244. Et adiecit loqui ad Achaz. Hic ponitur liberationis signum.
244. And the Lord spoke again to Achaz. Here the sign of liberation is set out.
Et primo datur optio ad signum eligendum;
And first, the liberty to choose a sign is given;
secundo confertur signum ad credendum: propter hoc dabit.
second, the sign for believing is conferred: therefore the Lord himself shall give (Isa 7:14).
Circa primum tria ponuntur.
Concerning the first, three things are set out.
Primo optio eligendi signum conceditur: et dixit Dominus ad Achaz—quia prophetas contemnebat, ipse per se dixit: quia videtur durum quod tam potentes reges ita cito destruantur—, pete tibi signum, ut credas, a Domino Deo tuo. Ex hoc videtur quod sit sermo prophetae; et dicendum quod mos est hebraici sermonis ut utatur nominibus pro pronominibus: unde a Domino Deo tuo, id est a me. Vel est verbum Domini per inspirationem et prophetae per denuntiationem, infra VIII 19 numquid non propheta a Deo suo. In profundum inferni, ut aperiatur terra et infernus pateat, sicut in subversionem Dathan et Abiron, Num. XVI 31–33; vel per infernum inferiora elementa, sicut Moyses de terra locustas et cyniphes, Exo. IX; sive in excelsum supra, sicut Josue in statione solis X 12–13, Judaei enim signa quaerunt, I Cor. I 22.
First, the liberty of choosing a sign is conceded: and the Lord said to Achaz—because he disdained the prophets, the Lord himself spoke: because it seems hard that such powerful kings would be destroyed so quickly—ask you a sign, that you might believe, of the Lord your God. From this it seems that these may be the words of the prophet; and to this is to be said that it is a custom of Hebrew speech to use a noun for a pronoun: hence, of the Lord your God, that is, “of me.” Or they are the words of the Lord through inspiration, and of the prophet through declaration, below: should not the prophet seek of his God? (Isa 8:19). Unto the depth of hell, that the earth be opened and hell be exposed, as in the destruction of Dathan and Abiron (Num 16:31–33); or by hell is meant the lower elements, as Moses brought forth locusts and gnats from the earth (Exod 8:16–19, 10:1–20); or unto the height above, as Joshua, when the sun stood still (Josh 10:1–15): for the Jews seek signs (1 Cor 1:22).
245. Secundo oblati refutatio: et dixit: non petam, vel quia in idolis confidebat, vel in rege Assyriorum, vel invidens Dei gloriae, vel quia timebat offendere Deum in angustia positus, infra XXVI 16 Domine, in angustia requisierunt te. Unde dicit non tentabo, innixus ei quod dicitur Deut. VI 16 non tentabis Dominum Deum tuum. Sed male intellexit, quia licebat ei auctoritate Domini petere signum, sicut Gedeon in vellere, Jud. VI 36.
245. Second, the refusal of the offer: and Achaz said: I will not ask, either because he was trusting in idols or in the king of the Assyrians, or because he was jealous of the glory of God, or because, being placed in distress, he feared to offend God, below: Lord, they have sought after you in distress (Isa 26:16). Hence he says, I will not tempt, for he relied on what is said in Deuteronomy 6:16: you shall not tempt the Lord your God. But he understood badly, for by the authority of the Lord he was allowed to seek a sign, as Gideon with the fleece (Judg 6:36–40).
246. Tertio ponitur refutantis increpatio: et dixit, scilicet Isaias: ergo ex quo tam rebelles estis, audite ergo domus David, propter consensum in malitia regis, vel quia David promissus Christus datur signum, Ps. de fructu ventris tui ponam super sedem. Numquid parum vobis est, ad merendam divinam iram, esse molestos hominibus quos spoliatis, vel prophetis quibus non creditis; quia molesti estis, per rebellionem, Deo meo, non vestro, cui non obedistis, Jer. XXIII 33 ut quid vobis onus? Projiciam quippe vos, dicit Dominus.
246. Third, the rebuke of the one who refuses is set out: and he, namely, Isaiah, said: therefore, since you are so rebellious, hear you therefore, O house of David, because of its consent in the malice of the king, or because the promised Christ is given as a sign to David: of the fruit of your womb I will set upon your throne (Ps 131:11). Is it a small thing for you, to merit divine wrath, to be grievous to men, whom you plunder, or to the prophets, in whom you do not believe; that you are grievous, through rebellion, to my God, not yours, whom you did not obey: why is this a burden to you? for I will cast you away, says the Lord (Jer 23:33).
