Secundo a quibus passus est, quia a peccatoribus, pro quibus patiebatur. I Petr. III, v. 18: Christus semel pro peccatis nostris mortuus est, iustus pro iniustis.
Second, from whom he suffered, namely, from sinners, for whom he suffered: Christ also died once for our sins, the just for the unjust (1 Pet 3:18).
Tertio persona patientis. Ante passionem enim ab origine mundi passus est in membris suis, sed tunc in propria persona. Unde dicit adversus semetipsum. Is. XLVI, 4: ego feci et ego feram. Ps. LXVIII, 5: quae non rapui tunc exsolvebam. I Petr. II, 24: peccata nostra ipse pertulit in corpore suo super lignum.
Third, the person suffering, for he suffered in his members from the beginning of the world before his passion, but then in his own person; hence, he says, against himself: I have made you, and I will bear (Isa 46:4); I paid that which I took not away (Ps 69:5); he bore our sins in his body upon the tree (1 Pet 2:24).
669. Utilitatem ostendit cum dicit ut non fatigemini. Consideratio enim passionis Christi facit nos non deficere. Gregorius: si passio Christi ad memoriam revocatur, nihil adeo durum est, quod non aequanimiter toleretur. Unde non deficiatis, tamquam fatigati animo, a veritate fidei. Is. XL, 31: current et non laborabunt, ambulabunt et non deficient. II Thess. III, 13: nolite deficere benefacientes.
669. He shows its usefulness, when he says, that you be not wearied. For the consideration of Christ’s passion makes us not fail: if Christ’s passion is recalled to mind, nothing is too difficult to bear with equanimity (Gregory). Therefore, let us not fall away from the truth of faith, as though weary in mind: they shall run and not be weary; they shall walk and not faint (Isa 40:3); be not weary in well-doing (2 Thess 3:13).
670. Rationem autem huius ponit, dicens nondum enim usque ad sanguinem restitistis. Quasi dicat: non debetis deficere in tribulationibus vestris pro vobis, quia nondum tantum sustinuistis sicut Christus. Ipse enim sanguinem suum fudit pro nobis. Matth. c. XXVI, 28: hic est sanguis Novi Testamenti, qui pro multis effundetur. Vos autem rapinam bonorum vestrorum sustinuistis.
670. Then when he says, you have not yet resisted unto blood, he gives the reason for this. As if to say: you should not grow weary in your tribulations because you have not endured as much as Christ. For he shed his blood for us: this is the blood of the new covenant which shall be shed for you (Matt 26:28). But you have suffered the loss of your goods.
Maius autem est de genere operis vitam dare, quam substantiam corporalem, licet aliquando ex radice operis, scilicet ex caritate, possit esse minus, sicut supra dictum est. Unde dicit: nondum enim restitistis repugnantes adversus peccatum, usque ad sanguinem, scilicet fundendum pro Christo.
Yet it is a greater work to give one’s life than external possessions; although sometimes the root from which it springs, namely, charity, might be less. Hence he says, for you have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin, namely, in the shedding of blood for Christ.
Deus filios eius castigat
God chastises his children
12:5 et obliti estis consolationis, quae vobis tamquam filiis loquitur, dicens: fili mi, noli negligere disciplinam Domini: neque fatigeris dum ab eo argueris. [n. 671]
12:5 And you have forgotten the consolation which speaks to you, as unto children, saying: my son, neglect not the discipline of the Lord: neither be you wearied while you are rebuked by him. [n. 671]
12:6 Quem enim diligit Dominus, castigat: flagellat autem omnem filium, quem recipit.
12:6 For whom the Lord loves he chastises: and he scourges every son whom he receives.
