Lectio 2 Lecture 2 Seminate opera bona Sow good works 6:6 Communicet autem is qui catechizatur verbo, ei qui se catechizat, in omnibus bonis. [n. 353] 6:6 And let him who is instructed in the word communicate to him who instructs him, in all good things. [n. 353] 6:7 Nolite errare: Deus non irridetur. Quae enim seminaverit homo, haec et metet. [n. 355] 6:7 Do not be deceived: God is not mocked. For what things a man shall sow, those also shall he reap. [n. 355] 6:8 Quoniam qui seminat in carne sua, de carne et metet corruptionem: qui autem seminat in Spiritu, de Spiritu metet vitam aeternam. [n. 357] 6:8 For he who sows in his flesh, of the flesh also shall reap corruption. But he who sows in the Spirit, of the Spirit shall reap life everlasting. [n. 357] 6:9 Bonum autem facientes, non deficiamus: tempore enim suo metemus non deficientes. [n. 361] 6:9 And in doing good, let us not fail. For in due time we shall reap, not failing. [n. 361] 6:10 Ergo dum tempus habemus, operemur bonum ad omnes, maxime autem ad domesticos fidei. [n. 362] 6:10 Therefore, while we have time, let us work good to all men, but especially to those who are of the household of the faith. [n. 362] 353. Postquam Apostolus ostendit qualiter superiores se habeant ad inferiores, et aequales aequalibus, hic consequenter ostendit qualiter inferiores se habeant ad superiores, dicens inferiores debere superioribus ministrare et obsequi. Et 353. After showing how those who are greater should act toward those below them, and how equals should act toward equals, the Apostle then shows here how those who are lesser should serve and revere those who are over them. circa hoc tria facit. About this he does three things: Primo monet ut ministrent prompte; first, he advises that they serve readily; secundo ut ministrent perseveranter, ibi bonum autem facientes, non deficiamus, etc.; second, that they serve perseveringly, at and in doing good, let us not fail; tertio, ut ministrent communiter, ibi ergo dum tempus habemus, et cetera. third, that they serve all, therefore, while we have time. Circa primum duo facit. Regarding the first he does two things: Primo ponit monitionem ministerii; first, he lays down the admonition to serve; secundo excusationem excludit, ibi nolite errare, et cetera. second, he forestalls an excuse, at be not deceived. 354. Dicit ergo: dictum est supra, quomodo superiores se debeant habere ad inferiores, scilicet leniter corripiendo et instruendo, nunc autem restat videre qualiter inferior superiori obsequatur, et ideo dicit communicet autem is, qui catechizatur, id est docetur verbo Dei, ei qui se catechizat, id est qui eum docet; communicet, inquam, in omnibus bonis. 354. He says therefore: we have indicated above how those who are greater should act toward those who are below them, namely, by correcting them in a gentle manner and by instructing. Now, however, there remains to see how the lesser should accommodate themselves to those who are higher. Therefore he says, let him who is instructed in the word, i.e., taught the word of God, communicate to him who instructs him, i.e., who teaches him; let him, I say, communicate to him in all good things. Sed notandum est quod discipulus potest dupliciter communicare se docenti. Primo ut accipiat bona doctoris, et sic dicitur communicet is qui catechizatur, id est commune sibi faciat quod est docentis, eum imitando. I Cor. XI, 1: imitatores mei estote, et cetera. Sed quia contingit doctores aliquando minus bona facere, ideo non sunt in hoc imitandi, et ideo subdit in omnibus bonis. Matth. c. XXIII, 3: quaecumque dixerint vobis, servate et facite: secundum opera eorum nolite facere. But it should be noted that a disciple can communicate in two ways with his teacher. First, so as to receive good things from the teacher; and so it is said, let him who is instructed in the word communicate, i.e., make common to himself what belonged to the teacher, by imitating him: be imitators of me, as I also am of Christ (1 Cor 11:1). But because teachers might at times not do what is good, they are not to be imitated in this. Hence he adds, in all good things: whatsoever they shall say to you, observe and do: but according to their works, do not do (Matt 23:3). Secundo ut communicet bona sua docenti. Hoc enim a Domino praecipitur I Cor. IX, v. 14, ubi dicitur: qui Evangelio serviunt, de Evangelio vivant. Unde Matth. X, 10: dignus est operarius cibo suo. Et Lc. X, 7: dignus est operarius mercede sua. Et Apostolus dicit I Cor. IX, 11: si vobis spiritualia seminamus, et cetera. Second, that he communicate his own goods to the teacher. For this is commanded by the Lord: they who preach the Gospel should live by the Gospel (1 Cor 9:14); the workman is worthy of his meat (Matt 10:10); the laborer is worthy of his hire (Luke 10:7); and the Apostle says, if we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great matter if we reap your carnal things? (1 Cor 9:11). Et ideo hic