247. Propter hoc. Hic datur signum ad credendum.
247. Therefore. Here the sign for belief is given.
Et primo confertur signum liberationis;
And first, the sign of liberation is conferred;
secundo comminatur incredulis poenam destructionis: adducet Dominus.
second, he threatens the unbelieving with the punishment of destruction: the Lord shall bring upon you (Isa 7:17).
Hoc autem signum est de Christi incarnatione. Sed contra hoc objiciunt Judaei multipliciter.
Now this is the sign of the Incarnation of Christ. But the Jews object against this in many ways.
Primo quia Dominus dabat signum illius liberationis ad quam nihil consonat Christi incarnatio.
First, that the Lord was giving a sign of the liberation of the Jews at that time, with which the Incarnation of Christ agrees in nothing.
Ad quod dicendum quod incarnatio Christi significat ipsam quasi per locum a majori: quia si Deus dabit Filium suum ad salutem totius mundi, multo magis potest salvare vos ab istis hostibus, Ro. VIII 32 qui proprio Filio suo non pepercit sed pro nobis omnibus tradidit illum; vel quasi causa motiva, hoc enim quasi movit Dominum quod multa bona illi populo, quamvis injusto, concedantur, quia de illo providerat Filium suum incarnandum.
To which is to be said that the Incarnation of Christ signifies that liberation by an argument from the greater: for if God will give his son for the salvation of the whole world, much more can he save you from these enemies? He that spared not even his own Son, but delivered him up for us all (Rom 8:32); or as a motive cause, for this moves the Lord, as it were, since many good things are conceded to this people, however unjust they were, because he had provided for his Son to be made incarnate from them.
248. Item objiciunt quia signum sequens datur ad praesentes, sed incarnatio non fuit facta temporibus illorum, et sic videtur quod hoc nullum sit signum.
248. Likewise they object that the sign that follows is given to those who are present, but the Incarnation did not happen in their time, and so it would appear that no sign was given.
Ad quod dicendum quod incarnatio, quamvis non fuerit facta praesentibus illis hominibus, fuit tamen manente domo David: unde dicit audite domus David, non autem “audi Achaz.”
To which is to be said that, although the Incarnation did not happen in the presence of those men, it nevertheless did happen in the presence of the abiding house of David: hence he says, hear, O house of David (Isa 7:13), but not, “hear, Achaz.”
249. Item objiciunt quia signum debet praecedere signatum; sed incarnatio fuit diu post liberationem illam: ergo non fuit signum ejus.
249. Likewise they object that a sign ought to precede the thing signified; but the Incarnation happened long after this liberation; therefore it was not a sign of it.
Ad quod dicendum quod signum quandoque sequitur signatum, sicut Deut. XVIII 22 hoc habebis signum: quod in nomine Domini propheta ille praedixerit et non evenerit, hoc Dominus non est locutus; quandoque est simul, II Reg. V 24 cum audieris sonitum gradientis in cacumine pirorum, tunc inibis praelium; quandoque praecedit, sicut Jud. VII 5–7 de Gedeone, ubi datum est signum quod vincere debebat in his qui aquam manibus lambuerant. Et oportet de necessitate quod hoc signum sequatur, etiam secundum quod ipsi exponunt: si enim praecedit, tunc puer parum fuit natus ante mortem Phacee qui regnavit viginti annis, cujus decimo septimo anno regnavit Achaz, qui regnavit sexdecim annis; ergo Achaz regnavit tredecim annis post mortem ejus. Et Osee regnavit duodecimo anno Achaz, cujus nono anno Samaria capta est, qui fuit sextus annus post mortem Achaz; ergo in captivitate Samariae ad minus habebat puer decem et novem annos: ergo falsum est quod infra dicitur quod puer nesciebat vocare patrem et matrem.
