234. Ad evidentiam autem primae partis sciendum est quod Achaz fuit impius et idolatra, sicut legitur IV Reg. XVI 2–4 et II Paral. XXVII; et ideo Dominus tradidit eum in manu regis Syriae et Samariae, qui primo venerunt contra eum, et obsidentes Jerusalem tandem devincentes ipsum, magnam partem exercitus sui ceperunt et principem exercitus ejus. Iterum ex illa victoria confisi, venerunt ut omnino privarent eum regno et substituerent alium loco ejus. Et in hoc secundo adventu consolatur eum Isaias.
234. To understand the first part, it should be known that Achaz was impious and an idolater, as we read in 2 Kings 16:2–4 and 2 Chronicles 27; and therefore, the Lord gave him into the hand of the kings of Syria and Samaria, who first came against him and, besieging Jerusalem and finally conquering it, captured the greater part of his army and the chief of his army. Confident from that victory, they came again to deprive him of the kingdom entirely, and substitute another in his place. And in this second coming, Isaiah consoled him.
235. Tria ergo ponuntur in prima parte.
235. Three things, therefore, are set out in the first part.
Primo describitur hostium congregatio, unde dicit et factum est in diebus Achaz. Reducit autem genealogiam usque ad Oziam, quia forte in percussione Oziae qua percussus est lepra a Domino, II Paral. XXVI 19–23, qui tamen justus fuerat, acceperunt audaciam invadendi, quasi contemnentes divinum auxilium. Ascendit, hoc dicitur propter situm terrae, quia Judaea in montanis est; Phacee, qui interfecit Phacejam regem Israel, cujus princeps militiae erat, et regnavit pro eo; et non potuerunt, in prima vice, quamvis regem in campo devincerent. Vel loquitur per anticipationem, quantum ad secundam ascensionem.
First, the gathering of the enemies is described; hence he says: and it came to pass in the days of Achaz. And he takes the genealogy back to Ozias, perhaps because it was when Ozias was struck with leprosy by the Lord (2 Chr 26:19–23), though he had once been just, that they received the daring to invade as though disdaining divine help. Came up, this is said because of the position of the land, for Judah is in the mountains; Phacee, who killed Phaceia king of Israel, whose chief of military he was, and reigned in his place; but they could not prevail over it, the first time, although they conquered the king in the battlefield. Or this is said by anticipation, as to the second time they came up.
236. Secundo ponit huius denuntiationem: et nuntiaverunt, sui exploratores, domui David, id est domui regiae, dicentes: requievit Syria super Ephraim, id est rex Syriae cum rege decem tribuum, quae Ephraim dicuntur propter primum regem qui de Ephraim fuerat, III Reg. XIII, vel propter dignitatem; sunt amicitia juncti qui tamen fuerunt prius inimici, sicut legitur III Reg. ult. et penult. Et dicit Syria super Ephraim, ut notetur principalitas in regno Syriae, quia fortius erat.
236. Second, he sets out the declaration of this: and they, his scouts, told the house of David, that is, the royal house, saying: Syria has rested upon Ephraim, that is, the king of Syria with the king of the ten tribes, which are called Ephraim, because of their first king, who belonged to the tribe of Ephraim (1 Kings 13) or because of honor; they were joined in friendship although they were formerly enemies, as is read in 1 Kings 22. And he says, Syria has rested upon Ephraim, that it be noted that the kingdom of Syria held the first place in the alliance, because it was stronger.
237. Tertio ponitur denuntiationis effectus, perturbatio scilicet regis et suorum: et commotum est cor populi ejus, vel cor ejus, scilicet regis, Eccl. XXII 23 sic et cor trepidum in cogitatione fatui, Prov. XXI 15 et pavor operantibus iniquitatem, Matth. II 3 audiens autem Herodes rex turbatus est, et omnis Jerosolyma cum illo.
237. Third, the effect of the declaration is set out, namely disturbance of the king and his people: and his, namely, the king’s, heart was moved, and the heart of his people: so also a fearful heart in the thought of a fool (Sir 22:23); and dread to them that work iniquity (Prov 21:15); and king Herod hearing this, was troubled, and all Jerusalem with him (Matt 2:3).
