Dolor Pauli super Galatas
Paul’s sorrow over the Galatians
4:19 Filioli mei, quos iterum parturio, donec formetur Christus in vobis: [n. 241]
4:19 My little children, of whom I am in labor again, until Christ be formed in you. [n. 241]
4:20 vellem autem esse apud vos modo, et mutare vocem meam: quoniam confundor in vobis. [n. 245]
4:20 And I would willingly be present with you now and change my voice: because I am ashamed for you. [n. 245]
241. Supra Apostolus removit falsam causam correctionis Galatarum, hic consequenter Apostolus dictae correctionis assignat causam veram, quae est dolor de eorum imperfectione. Et ideo
241. Above, the Apostle dismissed the false cause of his correcting the Galatians; here he discloses the true cause, which is sorrow for their imperfection.
primo dolorem cordis ex quo loquebatur, exprimit;
First, he expresses the heartfelt sorrow of which he spoke;
secundo ponit desiderium de manifestatione huius doloris, ibi vellem autem, etc.;
second, he states a desire to manifest this sorrow, at and I would willingly;
tertio ponit causam doloris, ibi quoniam confundor, et cetera.
third, he gives the cause of the sorrow, at because I am ashamed for you.
242. Dolor autem iste ex caritate procedebat, quia dolebat de peccatis eorum. Ps. CXVIII, 158: vidi praevaricantes, et tabescebam, et cetera. Et ideo verbum caritatis proponit dicens filioli mei.
242. This sorrow proceeded from charity, because he grieved for their sins: I beheld the transgressors and I pined away; because they did not keep your word (Ps 118:158). And so he addresses them in words of charity, saying, my little children.
Signanter autem non eos filios vocat, sed filiolos, ut designet eorum imperfectionem, qua diminuti sunt. I Cor. III, 1: tamquam parvulis in Christo, et cetera.
He purposely does not call them sons, but little children, to indicate the imperfection whereby they had become small: as unto little ones in Christ, I gave you milk to drink, not meat (1 Cor 3:1).
243. Sed notandum est, quod puer dum est in parturitione, dicitur filiolus. Et isti tales erant, quia indigebant iterata parturitione, cum tamen parentes carnales semel tantum parturiant filios. Et ideo dicit eis quos iterum parturio.
243. It should be noted that during birth, a child is called a little one. And this is what they were, because they needed to be born again, even though parents according to the flesh bring forth their child only once. Accordingly he says to them, of whom I am in labor again.
Nam semel eos parturierat in prima conversione, sed quia iam aversi erant ab eo, qui eos vocavit in aliud evangelium, indigebant quod iterato parturiret eos. Ideo dicit parturio, id est cum labore et dolore ad lucem fidei reduco. In quo apparet dolor Apostoli. Unde conversio hominis, partus dicitur. Iob XXXIX, 3: incurvantur ad foetum et pariunt. Apoc. XII, 2: clamabat parturiens, et cruciabatur ut pariat. Et inde est quod Apostolus ex dolore dure eos corrigit, sicut mulier ex dolore partus dure clamat. Is. XLII, v. 14: quasi parturiens loquar, et cetera.
For he was in labor of them during their first conversion; but since they had now turned from the one who called them, to another gospel, they needed to be brought forth anew. Hence he says, I am in labor, i.e., with labor and pain I bring them forth into the light of faith. In these words the Apostle manifests his grief. Hence a man’s conversion is called a birth: they bow themselves to bring forth young (Job 39:3); and being with child she cried, travailing in birth and was in pain to be delivered (Rev 12:2). Therefore it is because of his pain that he rebukes them so sharply, as a woman cries aloud because of the pains of childbirth: I will speak now as a woman in labor (Isa 42:14).
244. Et ratio iteratae parturitionis est, quia non estis perfecte formati. Unde dicit donec Christus formetur in vobis, id est recipiatis similitudinem eius, quam vestro vitio perdidistis. Et non dicit, formemini in Christo sed formetur Christus in vobis, ut hoc terribilius insonet auribus eorum.
244. The reason for the iterated travail is that you are not perfectly formed. Hence he says: until Christ be formed in you, i.e., until you receive his likeness, which you have lost through your sin. He does not say, that you may be formed in Christ, but until Christ be formed in you, to make it resound more terrifyingly on their ears.
