Sina et Jerusalem
Sinai and Jerusalem
4:24 quae sunt per allegoriam dicta. Haec enim sunt duo Testamenta. Unum quidem in Monte Sina, in servitutem generans, quae est Agar: [n. 255]
4:24 Which things are said by an allegory. For these are the two Testaments. The one from Mount Sinai, engendering unto bondage, which is Hagar. [n. 255]
4:25 Sina enim mons est in Arabia, qui conjunctus est ei quae nunc est Jerusalem, et servit cum filiis suis. [n. 261]
4:25 For Sinai is a mountain in Arabia, which has affinity to that which is now Jerusalem, and is in bondage with her children. [n. 261]
4:26 Illa autem, quae sursum est Jerusalem, libera est, quae est mater nostra. [n. 263]
4:26 But that Jerusalem which is above is free, which is our mother. [n. 263]
4:27 Scriptum est enim: laetare, sterilis, quae non paris; erumpe et clama, quae non parturis: quia multi filii desertae, magis quam ejus quae habet virum. [n. 265]
4:27 For it is written: rejoice, you barren, who do not bear: break forth and cry, you who do not travail: for many are the children of the desolate, more than of her who has a husband. [n. 265]
255. Superius posuit Apostolus intellectum mysticum, hic aperit mysterium. Et
255. Above, the Apostle spoke of the mystical sense; here he discloses the mystery:
primo quantum ad matres;
first, as to the mothers;
secundo quantum ad filios, ibi nos autem fratres, et cetera.
second, as to the sons, at now we, brethren (Gal 4:28).
Per duas autem matres intelligit duo Testamenta. Et ideo
By the two mothers he understands the two Testaments. Therefore,
primo ponit significatum;
first, he states the thing signified;
secundo exponit, ibi unum quidem in Monte, et cetera.
Second, he explains it: the one from Mount Sinai.
256. Dicit ergo hae, scilicet duae uxores, ancilla et libera, sunt duo Testamenta, Vetus et Novum. Ier. XXXI, 31: feriam domui Israel foedus novum, ecce Novum Testamentum, non secundum pactum, etc., ecce Testamentum Vetus. Libera enim significat Testamentum Novum, ancilla vero Vetus.
256. He says therefore, these, i.e., the two wives, the bondwoman and the free woman, are the two Testaments, the Old and the New: I will make with the house of Israel a new covenant (behold, the New Testament), not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers (behold, the Old Testament) (Jer 31:31). For the free woman signifies the New Testament and the bondwoman the Old.
Ad sciendum autem quid sit testamentum, attendi debet, quod testamentum idem est quod pactum seu foedus eorum quae testibus confirmantur. Unde in Scriptura multoties loco testamenti ponitur foedus vel pactum. Ubicumque autem intervenit foedus, vel pactum, fit aliqua promissio. Et ideo secundum diversitatem promissionum, est diversitas testamentorum. Duo autem sunt nobis promissa, scilicet temporalia in veteri lege et aeterna in nova. Matth. V, 12: gaudete et exultate, et cetera. Hae ergo duae promissiones sunt duo Testamenta.
To understand what a testament is, we should consider that a testament is a pact or agreement dealing with matters which are confirmed by witnesses. Hence in Scripture in many places in lieu of testament is put pact or agreement. Now, whenever a pact or agreement is struck, a promise is made. Therefore, according to the diversity of promises there is a diversity of testaments. But two things have been promised to us: temporal things in the old law, and eternal things in the new: rejoice and be glad because your reward is great in heaven (Matt 5:12). Hence these two promises are the two Testaments.
257. Unde Apostolus consequenter cum dicit: unum quidem, etc., exponit ipsa. Et
257. Hence the Apostle, when he says, the one from Mount Sinai, engendering unto bondage, explains them.
primo quantum ad Vetus;
First, as to the Old;
secundo quantum ad Novum, ibi illa autem quae sursum, et cetera.
second, as to the New, at but that Jerusalem which is above is free.
258. Ad evidentiam autem litterae sciendum est, circa primum, quod quilibet civis alicuius civitatis dicitur esse filius illius, et ipsa civitas est sicut mater eius. Lc. c. XXIII, 28: filiae Ierusalem, nolite flere, et cetera. Thren. ult.: filii Sion inclyti, et cetera. Per hoc igitur quod aliqui fiunt alicuius civitatis cives, efficiuntur filii eius.
258. To understand this text, it must be noted with respect to the first that a citizen of a city is called its son, and the city itself his mother: daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me (Luke 23:28); the noble sons of Zion (Lam 4:2). Therefore, by the fact that certain ones become citizens of a city, they are made its sons.
Duplex autem est civitas Dei, una terrena, scilicet Ierusalem terrestris; alia spiritualis, scilicet Ierusalem caelestis. Per Vetus autem Testamentum homines efficiebantur cives civitatis terrestris, per Novum autem, caelestis.