238. Et dixit Dominus ad Isaiam. Hic promittitur liberatio.
238. And the Lord said to Isaiah. Here liberation is promised.
Et primo ponitur promissionis modus;
And first, the manner of the promise is set out;
secundo ipsa promissio: et dices ad eum.
second, the promise itself: and you shall say to him (Isa 7:4).
Modus autem ponitur
And the manner is set out
primo quantum ad personam nuntiantem: dixit Dominus ad Isaiam, interius inspirando, vel loquens per subjectam creaturam: egredere in occursum Achaz, qui forte propter timorem hostium iverat ut praepararet se ad resistendum.
first, as to the person announcing it: the Lord said to Isaiah, inspiring him inwardly, or speaking through a subordinate creature: go forth to meet Achaz, who perhaps because of fear of the enemy had gone to prepare himself to resist.
Secundo quantum ad testem: et qui derelictus est Jasub tibi, alio fratre, scilicet Rapsace, ex matre nobiliore nato, fugiente ad regem Assyriorum, quia non bene receptus fuit ab Achaz: de quo infra XXXVI 2; Deut. XIX 15 in ore duorum aut trium stabit omne verbum.
Second, as to the witness: and Jasub your son that is left, to you, the other brother, namely, Rabsaces, who was born from a more noble mother, having fled to the king of the Assyrians, because he was not received well by Achaz: about whom, see below (Isa 36:2); in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word shall stand (Deut 19:15).
Tertio quantum ad locum: ad extremum. Ad cujus evidentiam sciendum est quod, quia Jerusalem in montanis est, non abundat aquis fluentibus, et ideo habebant aquas collectas in piscinis vel ex pluviis vel ex longinquis fontibus per aquaeductus. Erant autem tres piscinae in Jerusalem: una quae erat ad usum sacerdotum et sacrificiorum, quae dicitur probatica piscina, de qua Jo. V 2; secunda erat inferius in civitate, quae munda servabatur ad communem usum civitatis; tertia erat extra civitatem, quae habebat aquam immundam, in qua fullones lavabant lanam et erat ad hujusmodi usus; et ab illa piscina dicitur totus fullonis ager. Et sic patet quod dicitur in littera.
Third, as to the place, to the end. To understand this, it should be known that because Jerusalem is in the mountains, it does not abound in flowing waters, and therefore, they had water in pools, collected either from the rain or from remote springs via aqueducts. Now there were three pools in Jerusalem: one which was for the use of the priests and sacrifices, which was called the Probatica pool, about which, see John 5:2; the second was lower in the city and was kept clean for the general use of the city; the third was outside the city and had unclean water; in it fullers would wash wool, and it was for this kind of use: and from that pool is named the whole fuller’s field. And thus is made clear what is said in the text.
239. Et dices ad eum. Hic ponit promissionem:
239. And you shall say to him. Here he sets out the promise:
et primo ponit confortationem;
and first, he sets out strengthening;
secundo confortationis rationem: a duabus caudis;
second, the reason for strengthening: of the two tails of these firebrands;
tertio incredulorum condemnationem, ibi si non credideritis.
third, the condemnation of the unbelieving, where it says, if you will not believe, you shall not continue (Isa 7:9).
Confortat autem prohibens timoris signum: vide ut sileas, id est cave ne timorem cordis exterius prodas, infra XXX 15 in silentio et in spe erit fortitudo vestra, eodem XXXII 17 et erit opus justitiae pax et cultus justitiae, silentium et securitas usque in sempiternum. Et etiam ostendit timoris transitum: noli timere mala futura, et cor tuum ne formidet propter memoriam malorum quae passus es, infra XLIII 5 noli timere, quoniam ego tecum sum; ab oriente educam semen tuum, et ab occidente congregabo te.