Nam Christus per fidem formatam formatur in corde. Eph. III, 17: habitare Christum per fidem, et cetera. Sed quando quis non habet fidem formatam, iam in eo moritur Christus. II Petr. I, 19: donec dies illucescat, et cetera. Et sic secundum hominis profectum in fide, Christus in homine proficit, et, e converso, secundum defectum deficit. Quando ergo fides in homine efficitur informis per peccatum, Christus non est in eo formatus.
For Christ is formed in the heart by formed faith: that Christ might dwell in your hearts by faith (Eph 3:17). But when one does not have formed faith, Christ has already died in him: until the day dawn and the day star arise in your hearts (2 Pet 1:19). Thus Christ grows in a man according to his progress in the faith; conversely, as it diminishes, he recedes. Therefore, when the faith of a man is rendered unformed by sin, Christ is not formed in him.
Et ideo, quia in istis non erat fides formata, indigebant iterum parturiri, donec Christus in eis formaretur per fidem formatam, scilicet quae per dilectionem operatur.
And so, because there was not a formed faith in them, they needed to be brought forth from the womb again until Christ be formed in them through faith, i.e., formed faith, which works through love.
Vel donec Christus formetur in vobis, id est, formosus aliis per vos appareat.
Or, until Christ be formed in you, i.e., until Christ appear through you as finely formed to others.
245. Posset autem aliquis dicere: absens tu dicis talia, sed si esses apud nos, haec non diceres, secundum illud II Cor. X, v. 10: praesentia quidem corporis infirma, et sermo contemptibilis, et cetera. Et ideo ponit desiderium manifestandi dolorem suum asperius, dicens vellem autem esse apud vos modo et mutare vocem meam, quasi dicat: modo blandis verbis utor, vocans vos fratres et filios in absentia; sed si essem praesens, asperius corriperem. Nam si quae per litteras scribo, nunc praesens et ore proferrem, durior esset correctio, utpote quia magis possem vocem obiurgantis exprimere, et irascentis resonare clamorem et dolorem pectoris, magis quam per litteras explicare, et magis cor vestrum viva vox ad confusionem de errore vestro et mea turbatione moveret.
245. Here someone might say: away from us you say these things, but if you were with us, you would not say them, according to 2 Corinthians: his bodily presence is weak and his speech contemptible (2 Cor 10:10). Therefore, he expresses a desire to manifest his grief more vividly, saying, I would willingly be present with you now and change my voice. As if to say: I use gentle language now, calling you friends and sons, in my absence; but if I were present among you, I would correct you more sharply. For if I were present and speaking the things I am now writing in a letter, the correction would be more severe; because I would then be able to express the scolding tones of my rebuke and the cries of my anger and the pain in my heart, much better than I can convey them by letter. And a living voice would more effectively stir your hearts to shame for your error and my anxiety.
246. Et causa huius doloris est, quia confundor in vobis, id est, erubesco apud alios pro vobis. Nam, sicut Eccli. XXII, 3 dicitur confusio est patris de filio indisciplinato.
246. And the cause of this sorrow is that I am ashamed for you, i.e., I blush for you in the presence of others; for as it is said in Sirach: a son ill taught is the confusion of the father (Sir 22:3).
Nam, cum filius sit res patris, et discipulus, inquantum huiusmodi, res magistri, magister gaudet de bono quod videt in eo relucere, quasi de bono proprio, et gloriatur, et, e converso, de malo dolet et confunditur. Unde quia isti mutati erant de bono in malum, Apostolus confundebatur inde.
For since a son is a thing of the father, and a disciple as such is a thing of his master, a master rejoices in the good he sees reflected in him and glories in it as though it were his own. Conversely, he is pained at evil and is ashamed. Hence because they had been turned from good to evil, for that reason the Apostle is ashamed.
Duo filii Abrahae
Abraham’s two sons
4:21 Dicite mihi qui sub lege vultis esse: legem non legistis? [n. 247]
4:21 Tell me, you who desire to be under the law, have you not read the law? [n. 247]
4:22 Scriptum est enim: quoniam Abraham duos filios habuit: unum de ancilla, et unum de libera. [n. 249]
4:22 For it is written that Abraham had two sons: the one by a bondwoman and the other by a free woman. [n. 249]
4:23 Sed qui de ancilla, secundum carnem natus est: qui autem de libera, per repromissionem:
4:23 But he who was of the bondwoman was born according to the flesh: but he who was of the free woman was by promise.
