Ad quod dicendum quod nullum signum esset si juvencula conciperet et etiam virgo corrupta; Dominus autem aliquod magnum voluit significare cum dixit in profundum inferni sive in excelsum supra. Ideo autem apud nos ponitur magis alma quam juvencula, quia alma significat virginem secundum nominis originem, et adhuc plus: custoditam, de qua non possit esse mali suspicio; sed bethula significat secundum usum loquendi posteriorem.
To which is to be said that it would be no sign at all if a young woman should conceive, and even a corrupted virgin. The Lord, however, wished to signify something great, when he said: unto the depth of hell, or unto the height above (Isa 7:11). Therefore, according to us, alma is used rather than young girl, because alma signifies a virgin, according to the origin of the word, and still more, it means one who is protected, about whom there can be no suspicion of evil. But bethula signifies virgin according to a later manner of speaking.
251. Exponunt autem Judaei dupliciter: quidam de Ezechia, quidam de filio Isaiae quem fingunt esse Manuel vocatum.
The Jews, however, explain this verse in two ways. Some say it concerns Ezechias; some say it concerns the son of Isaiah, whom they imagine to have been called Emmanuel.
Sed quod primum non possit stare, sic ostenditur quia Ezechias erat viginti quinque annorum quando coepit regnare, II Reg. XVIII, et Achaz regnavit sexdecim annis, IV Reg. XVI 2; ergo Ezechias erat novem annorum quando pater suus incepit regnare, et sic non promittitur hic nasciturus. Praeterea, quomodo nescisset vocare patrem et matrem, cum sexto anno regni ejus capta fuerit Samaria?
But that the first cannot stand is thus shown, because Ezechias was twenty-five years old when he began to reign (2 Kgs 18:2), and Achaz reigned sixteen years (2 Kgs 16:2); therefore Ezechias was ten years old when his father began to reign; and thus he could not be promised to be born here. Moreover, how would he not know to call his father and mother, when, in the sixth year of his reign, Samaria was captured?
Item, quod secundum non possit stare ostenditur quia hoc nullum signum fuisset; et praeterea filius Isaiae non fuit Dominus Judaeae, cum tamen dicatur infra VIII 8 terra Judaea esse Emmanuel possessive. Et ideo oportet quod intelligatur de Filio Dei.
Likewise, that the second cannot stand is shown because this would be no sign at all. And moreover the son of Isaiah was not Lord of Judea, and yet, in Isaiah 8:8, the land of Judea is spoken of as a possession of Emmanuel. And therefore it is necessary to understand this to be speaking of the son of God.
252. Secundum hoc ergo tria facit.
252. Following this, therefore, he does three things.
Primo promittit signum: propter hoc, quia vos non vultis petere, ipse dabit signum vobis vestrae liberationis. Hoc etiam signum datum est pastoribus, Lucae II 12 et hoc vobis signum: invenietis infantem pannis involutum etc.
First, he promises the sign: therefore, because you do not wish to ask, the Lord himself shall give you a sign, of your liberation. This sign is also given to the shepherds in Luke 2:12: and this shall be a sign unto you. You shall find the infant wrapped in swaddling clothes.
253. Secundo ponitur ipsum signum: ecce virgo.
253. Second, the sign itself is set out, behold a virgin.
Et primo ponitur miraculosa conceptio: ecce virgo, manens virgo, concipiet, in partu, pariet filium.
And first, the miraculous conception is set out: behold a virgin, remaining a virgin, shall conceive, in giving birth, bear a son.
Secundo mirabilis generati vocatio; et primo quantum ad divinitatem: vocabit, scilicet virgo; vel vocabis tu, Juda, in periculis; nomen ejus Emmanuel, quod est interpretatum “nobiscum Deus,” Matth. I 23 vocabis nomen ejus Emmanuel. Et hoc totum nullum simile habet in aliis, quia novum est, Jer. XXXI 22 creavit Dominus novum super terram: mulier—vel femina—circumdabit virum, unde perfectum hominem in ipsa conceptione, quamvis non secundum quantitatem perfectam, sicut dicit Augustinus super illud Jo. <II 20> quadraginta et sex annis aedificatum est etc.; et ideo est super hominem, quia nihil novum sub sole, Eccl. I 10. Unde concordantia alia non potest haberi de ipsa prophetia nisi ipsa historia: Lucae I 31 ecce concipies et paries filium, significatum Ez. XLIV 2 porta haec clausa erit et non aperietur, et vir non transibit per eam, quoniam Dominus Deus Israel ingressus est per eam.