dicit communicet autem is, etc., id est doctus doctori in omnibus bonis quae habet; nam etiam temporalia bona quaedam dicuntur. Is. I, 19: si volueritis et audieritis me, bona terrae comedetis. Matth. c. VII, 11: si vos cum sitis mali, nostis bona dare, et cetera. And therefore he says here, let him who is instructed in the word communicate to him who instructs, i.e., the one taught should communicate to the teacher, in all good things that he has; for even temporal things are called goods: if you be willing and will hearken to me, you shall eat the good things of the land (Isa 1:19); if you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children: how much more will your Father who is in heaven give good things to them that ask him? (Matt 7:11). Dicit autem, in omnibus, quia non solum communicare debet indigenti, sed et sententiam et consilium, potentiam et quidquid habet, generaliter debet proximo communicare. I Petr. IV, 10: unusquisque sicut accepit gratiam, in alterutrum illam administrantes, et cetera. De ista communicatione dicitur Rom. XII, v. 13: necessitatibus sanctorum communicantes; Eccli. XIV, 15: in divisione sortis da et accipe. But he says, in all good things, because one should not communicate solely to those who are in dire need; but whatever one has he ought universally to communicate to his neighbor, including knowledge and advice and influence: as every man has received grace, administering the same one to another (1 Pet 4:10). Of this sharing it is said in Romans: communicating to the necessities of the saints (Rom 12:13); in dividing by lot, give and take (Sir 14:15). 355. Consequenter cum dicit nolite errare, etc., excusationem excludit, et 355. Then when he says, do not be deceived: God is not mocked, he forestalls an excuse. primo excludit eam; First, he forestalls it; secundo rationem exclusionis assignat, ibi quae enim seminaverit homo, et cetera. second, he gives a reason for this, at for what things a man shall sow. 356. Dicit ergo nolite errare, Deus non irridetur. Quod quidem dupliciter intelligi potest secundum duas praemissas expositiones. 356. He says, therefore: do not be deceived: God is not mocked. This can be taken in two ways, according to the two explanations given above. Secundum primam quidem sic: tu dicis quod debemus imitari doctores etiam in bonis, sed non possum eos imitari nisi in his quae faciunt: nihil autem video in ipsis nisi malum; ergo debeo eos imitari in malo. Sed hoc excludit, dicens nolite errare, Deus non irridetur. Error est hoc dicere. Nam mala praelatorum non excusant nos. Non enim sunt subditis in exemplum, nisi in his quibus imitantur Christum, qui est pastor absque peccato; unde et signanter dicit Io. c. X, 11: ego sum Pastor Bonus, et cetera. Et Apostolus I Cor. IV, 16 et XI, 1 dicit: imitatores mei estote, sicut et ego Christi; quasi dicat: in his me imitamini, in quibus ego imitor Christum. Etsi per mala praelatorum excusatis vos apud homines, tamen Deus non irridetur, id est, non potest falli. Iob XIII, 9: aut decipietur ut homo fraudulentiis vestris? Unde dicitur Prov. III, 34: delusores ipse deludet. According to the first, this way: you say that we ought to imitate our teachers even in good things, but I cannot imitate them save in the things they do; and the only thing I observe in them is evil. Therefore, I ought to imitate them in evil. But he dismisses this, when he says, do not be deceived: God is not mocked. As if to say: it is erroneous to say this, for the evils of the prelates do not excuse us, because they are an example to their subjects only in those matters in which they imitate Christ, who is the shepherd without sin. Hence he expressly says in John: I am the Good Shepherd (John 10:11); and the Apostle says in 1 Corinthians: be imitators of me, as I also am of Christ (1 Cor 4:16; 11:1). As if to say: imitate me in those things in which I imitate Christ. And although you excuse yourself before men because of the evil acts of prelates, yet God is not mocked, i.e., cannot be deceived: shall he be deceived as a man, with your deceitful dealings? (Job 13:9) Hence it is said in Proverbs: he shall scorn the scorners (Prov 3:34). Secundum autem secundam expositionem sic introducitur. Possent autem dicere: pauperes sumus, nihil habemus quod communicare possimus. Sed hoc excludit, dicens nolite errare, id est nemo excusatum vane se existimet paupertatem praetendendo, Deus non irridetur, id est non potest falli, scit enim corda nostra et non ignorat facultates. Excusatio verisimilis hominem potest fallere et placare, Deum non potest fallere. But according to the second explanation it is understood in the following manner. They could say: we are poor and have nothing to communicate. But he rejects this, saying, do not be deceived, i.e., think not to excuse yourself in vain, by pretending poverty; God is not mocked, i.e., cannot be deceived, for he knows our hearts and is not unaware of our possessions. A likely excuse may deceive a man and satisfy him; but it cannot deceive God. 357. Rationem autem huius assignat, dicens quae enim seminaverit homo, et cetera. Et 357. He assigns the reason for this, saying, for what things a man shall sow, those also shall he reap. primo in generali, First, in a general way; secundo in speciali, ibi quoniam qui seminat, et cetera. second, in a specific way, at for he who sows. 358. Dicit ergo, secundum primam expositionem: vere erratis, hoc credentes, quia Deus reddet singulis pro meritis propriis. Nam quae seminaverit homo, haec et metet, id est secundum opera sua bona vel mala, parva vel magna, praemiabitur vel punietur. 