Walk in the Spirit
5:23 mansuetudo, fides, modestia, continentia, castitas. Adversus hujusmodi non est lex. [n. 336]
5:23 Mildness, faith, modesty, continency, chastity. Against such there is no law. [n. 336]
5:24 Qui autem sunt Christi, carnem suam crucifixerunt cum vitiis et concupiscentiis. [n. 338]
5:24 And they who are Christ’s have crucified their flesh, with the vices and concupiscences. [n. 338]
5:25 Si Spiritu vivimus, Spiritu et ambulemus. [n. 339]
5:25 If we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit. [n. 339]
5:26 Non efficiamur inanis gloriae cupidi, invicem provocantes, invicem invidentes. [n. 341]
5:26 Let us not be made desirous of vainglory, provoking one another, envying one another. [n. 341]
336. Enumeratis operibus carnis, et Spiritus, hic consequenter ex utrisque concludit, quod qui Spiritum sequuntur, non sunt sub lege. Et utitur tali probatione: ille est sub lege qui est obnoxius legi, id est qui facit contraria legi; sed illi qui aguntur Spiritu, non faciunt opera contraria legi, ergo non sunt sub lege.
336. Having enumerated the works of the flesh and of the Spirit, the Apostle then concludes from both, that those who follow the Spirit are not under the law. The proof he uses is this: he is under the law who is liable to the law, i.e., who does things contrary to the law. But those who are led by the Spirit do not the works contrary to the law. Therefore, they are not under the law.
Primo ergo ostendit propositum ex parte operum Spiritus;
First, therefore, he proves the proposition on the part of the works of the Spirit;
secundo ex parte operum carnis, ibi qui autem sunt, et cetera.
second, on the part of the works of the flesh, at and they who are Christ’s.
337. Dicit ergo: dico quod qui aguntur Spiritu, non faciunt opera contraria legi, quia aut faciunt opera Spiritus, et adversus huiusmodi non est lex, id est contra opera Spiritus, sed Spiritus docet ea. Nam sicut lex exterius docet opera virtutum, ita et Spiritus interius movet ad illa. Rom. VII, 22: condelector enim legi Dei secundum interiorem hominem, et cetera.
337. He says, therefore: I say that those who are led by the Spirit do not the works that are contrary to the law, because they either do the works of the Spirit, and against such there is no law, i.e., against the works of the Spirit, but the Spirit teaches such works. For as the law outwardly teaches works of virtue, so the Spirit inwardly moves one to them: for I am delighted with the law of God according to the inward man (Rom 7:22).
Aut faciunt opera carnis, et haec in his qui Spiritu Dei aguntur, non sunt contraria legi.
Or they do the works of the flesh; and in those who are led by the Spirit, such works are not contrary to the law.
338. Unde dicit qui autem sunt Christi, id est qui Spiritum Dei habent. Rom. VIII, v. 9: qui Spiritum Dei non habet, hic non est eius. Illi ergo Spiritu Dei aguntur, qui sunt Christi. Isti, inquam, carnem suam crucifixerunt, et cetera. Non autem dicit: vitia et concupiscentias vitant, quia bonus medicus tunc bene curat, quando adhibet remedia contra causam morbi. Caro autem est radix vitiorum. Si ergo volumus vitare vitia, oportet domare carnem. I Cor. IX, 27: castigo corpus meum, et cetera.
338. Hence he says, they that are Christ’s, i.e., who have the Spirit of God; for if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his (Rom 8:9). Accordingly, those are led by the Spirit of God who are Christ’s. They, I say, have crucified their flesh, with the vices and concupiscences. He does not say that they shun vices and concupiscences, because a good physician cures well when he applies remedies against the cause of the disease. But the flesh is the root of vices. Therefore, if we would shun vices, the flesh must be tamed: I chastise my body and bring it under subjection (1 Cor 9:27).
Quia vero caro domatur per vigilias, ieiunia et labores—Eccli. XXXIII, 28: servo malevolo tortura et compedes, etc.—ad haec autem opera moventur ex devotione quam habent ad Christum crucifixum, ideo signanter dicit crucifixerunt, id est Christo crucifixo se conformaverunt, affligendo carnem suam, et cetera. Rom. VI, 6: vetus homo noster simul crucifixus est, et cetera. Supra II: ut Deo vivam, Christo confixus sum cruci, et cetera.
But because the flesh is tamed by vigils, fasts and labors—torture and fetters are for a malicious slave; send him to work that he be not idle (Sir 33:28)—and one is led to such works out of devotion to Christ crucified, therefore he specifically says, they have crucified, i.e., conformed themselves to Christ crucified by afflicting their flesh: our old man is crucified with him that the body of sin may be destroyed (Rom 6:6); that I may live to God: with Christ I am nailed to the cross (Gal 2:19).
