Circumcisio fugere crucem conatur
Circumcision attempts to avoid the cross
6:11 Videte qualibus litteris scripsi vobis mea manu. [n. 365]
6:11 See what a letter I have written to you with my own hand. [n. 365]
6:12 Quicumque enim volunt placere in carne, hi cogunt vos circumcidi, tantum ut crucis Christi persecutionem non patiantur. [n. 367]
6:12 For those who desire to please in the flesh constrain you to be circumcised, only that they may not suffer the persecution of the cross of Christ. [n. 367]
6:13 Neque enim qui circumciduntur, legem custodiunt: sed volunt vos circumcidi, ut in carne vestra glorientur. [n. 369]
6:13 For neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law: but they will have you be circumcised, that they may glory in your flesh. [n. 369]
365. Postquam Apostolus monuit Galatas qualiter se habeant ad homines rectos et iustos, hic docet quomodo se habeant ad haereticos et perversos. Et
365. After admonishing the Galatians how to behave towards men who are upright and just, the Apostle here teaches them how to act toward heretics and the perverse.
primo insinuat modum scribendi monitionem;
First, he insinuates the way he is writing the admonition;
secundo ipsam monitionem subiungit, ibi quicumque enim, et cetera.
second, he sets forth the admonition, at for those who.
366. Circa primum sciendum quod consuetudo erat apud haereticos depravandi et falsificandi Scripturas canonicas, nec non et permiscendi aliqua eorum quae haeresim sapiant; propter hoc consuetudo fuit ab Apostolo servata, quod quando aliqua contra eos scribebat, in fine litterae aliqua scriberet, ut depravari non posset, et ita innotesceret eis de eius conscientia processisse, sicut I Cor. c. ult. dicit: salutatio mea manu Pauli. Totam enim epistolam per alium, eo dictante, scribi faciebat, et postea in fine aliquid propria manu addebat. Et secundum hunc modum ea quae sequuntur, ab isto loco scripsit Paulus manu propria. Unde dicit videte qualibus litteris scripsi vobis manu propria, ut scilicet praedicta firmius teneatis, ut scientes a me hanc epistolam missam magis obediatis.
366. As to the first, it should be noted that heretics were wont to distort and falsify the canonical Scriptures and append things that savored of heresy. Because of this, whenever the Apostle wrote anything against them, he followed the practice of writing something at the end of the epistle, so that it could not be distorted. In this way it could be known that it came from him with full knowledge of its contents. Thus in 1 Corinthians he says: the salutation of me, Paul, with my own hand (1 Cor 16:21). For he allowed the entire epistle to be written by someone else at his dictation; then, at the end, he added something in his own hand. According to this procedure, then, whatever followed from that place on, Paul wrote in his own hand. Hence he says; see what a letter I have written to you with my own hand; to the end, namely, that you might firmly hold to the foregoing, and that knowing this epistle is sent by me, you might obey better.
Sic ergo praelati debent propria manu scribere, ut quod docent verbo et scripto, ostendant exemplo. Ideo dicitur Is. XLIX, 16: in manibus, id est in operibus meis, descripsi te, et cetera. Ex. XXXII, 15 dicitur de Moyse, quod descendit portans duas tabulas lapideas scriptas digito Dei.
In this way, then, prelates ought to write in their own hand, so that what they teach by word and script, they may show by example. Hence it is said in Isaiah: I have graven you in my hands, i.e., works (Isa 49:16); and it is said of Moses that he descended carrying two stone tablets written by the finger of God (Exod 32:15).
367. Monitionem autem subiungit, dicens quicumque enim placere volunt, et cetera. Et
367. He then follows with the admonition, saying, for those who desire to please in the flesh constrain you to be circumcised.
primo aperit seducentium intentionem;
First, he exposes the intention of the seducers;
secundo ostendit suam intentionem eis esse contrariam, ibi mihi autem absit gloriari, etc.;
second, he shows that his intention is contrary to theirs, at but God forbid that I should glory (Gal 6:14);
tertio subdit suam admonitionem ad subditos, ibi quicumque hanc regulam, et cetera.
third, he adds his warning to those who are subject to him, at and whoever shall follow this rule (Gal 6:16).
Circa primum duo facit.
Regarding the first, he does two things:
Primo aperit seducentium malam intentionem;
first, he discloses the evil intention of the seducers;
secundo probat quod dicit, ibi neque enim circumcisionem, et cetera.
second, he proves what he says, at for neither they themselves.
368. Circa primum ponit unum factum et duas intentiones ad invicem ordinatas. Factum autem erat istorum qui circumcisionem inducebant, et ex hoc duo intendebant. Unum propter aliud, scilicet ut placerent inde Iudaeis, ex hoc quod carnales observantias legis introducebant in Ecclesia gentium. Et hoc est quod dicit quicumque volunt placere, scilicet Iudaeis infidelibus, in carne, id est carnalibus observantiis, hi cogunt vos circumcidi, non coactione absoluta, sed quasi ex conditione dicentes: quia nisi circumcidamini, non poteritis salvi fieri, ut habetur Act. c. XV, 1.