358. He says therefore with respect to the first explanation: surely you err in believing this, because God will render to each one according to his own merits: for what things a man shall sow, those also shall he reap, i.e., he will be rewarded or punished according to his works, be they good or evil, great or small. Secundum autem secundam expositionem: quae seminaverit homo, id est secundum beneficia sua parva vel magna, et quantum ad qualitatem operum, et quantum ad quantitatem beneficiorum praemiabitur. II Cor. IX, 6: qui parce seminat, parce et metet, et cetera. But according to the second explanation: what things a man shall sow, those also shall he reap; i.e., he will be rewarded according to his good deeds, great or small, both as to the quality of the works and the quantity of the good deeds: he that sows sparingly, shall also reap sparingly; and he who sows in blessings, shall also reap blessings (2 Cor 9:6). 359. Rationem autem specialiter assignat, dicens quoniam qui seminat in carne sua, et cetera. Quae quidem ratio habet duas partes secundum duas seminationes carnis et Spiritus. Primo ergo agit de seminatione carnis. 359. Then he assigns a specific reason, saying, for he who sows in his flesh, of the flesh also shall reap corruption. Now this reason has two parts, according to the two sowings: namely, in the flesh and in the Spirit. First therefore, he treats of the sowing in the flesh, Ubi dicendum est, quid sit seminare in carne; secundo quid est de carne metere corruptionem. where we must first of all see what it is to sow in the flesh; second, what it is to reap corruption of the flesh. Seminare quidem in carne, est operari pro corpore vel pro carne; sicut si dicam: ego multum expendi in isto homine, id est, multa feci pro eo. Ille ergo in carne seminat, qui ea quae facit, etiam si quae bona videantur, facit in fomentum et utilitatem carnis. To sow in the flesh is to work for the body and for the flesh. As though I were to say: I have spent much on that man, i.e., I have done many things for him. Hence he sows in the flesh, who does all that he does, even in things that seem good, to favor and benefit the flesh. De carne autem metere corruptionem, dicit et infert, quia semen fructificat ut plurimum secundum conditionem terrae. Unde videmus quod in aliquibus terris semen frumenti degenerat in siliginem, vel in aliquod aliud. Conditio autem carnis est, ut sit corruptibilis, et ideo qui in carne seminat, id est studium suum ponit et opera, oportet quod ipsa opera corrumpantur et pereant. Eccli. XIV, 20: omne opus corruptibile, in fine perdetur. Rom. VIII, 13: si secundum carnem vixeritis, moriemini. But with respect to reaping corruption of the flesh, he says and infers, that because seed fructifies for the most part according to the condition of the land, we see that on some lands wheat seeds degenerate into siligo or something else. Now the condition of the flesh is that it is corruptible; hence he who sows in his flesh, i.e., directs his works and interest to the flesh, must expect that those works corrupt and perish: every work that is corruptible shall fail in the end (Sir 14:20); for if you live according to the flesh, you shall die (Rom 8:13). 360. Secundo agit de seminatione spiritus, dicens: qui autem seminat in spiritu, id est ordinat studium suum ad servitutem Spiritus, ex fide et caritate serviendo iustitiae, metet quidem de spiritu secundum conditionem eius. Conditio autem spiritus est quod sit actor vitae. Io. VI, 64: spiritus est qui vivificat. Non autem cuiuscumque vitae, sed vitae aeternae, cum spiritus sit immortalis, et ideo metet de spiritu vitam aeternam. Prov. XI, 18: seminanti iustitiam merces fidelis, quia numquam desiccatur. 360. Second, he treats of the sowing in the spirit, saying, but he who sows in the spirit, i.e., directs his interest to the service of the Spirit by serving justice through faith and charity, shall reap of the spirit according to its condition. Now the condition of the spirit is that it is the principle of life: it is the spirit that gives life (John 6:64), and not just any life, but eternal life; since the spirit is immortal. Hence, of the spirit he shall reap life everlasting: to him that sows justice there is a faithful reward (Prov 11:18), because it never withers.