Quia vero non crucifigunt carnem destruendo naturam, quia nemo carnem suam odio habuit, ut dicitur Eph. V, 29, sed quantum ad ea quae contrariantur legi, ideo dicit cum vitiis, id est cum peccatis, et concupiscentiis, id est passionibus, quibus anima inclinatur ad peccandum. Non enim bene crucifigit carnem qui etiam passionibus locum non aufert, aliter cum ratio non semper invigilet ad peccata vitandum, ut oportet, posset quandoque cadere. Eccli. XVIII, 30: post concupiscentias tuas non eas, et cetera. Rom. XIII, 14: carnis curam ne feceritis in desideriis, et cetera.
But because they do not crucify the flesh by destroying nature, for no one hates his own flesh (Eph 5:29), but with respect to matters that are contrary to the law, for that reason he says, with the vices, i.e., with the sins, and concupiscences, i.e., passions, whereby the soul is inclined to sin. For he does not crucify his flesh well who leaves room for passions; otherwise, since reason is not always alert to avoid sin, as it ought, he might fall at some time: do not go after your lusts, but turn away from your own will (Sir 18:30); do not make provision for the flesh in its concupiscence (Rom 13:14).
339. Consequenter cum dicit si Spiritu vivimus, etc., ponit tertium beneficium Spiritus Sancti, quod confert vitam. Et
339. Then when he says, if we live in the Spirit, let us also walk in the Spirit, he mentions the third benefit of the Holy Spirit, namely, the conferring of life.
primo ponit beneficium Spiritus Dei;
First, he mentions this benefit of the Spirit of God;
secundo excludit vitia spiritus mundi, ibi non efficiamur, et cetera.
second, he rejects the vices of the spirit of the world, at let us not be made desirous.
340. Dicit ergo, connumerans se eis quibus scribit: dico quod debemus ambulare per Spiritum, quia et per ipsum vivimus, et non per carnem. Rom. VIII, 12: debitores sumus non carni, et cetera. Si ergo Spiritu vivimus, debemus in omnibus ab ipso agi.
340. Therefore, including himself with those to whom he writes, he says: I say that we ought to walk by the Spirit, because we live by him and not by the flesh: we are debtors not to the flesh to live according to the flesh (Rom 8:12). Therefore, if we live in the Spirit, we ought in all things to be led by him.
Sicut enim in vita corporali corpus non movetur nisi per animam per quam vivit, ita in vita spirituali omnis motus noster debet esse a Spiritu Sancto. Io. VI, 64: Spiritus est qui vivificat. Act. XVII, 28: in ipso vivimus, movemur, et sumus.
For as in bodily life the body is not moved save by the soul, by which it has life, so in the spiritual life all of our movements should be through the Holy Spirit: it is the Spirit that gives life (John 6:64); in him we live and move and are (Acts 17:28).
341. Et ne ea quae dicta sunt de Spiritu intelligantur de spiritu mundi, de quo dicitur I Cor. II, 12: nos autem non spiritum huius mundi accepimus, ideo hoc consequenter removet Apostolus, dicens non efficiamur, etc., ubi tria excludit propria spiritus mundi, scilicet inanem gloriam, iracundiam, et invidiam, quibus tribus convenienter aptari potest nomen spiritus.
341. But lest the things said of the Spirit be understood of the spirit of the world—concerning which it is said in 1 Corinthians: we have received not the spirit of this world (1 Cor 2:12)—the Apostle forestalls this when he says, let us not be made desirous of vainglory, provoking one another, envying one another. Here he excludes things proper to the spirit of the world, namely, vainglory, anger and envy, all three of which are aptly described by the word ‘spirit.’
Significat enim spiritus quamdam inflationem. Unde secundum hoc illi dicuntur vani spiritus, qui sunt inflati per inanem gloriam. Is. XXV, 4: spiritus robustorum quasi turbo impellens parietem, et cetera. Et quantum ad hoc dicit non efficiamur inanis gloriae cupidi, id est, gloriae saecularis. Cum enim vanum sit quod nec solide firmatur, nec veritate fulcitur, nec utilitate amatur, ideo gloria huius mundi vana est, quia caduca, et non solida, Is. XL, v. 6: omnis caro foenum, etc., et quia falsa, I Mac. II, 62: gloria hominis peccatoris, stercus et vermis, et cetera. Sed vera gloria est in propriis bonis hominis, quae sunt bona spiritualia, et hanc habent sancti. II Cor. I, 12: gloria nostra haec est, testimonium conscientiae nostrae, et cetera. Et quia inutilis et infructuosa: nam quantamcumque gloriam habeat quis ex testimonio saecularium, non potest propter hoc consequi finem suum, quem consequitur testimonio Dei. I Cor. I, 31: qui gloriatur, in Domino glorietur.