Second, the naming of the miraculously begotten child; and first, as to his divinity: shall call, namely, the virgin shall call, or you yourself, Judah, shall call, in danger; his name Emmanuel, which is translated: “God with us.” You shall call his name Emmanuel (Matt 1:23). And this entire occurrence has nothing like it elsewhere, for it is a new thing: the Lord has created a new thing upon the earth: a woman—or a female—shall compass a man (Jer 31:22); hence, a man perfect in conception itself, although not according to perfection of quantity, as Augustine says on John 2:20: six and forty years was this temple in building; and therefore, it is above man, for there is nothing new under the sun (Eccl 1:10). Hence there cannot be found another event that corresponds to this prophecy besides this story: behold you shall conceive and shall bring forth a son (Luke 1:31). This is signified in Ezekiel 44:2: this gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, and no man shall pass through it: because the Lord the God of Israel has entered in by it.
254. Secundo quantum ad humanitatem: butyrum et mel comedet, ad litteram cibos viriles, quia ab infantia ad modum aliorum se habuit, Sap. VII 3 et ego natus accepi communem aerem, et in similiter factam decidi terram, et primam vocem similem omnibus emisi plorans.
254. Second, as to his humanity: he shall eat butter and honey, literally, manly foods, because from infancy he held himself to the manner of other men: and being born, I drew in the common air, and fell upon the earth, that is made alike, and the first voice which I uttered was crying, as all others do (Wis 7:3).
Vel a parte ad totum, secundum regulam quartam Tyconii: per hos enim omnes humanos cibos intelligit. Ut sciat: ut consecutivum est, quia talibus vescens adhuc puer sciat reprobare malum, sine experimento, et eligere bonum, sine consilio, perfectam habens omnium scientiam. Hoc promiserat diabolus sed non solvit, Gen. III 5; sed Deus gratis dedit, Sap. VII 17 ipse enim mihi dedit horum quae sunt scientiam veram, ut sciam dispositionem orbis terrarum et virtutem elementorum.
Or from the part to the whole, according to the rules of Tyconius: for through these he understands all human foods. That he may know. The that is consecutive, for, feeding on such things, the child still knows to refuse the evil, without experience, and to choose the good, without counsel, having all perfect knowledge. The devil had promised this, but did not fulfill it (Gen 3:5); but God gave it freely: for he has given me the true knowledge of the things that are: to know the disposition of the whole world, and the virtues of the elements (Wis 7:17).
Vel ut est causale: ut sciat, id est ut ostendat se scire, quia per cibos perductus est ad perfectam aetatis quantitatem, in qua ostendit se scire. Augustinus: per butyrum, humanitatem, quod de terrae nutrimento venit; per mel, divinitatem, quod de rore caeli colligitur, super illud Cant. IV 11 mel et lac. Habuit tamen naturam sine corruptione, sicut butyrum sine caseo; et portavit consolationem sine judicio, quasi mel sine aculeo; Bernardus: elegit puer noster noviter concipi, quia naturam nostrae carnis accepit sine corruptione. similiter apis mel nobis attulit, non miscens aculeum. non enim venit ut judicet mundum, sed ut salvetur mundus per ipsum, Jo. VI. Et sic est etiam causale. Et hoc est signum de deorsum ex parte virginis parientis, et desursum ex parte Dei nascentis, Ps. Dominus dabit benignitatem, et terra nostra dabit fructum suum.
Or, that is causal: that he may know, that is, that he may show himself to know, because he is led through the foods to the perfect quantity of years, in which he shows himself to know. Augustine on Song of Songs 4:11, honey and milk, says that humanity is signified by butter, because it comes from the nourishment of the earth; divinity is signified by honey, because it is collected from the dew of heaven. He had, moreover, a nature without corruption, like butter without curd; and he carried consolation without judgment, like honey without the sting. Bernard: our little one chose to be newly conceived, because he took the nature of our flesh without corruption. Similarly, the bee brings us honey without mingling in the sting. He came not to judge the world, but that the world may be saved by him (John 3:17). And thus, that is also causal. And this is a sign from below on the part of the virgin giving birth, and from above on the part of God being born: the Lord will give goodness: and our earth shall yield her fruit (Ps 84:13[85:12]).
255. Tertio ponitur signi adaptatio: quia antequam sciat, id est antequam nascendo scientiam creatam assumat; terra, Samariae et Syriae, IV Reg. XVI 9, XVII 3–5.
255. Third, the adaptation of the sign is set out: for before the child know, that is, before he assumed created knowledge in being born; the land, of Samaria and Syria (2 Kgs 16:9, 17:3–5).