To which is to be said that sometimes a sign follows the thing signified, as Deuteronomy 18:22: you shall have this sign: whatsoever that same prophet foretells in the name of the Lord, and it comes not to pass: that thing the Lord has not spoken; sometimes it occurs at the same time: when you shall hear the sound of one going in the tops of the pear trees, then shall you join battle (2 Sam 5:24); sometimes the sign precedes the thing signified, as with Gideon in Judges 7:5–7, when the sign was given that he ought to conquer with those who had lapped up water with their hands. And it is necessary that this sign should follow the thing signified, even as they themselves explain: for if it preceded it, then the child was born before the death of Phacee, who reigned twenty years; in the seventeenth year of his reign, Achaz began to reign, and Achaz reigned sixteen years; therefore, Achaz reigned thirteen years after the death of Phacee. And in the twelfth year of Achaz, Osee began to reign. In the ninth year of his reign, Samaria was captured, which was six years after the death of Achaz. Therefore, at the capture of Samaria, the child would have been at least nineteen years old; and thus what is said below in 8:4, that the child did not know to call his father and mother, would be false.
250. Item objiciunt quod in hebraeo non est virgo, sed alma, quae apud eos significat juvenculam nubilem, sicut habetur Gen. XXIV 16 de Rebecca, ubi nos habemus puella decora nimis et ipsi habent alma; et si etiam habeatur bethula, quod apud eos significat virginem, non oportet quod manens virgo conciperet, quia poterat esse quod quae tunc erat virgo postea ex semine viri corrupta concepisset.
250. Likewise they object that in Hebrew it does not say virgin, but alma, which, according to them, signifies a marriageable young girl, as is found in Genesis 24:16 concerning Rebecca; where we have an exceeding comely maid, they also have alma. And even if it said bethula, which, according to them, signifies a virgin, this does not necessarily mean that she conceives while remaining a virgin, because it may be that she who was a virgin at the time of the prophecy, should conceive afterwards, having been corrupted by the seed of a man.
Ad quod dicendum quod nullum signum esset si juvencula conciperet et etiam virgo corrupta; Dominus autem aliquod magnum voluit significare cum dixit in profundum inferni sive in excelsum supra. Ideo autem apud nos ponitur magis alma quam juvencula, quia alma significat virginem secundum nominis originem, et adhuc plus: custoditam, de qua non possit esse mali suspicio; sed bethula significat secundum usum loquendi posteriorem.
To which is to be said that it would be no sign at all if a young woman should conceive, and even a corrupted virgin. The Lord, however, wished to signify something great, when he said: unto the depth of hell, or unto the height above (Isa 7:11). Therefore, according to us, alma is used rather than young girl, because alma signifies a virgin, according to the origin of the word, and still more, it means one who is protected, about whom there can be no suspicion of evil. But bethula signifies virgin according to a later manner of speaking.
251. Exponunt autem Judaei dupliciter: quidam de Ezechia, quidam de filio Isaiae quem fingunt esse Manuel vocatum.
The Jews, however, explain this verse in two ways. Some say it concerns Ezechias; some say it concerns the son of Isaiah, whom they imagine to have been called Emmanuel.
Sed quod primum non possit stare, sic ostenditur quia Ezechias erat viginti quinque annorum quando coepit regnare, II Reg. XVIII, et Achaz regnavit sexdecim annis, IV Reg. XVI 2; ergo Ezechias erat novem annorum quando pater suus incepit regnare, et sic non promittitur hic nasciturus. Praeterea, quomodo nescisset vocare patrem et matrem, cum sexto anno regni ejus capta fuerit Samaria?
But that the first cannot stand is thus shown, because Ezechias was twenty-five years old when he began to reign (2 Kgs 18:2), and Achaz reigned sixteen years (2 Kgs 16:2); therefore Ezechias was ten years old when his father began to reign; and thus he could not be promised to be born here. Moreover, how would he not know to call his father and mother, when, in the sixth year of his reign, Samaria was captured?
Item, quod secundum non possit stare ostenditur quia hoc nullum signum fuisset; et praeterea filius Isaiae non fuit Dominus Judaeae, cum tamen dicatur infra VIII 8 terra Judaea esse Emmanuel possessive. Et ideo oportet quod intelligatur de Filio Dei.
Likewise, that the second cannot stand is shown because this would be no sign at all. And moreover the son of Isaiah was not Lord of Judea, and yet, in Isaiah 8:8, the land of Judea is spoken of as a possession of Emmanuel. And therefore it is necessary to understand this to be speaking of the son of God.
252. Secundum hoc ergo tria facit.
252. Following this, therefore, he does three things.
Primo promittit signum: propter hoc, quia vos non vultis petere, ipse dabit signum vobis vestrae liberationis. Hoc etiam signum datum est pastoribus, Lucae II 12 et hoc vobis signum: invenietis infantem pannis involutum etc.