12:7 In disciplina perseverate. Tamquam filiis vobis offert se Deus: quis enim filius, quem non corripit pater? [n. 675]
12:7 Persevere under discipline. God deals with you as with his sons. For what son is there whom the father doth not correct? [n. 675]
12:8 quod si extra disciplinam estis, cujus participes facti sunt omnes: ergo adulteri, et non filii estis. [n. 677]
12:8 But if you be without chastisement, whereof all are made partakers, then are you bastards and not sons. [n. 677]
12:9 Deinde patres quidem carnis nostrae, eruditores habuimus, et reverebamur eos, non multo magis obtemperabimus Patri spirituum, et vivemus? [n. 679]
12:9 Moreover, we have had fathers of our flesh for instructors, and we reverenced them. Shall we not much more obey the Father of spirits and live? [n. 679]
12:10 Et illi quidem in tempore paucorum dierum, secundum voluntatem suam erudiebant nos: hic autem ad id quod utile est in recipiendo sanctificationem ejus. [n. 680]
12:10 And they indeed for a few days, according to their own pleasure, instructed us: but he, for our profit, that we might receive his sanctification. [n. 680]
12:11 Omnis autem disciplina in praesenti quidem videtur non esse gaudii, sed moeroris: postea autem fructum pacatissimum exercitatis per eam, reddet justitiae. [n. 681]
12:11 Now all chastisement for the present indeed seemeth not to bring with it joy, but sorrow: but afterwards it will yield to those who are exercised by it the most peaceable fruit of justice. [n. 681]
671. Supra induxit Apostolus ad mala patienter sustinenda exemplo antiquorum patrum et Christi, hic monet ad idem ex auctoritate Scripturae, unde
671. Having exhorted them to endure evil patiently, according to the example of the ancient fathers and Christ, the Apostle now exhorts them to do the same on the authority of Scripture.
circa hoc tria facit.
In regard to this he does three things.
Primo enim ponit auctoritatem;
First, he gives the authority;
secundo ostendit sensus eius, ibi in disciplina perseverate;
second, he explains its meaning, at persevere under discipline;
tertio arguit ad propositum ex praemissis, ibi quod si extra disciplinam.
third, he argues to his conclusion, at but if you be without chastisement.
672. Ponit auctoritatem, quae habetur Prov. III, 11; sed sub aliis verbis, quam littera nostra habeat. Ibi enim habemus sic: disciplinam Domini, fili mi, ne abiicias, nec deficias cum ab eo corriperis. Quem enim diligit Dominus, corripit et quasi pater in filio complacet sibi. Quia vero Apostolus inducit auctoritatem istam causa consolationis, ideo utitur aliis verbis. Unde dicit et obliti estis consolationis, quasi dicat: mirum est si obliti estis. Ps. XCIII, 19: secundum multitudinem dolorum meorum in corde meo consolationes tuae laetificaverunt animam meam. Idem: in aeternum non obliviscar iustificationes tuas.
672. He cites the authority, which is found in Proverbs, but in different words from our version; for we have: my son, reject not the correction of the Lord; and do not faint when you are chastised by him. For whom the Lord loves, he chastises; and as a father in the son he pleases himself (Prov 3:11). But because the Apostle quotes that authority for our consolation, he uses other words; hence, he says, and you have forgotten the consolation. As if to say: it is strange if you have forgotten: according to the multitude of my sorrows in my heart, your comforts have given joy to my soul (Ps 94:19); I will never forget your justifications (Ps 119:93).
Dicit autem, consolationis, id est Dei consolantis, et est emphatica locutio. II Cor. I, v. 3 s.: benedictus Deus et Pater Domini nostri Iesu Christi, Pater misericordiarum, et Deus totius consolationis, qui consolatur nos in omni tribulatione nostra.
But he says, consolation, i.e., God consoling; and he speaks emphatically: blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and the God of all comfort, who comforts us in all our tribulation (2 Cor 1:3).
Sequitur quae vobis, id est Deus consolationis, loquitur tamquam filiis. Ergo si punit, non odit: sed eius punitio ordinatur ad bonum, quia loquitur vobis tamquam filiis.
He continues, which speaks, i.e., the God of consolation, to you, as unto children. Therefore, if he chastises, he does not hate; but his chastisement is directed to our good, because he speaks to you, as unto children.