Now there is a twofold city of God: the one of earth, called the earthly Jerusalem, and the other of heaven, called the heavenly Jerusalem. Furthermore, men were made citizens of the earthly city through the Old Testament, but of the heavenly through the New.
Et ideo circa hoc duo facit.
Therefore, as to this he does two things:
Primo ponit mysterium expositum;
first, he expounds the mystery;
secundo expositionis mysticae rationem assignat, ibi Sina enim, et cetera.
second, he accounts for the mystical explanation, at for Sinai.
259. Dicit ergo primo: dico quod significat duo Testamenta, scilicet Vetus et Novum. Et quantum ad hoc dicit: primum quidem in Monte Sina, et cetera.
259. Therefore, he says first: I say that it signifies the two Testaments, namely, the Old and the New. And with respect to this he says: the one from Mount Sinai, engendering unto bondage.
Ubi, primo, ponitur locus in quo datum fuit, quia ad litteram in Monte Sina, ut dicitur Ex. XX, cuius, secundum Glossam, mystica ratio est, quia Sina interpretatur mandatum. Unde et ab Apostolo vetus lex vocatur lex Mandatorum, Eph. II, 15; mons autem significat superbiam, Ier. XIII, 16: antequam offendant pedes vestri ad montes caliginosos, et cetera. Unde per montem istum in quo data est lex, significatur superbia Iudaeorum duplex: una qua superbiebant contra Deum, Deut. XXXI, 27: ego scio contentionem tuam, etc.; alia qua superbiebant contra alias nationes abutentes eo, quod dicitur in Ps. CXLVII, 20: non fecit taliter omni nationi, et cetera.
Wherein is mentioned first of all the place in which it was given, namely, from Mount Sinai, as is recorded in Exodus 20. According to a Gloss the mystical rendition of this is that Sinai is interpreted ‘commandment’. Hence in Ephesians 2 the old law is called by the Apostle the law of the Commandments. Now a mountain signifies pride: before your feet stumble upon the dark mountains (Jer 13:16). Hence by this mountain on which the law was given a twofold pride of the Jews is signified: one by which they were arrogant against God: I know your obstinacy and your most stiff neck (Deut 31:27); the other by which they boasted at the expense of other nations, thus perverting what is said in a psalm: he has not done in like manner to every nation; and his judgments he has not made manifest to them (Ps 147:20).
260. Secundo vero proponit ad quid sit datum, quia non ad faciendum liberos, sed filios matris ancillae, generans in servitutem, quae est Agar, id est significatur per Agar, quae quidem in servitutem generat, scilicet Vetus Testamentum. Et hoc tripliciter, scilicet quantum ad affectum, quantum ad intellectum et fructum.
260. Second, he explains the end for which it was given, namely, not to make them free, but to make them children of a bondwoman, engendering unto bondage, which is Hagar, i.e., which is signified by Hagar, who engenders unto bondage, namely, the Old Testament. And this it does with respect to three things; namely, feeling, understanding and fruit.
Quantum ad intellectum quidem secundum cognitionem, quia in homine est duplex cognitio: una libera, quando scilicet rerum veritatem secundum seipsam cognoscit; alia vero ancilla, id est subiecta velaminibus figurarum. Et talis fuit cognitio Veteris Testamenti.
As to understanding, indeed, according to knowledge: because in man is a twofold knowledge. One is free, when he knows the truth of things according to themselves; the other is servile, i.e., veiled under figures, as was the knowledge of the Old Testament.
Quantum ad affectum vero, quia nova lex generat affectum amoris, qui pertinet ad libertatem, nam qui amat, ex se movetur. Vetus autem generat affectum timoris, in quo est servitus; qui enim timet, non ex se, sed ex alio movetur. Rom. VIII, 15: non accepistis spiritum servitutis iterum in timore, et cetera.
As to feeling, the new law engenders the feeling of love, which pertains to freedom: for one who loves is moved by his own initiative. The Old, on the other hand, engenders the feeling of fear in which is servitude; for one who fears is moved not by his own initiative but by that of another: you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear; but you have received the Spirit of adoption of sons (Rom 8:15).
Sed quantum ad fructum, quia lex nova generat filios quibus debetur haereditas; sed illis, quos vetus generat, debentur munuscula, sicut servis. Io. VIII, 35: servus non manet in domo in aeternum, filius manet in domo in aeternum.
But as to the fruit, the new law begets sons to whom is owed the inheritance, whereas to those whom the old law engenders are owed small presents as to servants: the servant does not abide in the house forever; but the son abides forever (John 8:35).