And he strengthens them, prohibiting the sign of fear: see you be quiet, that is, beware lest you outwardly reveal the fear of your heart, below: in silence and in hope shall your strength be (Isa 30:15), and in the same place: and the work of justice shall be peace, and the service of justice quietness, and security for ever (Isa 32:17). And he also shows the passage of fear: fear not, the evils to come, and let not your heart be afraid, because of the memory of the evils which you have suffered, below: fear not, for I am with you: I will bring your seed from the east, and gather you from the west (Isa 43:5).
240. A duabus caudis. Hic ponit confortationis rationem.
240. Of the two tails. Here he sets out the reason for strengthening.
Et primo ostendit proponentium vanitatem, qui magna proponunt, qui tamen nihil vel parum possunt subsistere: duabus caudis, quia in eis finitum est regnum. Rasin enim interfectus est a Teglathphalasar, IV Reg. XVI 9, et sui in captivitatem ducti; sed Phacee subjugatus fuit et postea interfectus ab hoste, qui postmodum captus est a rege Salmanasar, et decem tribus captivatae, IV Reg. XVII 3–6. Fumigantium: tunc enim sunt vicini extinctioni. et suscitemus eum, quasi somno quiescentem, et avellamus, trahamus in potestatem nostram. Filium Tabeel, ad litteram quemdam hominem, vel idolum dei nostri; Tabeel, bonus Deus.
And first, he shows the vanity of the proposers, who propose great things, though they can sustain nothing or very little: the two tails, because the kingdom was ended in them. For Rasin was killed by Theglathphalasar (2 Kings 16:9), and led his people into captivity; but Phacee was made subject, and afterwards was killed by an enemy, who a little later was captured by Salmanasar, and the ten tribes were taken captive (2 Kings 17:3–6). Smoking: for they were then near to being extinguished. Rouse it up, like someone resting in sleep, and draw it away, that is, let us draw it into our power. The son of Tabeel, literally, a certain man, or an idol of our god; Tabeel means “God is good.”
241. Secundo quantum ad propositi frustrationem: haec dicit Dominus, qui omnia potest, non erit istud, quia non perducetur ad effectum, et non stabit, quia non diu durabunt in tali proposito, majoribus malis in eos irruentibus, infra VIII 10 inite consilium, et dissipabitur; loquimini verbum, et non fiet: quia nobiscum Deus.
241. Second, as to the frustration of the proposal: thus says the Lord, who can do all things, this shall not be, because it will not be carried into effect, and it shall not stand, because they will not last long in such a proposal, with greater evils rushing in upon them, below: take counsel together, and it shall be defeated: speak a word, and it shall not be done: because God is with us (Isa 8:10).
242. Tertio quantum ad hostium destructionem; et primo quantum ad Assyrios: sed caput Syriae, quasi dicat: sed interim, et antequam destruantur; caput Syriae Damascus, quasi: erunt Damasceni et rex eorum contenti suis finibus. Et adhuc sexaginta et quinque anni, quia captivabuntur. Isti anni non debent computari a tempore hujus prophetiae sed a tempore quo Ozias percussus est lepra, quia tunc assumpserunt audaciam, vigesimo sexto anno regni ejus. Et ex tunc Joathan filius ejus regnavit vivente patre viginti et septem annis, et postea sexdecim, et postea Achaz sexdecim, et postea Ezechias, cujus sexto anno captus est populus, IV Reg. XVIII. Et hi omnes collecti sunt sexaginta et quinque anni. Et caput Ephraim: ut supra.
242. Third, as to the destruction of the enemies; and first, as to the Assyrians: but the head of Syria, as if to say: but in the meantime, and before they are destroyed, the head of Syria is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is Rasin, as if to say: the Damascenes and their king will be contained in their borders. And within threescore and five years, Ephraim shall cease to be a people, because they will be taken captive. These years should not be computed from the time of this prophecy, but from the time when Ozias was struck with leprosy, because it was then that they received the daring to invade, in the twenty-sixth year of his reign. And from that time Joathan his son reigned twenty-seven years, while his father still lived, and afterwards sixteen years; then Achaz reigned sixteen years, and then Ezechias, in the sixth year of whose reign, the people were taken captive (2 Kings 17:5). And these taken together are sixty-five years. And the head of Ephraim, as above.