673. Verba autem auctoris ponit, dicens fili mi, et cetera. Et subdit rationem, ibi quem enim diligit, et cetera. In auctoritate vero prohibet duo; quia prohibet odium disciplinae, et impatientiam ad ipsam.
673. But he gives the words of the author, saying: my son, neglect not the discipline of the Lord; and he adds the reason, for whom the Lord loves he chastises. By this authority he forbids two things, namely hatred of discipline and impatience with it.
Propter primum dicit fili mi, noli negligere, sicut quidam qui odiunt disciplinam, de quibus dicitur, Prov. IX, 8: noli arguere derisorem, ne oderit te. Amos V, 10: odio habuerunt loquentem in porta, et corripientem perfecte abominati sunt. Dicit ergo Apostolus noli negligere disciplinam Domini, quasi dicat: cum Deus te flagellat causa disciplinae, noli negligere, id est, negligenter habere fastidiendo. Sap. III, 11: sapientiam et disciplinam qui abiicit infelix est.
By reason of the first he says, my son, neglect not the discipline of the Lord, as some who hate discipline and of whom it says in Proverbs: rebuke not a scorner, lest he hate you (Prov 9:8); they have hated him that rebukes in the gate; and have abhorred him that speaks perfectly (Amos 5:10). Therefore, the Apostle says, neglect not the discipline of the Lord. As if to say: God chastises you for discipline; do not neglect, i.e., do not despise it by negligence: he that rejects wisdom and discipline is unhappy (Wis 3:11).
Propter secundum dicit et ne fatigeris dum ab eo argueris. Quidam enim etsi correctionem duram non odiant, tamen impatienter portant, et ideo dicit neque fatigeris, et cetera. Tunc enim homo spiritualiter fatigatur, quando contristatur intantum, quod deficit. Supra eodem: ut non fatigemini animis vestris deficientes. Eccli. VI, 26: ne acidieris in vinculis illius.
By reason of the second he says, neither be you wearied while you are rebuked by him. For some, even though they do not hate a harsh correction, bear it impatiently; therefore, he says, neither be you wearied. For a man is spiritually wearied when he is so sad that he faints: that you be not wearied, fainting in your minds (Heb 12:3); be not grieved with her bonds (Sir 6:26).
674. Deinde cum dicit quem enim diligit Dominus, castigat, assignat causam. Sicut autem dicit Philosophus, verbum castigationis communiter accipitur in pueris et in concupiscentia. Dicimus enim castum, cuius concupiscentia castigata est. Similiter puer dicitur castigatus, qui est bene disciplinatus. Quod enim de se habet pronitatem ad malum, indiget refraenante. Talis autem est concupiscentia, et pueri, qui de se sequuntur impetus suos, ideo indigent castigante.
674. Then when he says, for whom the Lord loves he chastises, he gives the reason. But as the Philosopher says, the word ‘chastisement’ is generally used in regard to children and to concupiscence: for we call a person chaste whose concupiscence has been chastised. Similarly, a child is said to be chastised when he is well disciplined. For something prone to evil needs restraining. But concupiscence is such, and so is a child who follows his own impulses; therefore, they need chastening.
Ille ergo, qui castigat, ideo hoc facit ne tendant in malum. Et quia sensus nostri, et cogitatio nostra prona sunt ad malum, ut dicitur Gen. VIII, 21, ideo Dominus castigat nos, ut retrahat nos a malo. Ps. CXVII, 18: castigans castigavit me Dominus, et morti non tradidit me. Ier. XXXI, 18: castigasti me, et eruditus sum quasi iuvenculus indomitus.
Therefore, one who chastises does so to keep them from evil. And because our senses and thoughts are prone to evil (Gen 6:5), the Lord chastises us to draw us back from evil: the Lord chastising has chastised me; but he has not delivered me over to death (Ps 118:18); you have chastised me, and I was instructed as a young bullock unaccustomed to the yoke (Jer 31:18).