261. Rationem mysterii assignat, cum dicit Sina enim mons est in Arabia, et cetera. Ubi primo oritur dubitatio, quia cum Sina distet a Ierusalem per viginti fere dietas, videtur falsum quod Sina iunctus sit Ierusalem, ut hic Apostolus dicit.
261. Then he gives the explanation of the mystery when he says: Sinai is a mountain in Arabia, which has affinity to that Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children. But here a difficulty arises: for since Sinai is almost twenty days journey from Jerusalem, it seems false that Sinai has affinity to, i.e., borders on, Jerusalem, as the Apostle says here.
Sed ad hoc mystice respondetur in Glossa sic, ut Sina sit in Arabia. Arabia enim humilitas vel afflictio interpretatur, in qua datum est Vetus Testamentum, quia homines quasi servi et alieni sub ea affligebantur carnalibus observantiis. Act. XV, v. 10: hoc est onus, quod neque patres nostri, neque nos, et cetera. Qui, mons, coniunctus est, non per spatii continuitatem sed per similitudinem, ei quae nunc est Ierusalem, id est, Iudaico populo; quia sicut ipsi terrena diligunt, et pro temporalibus serviunt sub peccato, ita et mons ille in servitutem generabat.
To this a Gloss responds in a mystical manner that Sinai is in Arabia, which stands for the abjection or affliction under which the Old Testament was given, because the men under it were oppressed by carnal observances after the manner of slaves and foreigners: this is a yoke which neither we nor our fathers were able to bear (Acts 15:10). This mountain neighbors on Jerusalem not by a spatial continuity but by a likeness to that which is now Jerusalem, i.e., to the Jewish people, because just as they love earthly things and for the sake of temporal things are under the bondage of sin, so that mountain engendered unto bondage.
262. Sed haec non videtur intentio Apostoli. Nam ipse vult, quod Vetus Testamentum, quod in Monte Sina datum est, ex ipso loco servitutis in servitutem generet; quia illud dabatur in Sina, non tamen ibi remanentibus filiis Israel, sed proficiscentibus ad terram promissionis. Ierusalem enim etiam generat filios servitutis, et ideo quantum ad hoc coniungitur Mons Sina cum illa. Et hoc est quod dicit qui coniunctus est ei, scilicet per continuationem itineris euntium in Ierusalem, quae nunc est Ierusalem, et servit cum filiis suis, servitute scilicet legalium observantiarum (a qua redemit nos Christus) et servitute diversorum peccatorum Io. VIII, 34: qui facit peccatum, servus est peccati et (ad litteram) a servitute Romanorum, qui eis dominabantur.
262. But this does not seem to be the Apostle’s intention. For he wants to bring out that, from the very place of bondage, the Old Testament, which was given on Mount Sinai, engenders unto bondage, because it was given on Sinai not as a place where the children of Israel were to remain, but as a stage in their journey to the promised land. For Jerusalem, too, engenders sons unto bondage. Hence it is with respect to this that Mount Sinai is continuous with her. And this is what he says: which has affinity to that (i.e., by being part of the continuous route followed by those going to Jerusalem) which is now Jerusalem, and is in bondage with her children, i.e., the bondage of legal observances (from which Christ redeemed us) and of various sins—he who commits sins is the servant of sin (John 8:34)—and, literally, from bondage under the Romans who were their masters.
263. Deinde cum dicit illa autem quae sursum est Ierusalem, etc., hic consequenter aperit mysterium de libera. Et
263. Then when he says, but that Jerusalem which is above is free, he discloses the mystery of the free woman.
primo exponit mysterium;
First, he discloses the mystery;
secundo inducit prophetiam, ibi scriptum est enim, et cetera.
second, he refers to a prophecy, at for it is written.
264. Primum quidem potest dupliciter intelligi, secundum quod hanc matrem possumus intelligere, vel illam per quam generamur, quae est Ecclesia militans; vel illam matrem in cuius filios generamur, quae est Ecclesia triumphans. I Petr. I, 3: regeneravit nos in spem vivam, et cetera. Sic ergo generamur in praesenti Ecclesia Militante, ut perveniamus ad Triumphantem.
264. The first can be understood in two ways, accordingly as we understand this mother to be the one by whom we are engendered, which is the Church Militant, or the mother whose sons we become, which is the Church Triumphant: he has regenerated us unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead (1 Pet 1:3). Hence we are so generated in the present Church Militant as to arrive at the Triumphant.
Hoc ergo modo illud exponentes, a quatuor describitur mater nostra, scilicet a sublimitate, cum dicit sursum, secundo a nomine, cum dicit Ierusalem, tertio a libertate, cum dicit libera est, quarto a foecunditate, cum dicit mater nostra.
Therefore in explaining it thus, our mother is described by four things: by her sublimity, when he says, above; second, by name, when he says, Jerusalem; third by her freedom, when he says, is free, fourth, by her fecundity when he says, our mother.