368. Concerning the first, he lays down one fact and two intentions that are mutually related. The fact concerns those who urged circumcision, from which they intended two things, one for the sake of the other; namely, that they might thereby please the Jews for having introduced the observances of the law in the Church of the gentiles. And this is what he says: those who desire to please, namely, the unbelieving Jews, they constrain you to be circumcised not by absolute force, but, as it were, by placing a condition, saying: unless you are circumcised after the manner of Moses, you cannot be saved (Acts 15:1).
Intendebant autem ex hoc ulterius quamdam securitatem habere. Iudaei enim persequebantur discipulos Christi propter praedicationem crucis. I Cor. I, 23: nos autem praedicamus Christum crucifixum, et cetera. Et hoc quia per praedicationem crucis evacuabantur legalia. Nam si apostoli simul cum cruce Christi praedicassent debere servari legalia, nullam persecutionem Iudaei apostolis intulissent. Unde dicebat supra V, 11: ego autem, fratres, si adhuc circumcisionem praedico, quid adhuc persecutionem patior, et cetera. Ut ergo non haberent persecutionem a Iudaeis, inducebant circumcisionem. Et ideo dicit: et etiam hoc propter hoc tantum faciunt, ut crucis Christi persecutionem non patiantur, quae scilicet pro cruce Christi infertur.
They further intended to derive some security from this. For the Jews persecuted the disciples of Christ, because of the preaching of the cross: but we preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews, indeed, a stumbling-block, and unto the gentiles, foolishness (1 Cor 1:23). And this because through the preaching of the cross the works of the law were made void. For if the apostles had preached, along with the cross of Christ, that the legal ceremonies were to be observed, the Jews would not have persecuted the apostles. Hence he said: and I, brethren, if I yet preach circumcision, why do I yet suffer persecution? (Gal 5:11). Therefore, in order to escape persecution from the Jews, some urged circumcision. So he says: and they do this for the only reason that they may not suffer the persecution of the cross of Christ, a persecution which is inflicted because of the cross of Christ.
Vel hoc etiam faciebant ad vitandam persecutionem, non solum Iudaeorum, sed etiam gentilium infidelium. Nam Romani imperatores, Caius Caesar et Octavius Augustus promulgaverunt leges, ut Iudaei ubicumque essent, proprio ritu, propriis caeremoniis servirent. Et ideo quicumque in Christum credebat et circumcisus non erat, persecutionibus, tam gentilium quam Iudaeorum, fiebat obnoxius. Ut ergo non inquietarentur de fide Christi, et in quiete viverent, cogebant eos circumcidi, secundum quod habetur in Glossa.
Or they did this to escape the persecution not only of the Jews but of the gentile unbelievers. For the Roman emperors, Gaius Caesar and Octavius Augustus, promulgated laws that wherever there were Jews, they might observe their own rite and ceremonies. Consequently, anyone who believed in Christ and was not circumcised was subject to persecution from the gentiles and Jews. Therefore, in order that they might not be troubled because of their faith in Christ and that they might live in peace, they constrained them to be circumcised, as is mentioned in a Gloss.
369. Sed quia possent dicere pseudo, quod non propter hoc circumcisionem inducunt, sed zelo legis solum, ideo hoc excludens probat quod dixit, cum dicit sic neque enim qui circumciduntur, et cetera.
369. But because the false brethren might say that they urged circumcision not for that reason, but solely because of their zeal for the law, then excluding this, he proves his proposition thus, when he says: for neither they themselves who are circumcised keep the law.
Constat enim quod si propter legis zelum aliquos ad legis observantias inducerent, mandarent etiam legem in aliis impleri. Sed neque illi qui circumciduntur, neque pseudo in aliis, scilicet in moralibus, quae potiora sunt in lege et in aliis observantiis custodiunt, Io. VII, 19: nemo ex vobis facit legem. Non ergo ex zelo legis circumcisionem inducunt. Rom. II, 25: circumcisio quidem prodest, si legem observes. Sed ideo volunt vos circumcidi, ut in carne vestra, id est in carnali vestra circumcisione, glorientur, apud Iudaeos, eo quod tam multos proselytos faciant. Matth. c. XXIII, 15: vae vobis, scribae et Pharisaei, qui circuitis mare et aridam, ut faciatis unum proselytum, et cetera.
For it is obvious that if through zeal for the law they urged certain ones to observe the law, they should also command the law to be fulfilled in other matters. But neither those who are circumcised nor the false brethren keep the law in other matters, namely, in moral matters, which are more important in the law, and in other observances: none of you keeps the law (John 7:19). Therefore it was not from zeal for the law that they urged circumcision: circumcision profits, indeed, if you keep law (Rom 2:25). But the reason why they will have you be circumcised is that in your flesh, i.e., in your fleshly circumcision, they may glory among the Jews for making so many proselytes: woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites; because you go round about the sea and the land to make one proselyte; and when he is made, you make him the child of hell twofold more than yourselves (Matt 23:15).