247. Supra Apostolus probavit dignitatem gratiae per consuetudinem humanam hic autem probat eam auctoritate Scripturae. Et
247. Above, the Apostle showed the pre-eminence of grace by a human example; here he proves it on the authority of Scripture.
primo proponit factum;
First, he proposes a fact;
secundo exponit mysterium, ibi quae sunt per allegoriam dicta, etc.;
second, he expounds its mystery, at which things are said by an allegory (Gal 4:24);
tertio concludit propositum, ibi itaque, fratres mei, non sumus, et cetera.
third, he concludes his proposition, at so then, brethren (Gal 4:31).
Circa primum duo facit.
As to the first, he does two things:
Primo excitat ad attentionem;
first, he elicits their attention;
secundo proponit suam intentionem, ibi scriptum est enim, et cetera.
second, he sets forth his intention, at for it is written.
248. Dicit ergo dicite mihi, etc., quasi dicat: si vos estis sapientes, attendite ad ea quae obiicio, et si non potestis contradicere, cedatis. Iob VI, 29: respondete, obsecro, absque contentione, et cetera. Facio vobis autem hanc obiectionem: aut legistis legem, aut non legistis. Sed si legistis, scire debetis ea quae in ea scripta sunt: sed ipsa probat se dimittendam; si autem non legistis, non debetis recipere quod nescitis. Prov. IV, 25: palpebrae tuae praecedant gressus tuos.
248. He says therefore: tell me, you who desire to be under the law, have you not read the law? As if to say: if you are wise, consider my objections; if you cannot answer them, yield: answer, I beseech you, without contention: and speaking that which is just, answer me (Job 6:29). Now I raise this objection to you. You have either read the law or not. If you have read it, you ought to know the things written in it. But those things prove that it should be abandoned. If you have not read it, you ought not accept what you do not know: let your eyelids go before your steps (Prov 4:25).
Dicit autem sub lege, id est sub onere legis. Nam subire aliquod leve non est vis, sed subire grave onus, sicut est onus legis, magnae stultitiae signum esse videtur. Act. XV, v. 10: hoc est onus, quod neque patres nostri, neque nos portare potuimus, etc., quod est intelligendum de illis, qui volunt carnaliter esse sub lege.
He says under the law, i.e., under the burden of the law. For to shoulder something light is not a feat; but to assume a heavy burden, such as the burden of the law, seems to be a mark of exceeding stupidity: this is a yoke which neither our fathers nor we have been able to bear (Acts 15:10); which is to be understood of those who wish to live according to the flesh under the law.
249. Consequenter cum dicit scriptum est enim, etc., proponit suam intentionem, dicens: ideo quaero an legistis legem, quia in ipsa continentur quaedam, quae manifeste dicunt legem non esse tenendam. Et specialiter Apostolus facit mentionem de duobus filiis Abrahae. Et primo ponit unum in quo conveniunt; secundo duo in quibus differunt.
249. Then when he says, it is written that Abraham had two sons, he sets forth his intention, saying: the reason I ask whether you have read the law is that it contains certain things which clearly indicate that the law must not be retained. And the Apostle mentions specifically the two sons of Abraham. First, he states one point in which they are alike. Second, two points in which they differ.
Conveniunt quidem in uno patre. Unde dicit scriptum est, quoniam Abraham duos filios habuit. Habuit etiam alios quam istos duos filios, quia post mortem Sarae alios genuit de Caethura, ut dicitur Gen. XXV, 2; de quibus mentionem non fecit Apostolus, quia non pertinent ad hanc significationem. Possunt tamen per istos duos, scilicet filium ancillae et filium liberae, duo populi scilicet, Iudaeorum et gentium, designari; per alios vero filios Caethurae, schismatici et haeretici.
They are alike in having the same father. Hence he says, it is written that Abraham had two sons. In fact he had more than two, because after Sarah’s death, he fathered other sons of Cetura, as is stated in Genesis 25. But the Apostle does not mention them because they have no role in this allegory. Now two peoples, the Jews and the gentiles, can be signified by those two, i.e., the son of the bondwoman and the son of the free woman—and by the other sons of Cetura, schismatics and heretics.
Qui quidem duo populi conveniunt in uno patre; quia Iudaei sunt filii Abraham secundum carnem, gentiles vero secundum imitationem fidei. Vel sunt filii Abrahae, id est Dei, qui est Pater omnium. Mal. II, 10: nonne Deus Pater omnium, etc., Rom. III, v. 29: an Iudaeorum tantum?
These two peoples are alike in having one father, for the Jews are the children of Abraham according to the flesh, but the gentiles, by imitating him in faith. Or, they are the sons of Abraham, i.e., of God, who is the Father of all: have we not all one Father? (Mal 2:10); is he the God of the Jews only? (Rom 3:29).