In hoc autem castigat, quia flagellat, non quidem ad condemnationem, sed ad salutem. Unde dicit, quod flagellat omnem filium quem recipit. Et ideo, qui non flagellantur non sunt de numero filiorum. Ps. LXXII, 5: in labore hominum non sunt, et cum hominibus non flagellabuntur, unde est signum quasi aeternae reprobationis. Ez. XVI, 42: auferetur zelus meus a te. Nec mirum si flagellat omnem filium quem recipit per adoptionem: quia proprio Filio suo non pepercit. Lc. ult. v. 26: oportuit Christum pati.
But he chastises, because he scourges, not to punish but to save. Hence he says, and he scourges every son whom he receives. Therefore, those who are not scourged are not numbered among his sons: they are not in the labor of men; neither shall they be scourged like other men (Ps 73:5). Hence, it is a sign, as it were, of eternal reprobation: my jealousy shall depart from you (Ezek 16:42). Nor is it strange if he scourges every son he adopts because he did not spare his own Son: ought not Christ to have suffered these things? (Luke 24:26).
675. Consequenter cum dicit in disciplina perseverate, ostendit sensum auctoritatis praeallegatae: et primo ostendit sensum monitionis; secundo sensum rationis assignat, ibi tamquam filiis; tertio ostendit rationem istam esse convenientem, ibi quis enim filius.
675. Then he shows the meaning of the above scriptural quotation when he says, persevere under discipline: first, he explains the meaning of the admonition; second, the meaning of the reason, at God deals with you; third, he shows that the reason is fitting, at for what son is there.
676. Monitio autem Apostoli fuerat, quod non debebant negligere disciplinam Domini, nec etiam fatigari. Utrumque autem comprehendit in his verbis. Non negligere enim, nec etiam fatigari sub disciplina, non est aliud quam in disciplina perseverare. Unde Iob VI, 10: haec mihi sit consolatio, ut affligens me dolore, non parcat. Ps. II, 12: apprehendite disciplinam, et cetera.
676. The Apostle’s advice was not to neglect the Lord’s discipline and not to become weary. But he includes both in these words, for not to neglect and not to grow weary are nothing less than to persevere under discipline; hence: this is my consolation, that afflicting me with sorrow, he spare not (Job 6:10); embrace discipline, lest at any time the Lord be angry (Ps 2:12).
Quare autem non debemus negligere, dixerat quia quem diligit Dominus, etc., unde hic dicit tamquam filiis vobis se offert Deus. Quasi dicat: ideo perseverate, quia offert se tamquam filiis. Ier. III, 19: patrem vocabis me, et post me ingredi non cessabis.
He told us why we should not be negligent when he said, whom the Lord loves he chastises; hence, he says here: God deals with you as with his sons. As if to say: persevere, because he deals with you as with his sons: you shall call me Father and shall not cease to walk after me (Jer 3:19).
Consequenter ostendit istam rationem esse convenientem, dicens quis enim filius quem non corripit pater? Ad patrem enim pertinet corrigere filium suum. Prov. XIII, 24: qui parcit virgae, odit filium suum: qui autem diligit illum, instanter erudit. Eccli. XXX, 8: equus indomitus evadet durus, et filius remissus evadet praeceps. Et ideo necessaria est correctio: sicut Paulo datus stimulus carnis, ne per superbiam corrueret, II Cor. XII, 7.
Then he shows that the reason is fitting when he says, for what son is there whom the father does not correct? For it is the father’s duty to correct his son: he that spares the rod hates his son; but he that loves him corrects him betimes (Prov 13:2); a horse not broken becomes stubborn; and a child left to himself will become headstrong (Sir 30:8). Therefore, correction is necessary, as a sting of the flesh was given to Paul, lest he fall (2 Cor 12:7).
677. Deinde cum dicit quod si extra disciplinam, etc., arguit ex praemissis, et
677. Then when he says but if you be without chastisement, he argues from what he has already said:
primo deducendo ad inconveniens;
first, he concludes to something unwelcome;
secundo ex quodam exemplo, ibi deinde patres, etc.;
second, by giving an example, at moreover, we have had fathers;
tertio ex utilitate consequente, ibi omnis autem disciplina, et cetera.
third, he mentions the resulting usefulness, at now all chastisement.