cause of hatred. For men who tell the truth are hated by evil men, since the truth engenders hatred: they have hated him that rebukes in the gate: and I have abhorred him that speaks perfectly (Amos 5:10). 237. Sed contra est quod dicitur Prov. c. XXVIII, 23: qui corripit hominem, gratiam postea inveniet apud eum magis quam qui per linguae blandimenta decipit. 237. But on the other hand, it is said in Proverbs: he who rebukes a man shall afterward find favor with him more than he who by a flattering tongue deceives him (Prov 28:23). Sed dicendum est, quod solutio haec potest haberi ex hoc quod dicitur Prov. IX, 8: noli arguere derisorem, ne oderit te; argue sapientem, et diliget te. Bonitatis enim signum est, si iste qui corripitur corripientem diligit, et, e converso, si eum oderit, signum est malitiae. Cum enim homo naturaliter odiat illud quod contrariatur ei quod diligit, si tu odis eum qui corrigit te de malo, manifestum est quod malum diligis. Si vero diligis eum, ostendis te odire peccata. Quia enim homines a principio cum corripiuntur, per amorem ad peccata afficiuntur: inde est, quod in principio peccator corripientem odit, sed postquam iam correctus est et affectum peccati deposuit, corripientem diligit. Et ideo signanter in proposita auctoritate dicitur, quod postea inveniet gratiam apud eum. I answer that the solution to this can be gathered from what is said in Proverbs: rebuke not a scorner, lest he hate you. Rebuke a wise man and he will love you (Prov 9:9). For if the one corrected loves the corrector, it is a sign of virtue; conversely, it is a sign of malice if he should hate him. For since a man naturally hates what is contrary to what he loves, then if you hate one who corrects you for evil, it is obvious that you love the evil; but if you love him, you indicate that you hate sin. For at first, when men are corrected, they are attached to their sins—that is why a sinner’s first reaction is to hate the one correcting him; but after the correction, he puts aside his attachment to sin and loves the one correcting him. And therefore the passage from Proverbs expressly says that later he will find favor with him. 238. Consequenter cum dicit aemulantur vos, etc., ponit aliam causam aestimatam, ex parte scilicet pseudo. Et 238. Then when he says, they are not zealous in your regard in a good way, he states another supposed cause, namely, on the part of the false brethren.