First, he promises the sign: therefore, because you do not wish to ask, the Lord himself shall give you a sign, of your liberation. This sign is also given to the shepherds in Luke 2:12: and this shall be a sign unto you. You shall find the infant wrapped in swaddling clothes.
253. Secundo ponitur ipsum signum: ecce virgo.
253. Second, the sign itself is set out, behold a virgin.
Et primo ponitur miraculosa conceptio: ecce virgo, manens virgo, concipiet, in partu, pariet filium.
And first, the miraculous conception is set out: behold a virgin, remaining a virgin, shall conceive, in giving birth, bear a son.
Secundo mirabilis generati vocatio; et primo quantum ad divinitatem: vocabit, scilicet virgo; vel vocabis tu, Juda, in periculis; nomen ejus Emmanuel, quod est interpretatum “nobiscum Deus,” Matth. I 23 vocabis nomen ejus Emmanuel. Et hoc totum nullum simile habet in aliis, quia novum est, Jer. XXXI 22 creavit Dominus novum super terram: mulier—vel femina—circumdabit virum, unde perfectum hominem in ipsa conceptione, quamvis non secundum quantitatem perfectam, sicut dicit Augustinus super illud Jo. <II 20> quadraginta et sex annis aedificatum est etc.; et ideo est super hominem, quia nihil novum sub sole, Eccl. I 10. Unde concordantia alia non potest haberi de ipsa prophetia nisi ipsa historia: Lucae I 31 ecce concipies et paries filium, significatum Ez. XLIV 2 porta haec clausa erit et non aperietur, et vir non transibit per eam, quoniam Dominus Deus Israel ingressus est per eam.
Second, the naming of the miraculously begotten child; and first, as to his divinity: shall call, namely, the virgin shall call, or you yourself, Judah, shall call, in danger; his name Emmanuel, which is translated: “God with us.” You shall call his name Emmanuel (Matt 1:23). And this entire occurrence has nothing like it elsewhere, for it is a new thing: the Lord has created a new thing upon the earth: a woman—or a female—shall compass a man (Jer 31:22); hence, a man perfect in conception itself, although not according to perfection of quantity, as Augustine says on John 2:20: six and forty years was this temple in building; and therefore, it is above man, for there is nothing new under the sun (Eccl 1:10). Hence there cannot be found another event that corresponds to this prophecy besides this story: behold you shall conceive and shall bring forth a son (Luke 1:31). This is signified in Ezekiel 44:2: this gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, and no man shall pass through it: because the Lord the God of Israel has entered in by it.
254. Secundo quantum ad humanitatem: butyrum et mel comedet, ad litteram cibos viriles, quia ab infantia ad modum aliorum se habuit, Sap. VII 3 et ego natus accepi communem aerem, et in similiter factam decidi terram, et primam vocem similem omnibus emisi plorans.
254. Second, as to his humanity: he shall eat butter and honey, literally, manly foods, because from infancy he held himself to the manner of other men: and being born, I drew in the common air, and fell upon the earth, that is made alike, and the first voice which I uttered was crying, as all others do (Wis 7:3).
Vel a parte ad totum, secundum regulam quartam Tyconii: per hos enim omnes humanos cibos intelligit. Ut sciat: ut consecutivum est, quia talibus vescens adhuc puer sciat reprobare malum, sine experimento, et eligere bonum, sine consilio, perfectam habens omnium scientiam. Hoc promiserat diabolus sed non solvit, Gen. III 5; sed Deus gratis dedit, Sap. VII 17 ipse enim mihi dedit horum quae sunt scientiam veram, ut sciam dispositionem orbis terrarum et virtutem elementorum.
Or from the part to the whole, according to the rules of Tyconius: for through these he understands all human foods. That he may know. The that is consecutive, for, feeding on such things, the child still knows to refuse the evil, without experience, and to choose the good, without counsel, having all perfect knowledge. The devil had promised this, but did not fulfill it (Gen 3:5); but God gave it freely: for he has given me the true knowledge of the things that are: to know the disposition of the whole world, and the virtues of the elements (Wis 7:17).