Gloria in cruce
Glory in the cross
6:14 Mihi autem absit gloriari, nisi in cruce Domini nostri Jesu Christi: per quem mihi mundus crucifixus est, et ego mundo. [n. 370]
6:14 But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified to me, and I to the world. [n. 370]
6:15 In Christo enim Jesu neque circumcisio aliquid valet, neque praeputium, sed nova creatura. [n. 374]
6:15 For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but a new creature. [n. 374]
370. Postquam Apostolus exposuit pravam seducentium intentionem, hic insinuat suam. Et
370. After unmasking the sinister intention of the seducers, the Apostle here insinuates his own intention.
primo ponit suam intentionem;
First, he states his intention;
secundo ostendit intentionis huius signum, ibi per quem mihi mundus, etc.;
second, he gives a sign of this intention, at by whom the world is crucified to me;
tertio rationem intentionis assignat, ibi in Christo Iesu, et cetera.
third, the reason for this intention, at for in Christ Jesus.
371. Dicit ergo: intentio seducentium apparet, quia illi gloriantur in carne, sed ego aliam gloriam quaero, scilicet in cruce. Et hoc est quod dicit mihi absit gloriari, et cetera. Vide quod ubi mundi philosophus erubuit, ibi Apostolus thesaurum reperit. Quod illi visum est stultitia, Apostolo factum est sapientia et gloria, ut dicit Augustinus. Unusquisque enim in ea re gloriatur, per quam reputatur magnus. Sic qui reputat se magnum in divitiis, gloriatur in eis, et sic de aliis. Qui enim in nullo alio se magnum reputat, nisi in Christo, gloriatur in solo Christo. Talis autem erat Apostolus. Unde dicebat supra II, v. 20: vivo ego, iam non ego, vivit vero in me Christus.
371. He says therefore: the intention of the seducers is obvious, for they glory in the flesh; but I seek my glory elsewhere, namely, in the cross. And this is what he says: but God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. Notice that where the worldly philosopher felt shame, there the Apostle found his treasure: what the former regarded as foolish became for the Apostle wisdom and glory, as Augustine says. For each person glories in that through which he is considered great. Thus a person who regards himself as great in his riches, glories in them; and so on for other things. For one who regards himself to be great in nothing but Christ glories in Christ alone. But the Apostle was such a one; hence he says: I do not live now: but Christ lives in me (Gal 2:20).
Et ideo non gloriatur nisi in Christo, praecipue autem in cruce Christi, et hoc quia in ipsa inveniuntur omnia, de quibus homines gloriari solent. Nam gloriantur aliqui de magnorum (puta regum aut principum) amicitia: et hoc maxime Apostolus invenit in cruce, quia ibi ostenditur evidens signum divinae amicitiae, Rom. V, 8: commendat autem suam caritatem Deus in nobis, et cetera. Nihil enim sic caritatem suam ad nos ostendit, sicut mors Christi. Unde Gregorius: o inaestimabilis dilectio caritatis. Ut servum redimeres, Filium tradidisti.
Accordingly he glories in nothing but Christ and particularly in the cross of Christ; and this because in it are found all the things about which men usually glory. For some glory in the friendship of the great, such as of kings and princes; and this friendship the Apostle found most of all in the cross, because there an obvious sign of divine friendship is shown: but God commends his charity towards us; because when as yet we were sinners according to the time, Christ died for us (Rom 5:8). For nothing shows his mercy to us as much as the death of Christ. Hence Gregory: O inestimable love of charity! To redeem the servant, he delivered his Son.
Item gloriantur aliqui de scientia. Et hanc Apostolus excellentiorem invenit in cruce. I Cor. II, 2: non enim aestimavi me aliquid scire inter vos, nisi Iesum Christum, et cetera. Nam in cruce est perfectio totius legis, et tota ars bene vivendi.
Again, some glory in knowledge; and of this the Apostle found a more excellent one in the cross: for I did not judge myself to know anything among you but Jesus Christ and him crucified (1 Cor 2:2). For in the cross is the perfection of all law and the whole art of living well.
Item gloriantur aliqui de potentia. Et hanc Apostolus maximam habuit per crucem. I Cor. c. I, 18: verbum crucis pereuntibus stultitia est, his autem qui salvi fiunt, id est nobis, virtus Dei est.
Again, some glory in power; and of this the Apostle found the highest form through the cross: the word of the cross to them, indeed, that perish is foolishness; but to them that are saved, that is, to us, it is the power of God (1 Cor 1:18).
Item gloriantur aliqui de libertate adepta. Et hanc Apostolus consecutus est per crucem. Rom. VI, 6: vetus noster homo crucifixus est, ut ultra non serviamus peccato.
Again, some glory in newly-found freedom; and this the Apostle obtained through the cross: our old man is crucified with him that the body of sin may be destroyed, to the end that we may serve sin no longer (Rom 6:6).
Item aliqui gloriantur in assumptione ad aliquod magnum collegium. Sed per crucem Christi assumuntur ad collegium caeleste. Col. I, 20: pacificans per sanguinem crucis eius, sive quae in caelis, sive quae in terris sunt.
Again, some glory in being accepted into some famous fellowship; but by the cross of Christ, we are accepted into the heavenly ranks: making peace through the blood of his cross, both as to the things that are on earth and the things that are in heaven (Col 1:20).