For ‘spirit’ denotes a swelling. According to this, then, those are called vain spirits who are swollen with vainglory: the blast of the mighty is like a whirlwind beating against a wall (Isa 25:4). Concerning this he says, let us not be made desirous of vainglory, i.e., of worldly glory. For since that is vain which is not solidly established nor supported by truth nor loved for any usefulness, then the glory of this world is vain, because it is frail and not solid: all flesh is grass (Isa 40:6). Furthermore, it is false—the glory of a sinful man is dung and worms (1 Mac 2:62)—whereas true glory concerns goods appropriate to man, i.e., the goods of the Spirit, such as holy men have: our glory is this, the testimony of our conscience (2 Cor 1:12). Furthermore, this glory is useless and fruitless: for however great the glory one acquires from the testimony of men, he cannot on that account achieve his end, which is achieved by the testimony of God: he that glories, let him glory in the Lord (1 Cor 1:31).
Non autem dicit: non habeatis inanem gloriam sed non efficiamini cupidi, quia gloria sequitur aliquando fugientes eam, et si eam oportet recipi, non tamen ametur.
He does not say, do not have vainglory, but be not made desirous of vainglory, because glory sometimes follows those who seek to avoid it, and if they are obliged to receive it, they should not love it.
Item significat quamdam impetuositatem. Prov. XXVII, 4: impetum concitati spiritus ferre quis poterit? Et significat iracundiam. Et quantum ad hoc dicit invicem provocantes, scilicet ad contentionem, vel litem, vel alia illicita. Rom. XIII, 13: non in contentione et aemulatione, et cetera.
Furthermore, spirit connotes vehemence: who can bear the violence of one provoked? (Prov 27:4). It also connotes wrath. And as to this he says, provoking one another, namely, to quarrels and fights or other unlawful things: not in contention and envy (Rom 13:13).
Item est spiritus tristitiae, de quo dicitur Prov. XVII, 22: spiritus exsiccat ossa. Et quantum ad hoc dicit invicem invidentes. Prov. XIV, 30: putredo ossium, invidia, et cetera. Cuius ratio est, quia ipsa sola crescit ex bono.
Furthermore, it is a spirit of sadness, of which it is said in Proverbs: a sorrowful spirit dries up the bones (Prov 17:22). And concerning this he says, envying one another: envy is the rottenness of the bones, because it alone feeds on the good (Prov 14:30).
Alter alterius onera portate
Bear one another’s burdens
6:1 Fratres, etsi praeoccupatus fuerit homo in aliquo delicto, vos, qui spirituales estis, hujusmodi instruite in spiritu lenitatis, considerans teipsum, ne et tu tenteris. [n. 342]
6:1 Brethren, even if a man be overtaken in some fault, you, who are spiritual, instruct such a one in the spirit of meekness, considering yourself, lest you also be tempted. [n. 342]
6:2 Alter alterius onera portate, et sic adimplebitis legem Christi. [n. 346]
6:2 Bear one another’s burdens: and so you shall fulfill the law of Christ. [n. 346]
6:3 Nam si quis existimat se aliquid esse, cum nihil sit, ipse se seducit. [n. 349]
6:3 For if any man think himself to be something, whereas he is nothing, he deceives himself. [n. 349]
6:4 Opus autem suum probet unusquisque, et sic in semetipso tantum gloriam habebit, et non in altero. [n. 351]
6:4 But let everyone prove his own work: and so he shall have glory in himself only and not in another. [n. 351]
6:5 Unusquisque enim onus suum portabit. [n. 352]
6:5 For everyone shall bear his own burden. [n. 352]
342. Postquam Apostolus reduxit Galatas ad statum veritatis quantum ad res divinas, hic consequenter reducit eos quantum ad res humanas, instruens eos qualiter se habeant ad homines. Et
342. After leading the Galatians back to the state of truth as to divine things, the Apostle then leads them back as to things human, instructing them how to behave toward men.
primo qualiter se habeant ad rectos;
First, how to act toward the upright;
secundo, quomodo ad perversos, ibi videte qualibus litteris, et cetera.
second, toward those who are wicked, at see what a letter I have written (Gal 6:11).