243. Si non credideritis. Hic ponit incredulorum condemnationem. Si non credideritis, scilicet promissis Domini, etiam vos non permanebitis in terra vestra, sed captivabimini, Habacuc II 4 ecce qui incredulus est non erit recta anima ejus in semet ipso. Et dicit hoc quia Achaz non credens prophetiae invocavit auxilium regis Assyriorum Teglathphalasar ut adjuvaret eum, qui ad petitionem ejus venit et destruxit Damascum et regem interfecit; et cum dedisset sibi munera, tamen nihil sibi profuit, sicut dicitur II Paral. XXVIII 21.
243. If you will not believe. Here he places the condemnation of the unbelieving. If you will not believe, namely in the promises of the Lord, you too shall not continue in your land, but you will be taken captive: behold, he that is unbelieving, his soul shall not be right in himself (Hab 2:4). And he says this because Achaz, not believing the prophecy, called upon the support of the king of Assyrians, Theglathphalasar, that he might help him; Theglathphalasar came at his petition and destroyed Damascus and killed its king; and though he had given him tribute, nevertheless it profited him nothing, as is said in 2 Chronicles 28:21.
7:10 Et adjecit Dominus loqui ad Achaz dicens:
7:10 And the Lord spoke again to Achaz, saying:
7:11 Pete tibi signum a Domino Deo tuo in profundum inferni sive in excelsum supra.
7:11 Ask you a sign of the Lord your God, either unto the depth of hell, or unto the height above.
7:12 Et dixit Achaz: non petam et non tentabo Dominum.
7:12 And Achaz said: I will not ask, and I will not tempt the Lord.
7:13 Et dixit: audite ergo domus David. Numquid parum vobis est molestos esse hominibus quia molesti estis et Deo meo?
7:13 And he said: hear you therefore, O house of David: is it a small thing for you to be grievous to men, that you are grievous to my God also?
7:14 Propter hoc dabit Dominus ipse vobis signum. Ecce virgo concipiet et pariet filium, et vocabitur nomen ejus Emmanuel;
7:14 Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign. Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son and shall call his name Emmanuel.
7:15 butyrum et mel comedet, ut sciat reprobare malum et eligere bonum;
7:15 He shall eat butter and honey, that he may know to refuse the evil, and to choose the good.
7:16 quia antequam sciat puer reprobare malum et eligere bonum derelinquetur terra quam tu detestaris a facie duorum regum suorum.
7:16 For before the child know to refuse the evil and to choose the good, the land which you abhor shall be forsaken of the face of her two kings.
7:17 Adducet Dominus super te et super populum tuum et super domum patris tui dies qui non venerunt a diebus separationis Ephraim a Juda cum rege Assyriorum.
7:17 The Lord shall bring upon you, and upon your people, and upon the house of your father, days that have not come since the time of the separation of Ephraim from Judah with the king of the Assyrians.
7:18 Et erit in die illa, sibilabit Dominus muscæ quæ est in extremo fluminum Ægypti, et api quæ est in terra Assur,
7:18 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall whistle for the fly, that is in the uttermost parts of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria.
7:19 et venient et requiescent omnes in torrentibus vallium et in cavernis petrarum et in omnibus frutetis et in universis foraminibus.
7:19 And they shall come, and shall all of them rest in the torrents of the valleys, and in the holes of the rocks, and upon all places set with shrubs, and in all hollow places.
7:20 In die illa radet Dominus in novacula acuta in his qui trans flumen sunt, in rege Assyriorum caput et pilos pedum et barbam universam.
7:20 In that day the Lord shall shave with a sharp razor by them that are beyond the river, by the king of the Assyrians, the head and the hairs of the feet, and the whole beard.
7:21 Et erit in die illa, nutriet homo vaccam boum et duas oves,
7:21 And it shall come to pass in that day, that a man shall nourish a young cow, and two sheep.