Vel ut est causale: ut sciat, id est ut ostendat se scire, quia per cibos perductus est ad perfectam aetatis quantitatem, in qua ostendit se scire. Augustinus: per butyrum, humanitatem, quod de terrae nutrimento venit; per mel, divinitatem, quod de rore caeli colligitur, super illud Cant. IV 11 mel et lac. Habuit tamen naturam sine corruptione, sicut butyrum sine caseo; et portavit consolationem sine judicio, quasi mel sine aculeo; Bernardus: elegit puer noster noviter concipi, quia naturam nostrae carnis accepit sine corruptione. similiter apis mel nobis attulit, non miscens aculeum. non enim venit ut judicet mundum, sed ut salvetur mundus per ipsum, Jo. VI. Et sic est etiam causale. Et hoc est signum de deorsum ex parte virginis parientis, et desursum ex parte Dei nascentis, Ps. Dominus dabit benignitatem, et terra nostra dabit fructum suum.
Or, that is causal: that he may know, that is, that he may show himself to know, because he is led through the foods to the perfect quantity of years, in which he shows himself to know. Augustine on Song of Songs 4:11, honey and milk, says that humanity is signified by butter, because it comes from the nourishment of the earth; divinity is signified by honey, because it is collected from the dew of heaven. He had, moreover, a nature without corruption, like butter without curd; and he carried consolation without judgment, like honey without the sting. Bernard: our little one chose to be newly conceived, because he took the nature of our flesh without corruption. Similarly, the bee brings us honey without mingling in the sting. He came not to judge the world, but that the world may be saved by him (John 3:17). And thus, that is also causal. And this is a sign from below on the part of the virgin giving birth, and from above on the part of God being born: the Lord will give goodness: and our earth shall yield her fruit (Ps 84:13[85:12]).
255. Tertio ponitur signi adaptatio: quia antequam sciat, id est antequam nascendo scientiam creatam assumat; terra, Samariae et Syriae, IV Reg. XVI 9, XVII 3–5.
255. Third, the adaptation of the sign is set out: for before the child know, that is, before he assumed created knowledge in being born; the land, of Samaria and Syria (2 Kgs 16:9, 17:3–5).
256. Adducet Dominus. Hic ponit comminationem contra non credentes signum.
256. The Lord shall bring upon you. Here he sets out the threat against those who do not believe the sign.
Et primo ostendit poenae gravitatem;
And first, he shows the gravity of the punishment:
secundo poenae ordinem: et erit in die illa;
second, the order of punishment: and it shall come to pass in that day (Isa 7:18);
in tertia poenae effectum: et erit in die illa nutriet homo.
third, the effect of the punishment: and it shall come to pass in that day, that a man shall nourish a young cow (Isa 7:21).
Ostendit autem gravitatem ex praecipientis auctoritate: adducet Dominus, qui potens est, Exo. XV 3 Dominus omnipotens nomen ejus; ex poenae universalitate: super te, per Teglathphalasar, et super populum tuum, et super domum patris tui, quantum ad posteros tuos, per filios tyrannos; ex praecedentium comparatione: dies, tam mali, et dicuntur mali propter culpam, Matth. VI 34 sufficit diei malitia sua, Ephes. V 16 redimentes tempus, quoniam dies mali sunt; propter poenam: qui non venerunt a diebus separationis, III Reg. XII; <ex> exequentis potestate: cum rege Assyriorum, Nabuchodonosor, quia regnum Chaldaeorum et Assyriorum sub ipso unum fuit, et a principio unum fuerat; Assyrii enim de Chaldaeis egressi sunt, Gen. X 11, Jer. XXV 9 Nabuchodonosor servum meum.
And he shows the gravity of the punishment from the authority of the one who commands: the Lord, who is powerful, shall bring: the Lord Almighty is his name (Exod 15:3); from the universality of the punishment: upon you, through Theglathphalasar, and upon your people, and upon the house of your father, as to your descendants, through his sons that are tyrants; from comparison with what preceded it: days, so evil, and the days are called evil because of their fault: sufficient for the day is the evil thereof (Matt 6:34); redeeming the time, because the days are evil (Eph 5:16); and because of the punishment: that have not come since the time of the separation of Ephraim from Judah (1 Kgs 12); the gravity of the punishment is shown further from of the power of those who execute it: with the king of the Assyrians, Nabuchodonosor, because the kingdoms of the Chaldeans and the Assyrians were one under him, and had been one from the beginning; for the Assyrians had come forth from the Chaldeans (Gen 10): I will take Nabuchodonosor the king of Babylon my servant (Jer 25:9).