256. Adducet Dominus. Hic ponit comminationem contra non credentes signum.
256. The Lord shall bring upon you. Here he sets out the threat against those who do not believe the sign.
Et primo ostendit poenae gravitatem;
And first, he shows the gravity of the punishment:
secundo poenae ordinem: et erit in die illa;
second, the order of punishment: and it shall come to pass in that day (Isa 7:18);
in tertia poenae effectum: et erit in die illa nutriet homo.
third, the effect of the punishment: and it shall come to pass in that day, that a man shall nourish a young cow (Isa 7:21).
Ostendit autem gravitatem ex praecipientis auctoritate: adducet Dominus, qui potens est, Exo. XV 3 Dominus omnipotens nomen ejus; ex poenae universalitate: super te, per Teglathphalasar, et super populum tuum, et super domum patris tui, quantum ad posteros tuos, per filios tyrannos; ex praecedentium comparatione: dies, tam mali, et dicuntur mali propter culpam, Matth. VI 34 sufficit diei malitia sua, Ephes. V 16 redimentes tempus, quoniam dies mali sunt; propter poenam: qui non venerunt a diebus separationis, III Reg. XII; <ex> exequentis potestate: cum rege Assyriorum, Nabuchodonosor, quia regnum Chaldaeorum et Assyriorum sub ipso unum fuit, et a principio unum fuerat; Assyrii enim de Chaldaeis egressi sunt, Gen. X 11, Jer. XXV 9 Nabuchodonosor servum meum.
And he shows the gravity of the punishment from the authority of the one who commands: the Lord, who is powerful, shall bring: the Lord Almighty is his name (Exod 15:3); from the universality of the punishment: upon you, through Theglathphalasar, and upon your people, and upon the house of your father, as to your descendants, through his sons that are tyrants; from comparison with what preceded it: days, so evil, and the days are called evil because of their fault: sufficient for the day is the evil thereof (Matt 6:34); redeeming the time, because the days are evil (Eph 5:16); and because of the punishment: that have not come since the time of the separation of Ephraim from Judah (1 Kgs 12); the gravity of the punishment is shown further from of the power of those who execute it: with the king of the Assyrians, Nabuchodonosor, because the kingdoms of the Chaldeans and the Assyrians were one under him, and had been one from the beginning; for the Assyrians had come forth from the Chaldeans (Gen 10): I will take Nabuchodonosor the king of Babylon my servant (Jer 25:9).
257. Et erit. Hic ponit poenae modum et ordinem. Et ponit tria.
257. And it shall come to pass. Here he sets out the manner and order of punishment; and he sets out three things.
Primo hostium convocationem: sibilabit, id est inspirabit, muscae, id est regi Aegypti qui occidit Josiam, IV Reg. penult., et comparatur muscae propter immunditiam idolorum et luxuriae quae viget in Aegypto; in extremo fluminum, quia etiam de ultimis partibus Aegypti venerunt, et api, scilicet Chaldaeis et Assyriis, quia ab anteriori habebant mel defensionis et a posteriori aculeum persecutionis, supra V 26 sibilabit ad eum de finibus terrae.
First, the calling together of their enemies: shall whistle, that is, blow upon, for the fly, that is, for the king of Egypt, who killed Josias (2 Kgs 23:29); and he is compared to a fly because of the uncleanness of idolatry and lust which thrives in Egypt; in the uttermost parts of the rivers, because they come even from the farthest parts of Egypt, and for the bee, namely, for the Chaldeans and the Assyrians, because from the former they had the honey of defense, and from the latter the sting of persecution, above: he will whistle to them from the ends of the earth (Isa 5:26).
258. Secundo hostium multitudinem: et venient, et requiescent omnes in torrentibus vallium, quia in vallibus consueverunt currere aquae, propter commodum aquarum, in cavernis, propter munitionem, in frutectis, propter ligna, in universis foraminibus, <propter> loca domorum, infra VIII 8 et erit extensio alarum ejus implens latitudinem terrae tuae.
258. Second, the multitude of their enemies: and they shall come, and shall all of them rest in the torrents of the valleys, for the benefit of water, which usually runs in valleys, and in the holes of the rocks, for fortification, and upon all places set with shrubs, for wood, and in all hollow places, for locations of homes, below: and the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of your land (Isa 8:8).
259. Tertio captivationem: in die illa radet Dominus in novacula, id est per regem, in his, id est per hos, scilicet Assyrios; novacula acuta, de qua Ez. V 1 sume tibi gladium acutum radentem pilos, et assumens eum educes per caput tuum; caput, regem, pedes, artifices, barbam, milites qui sunt ad ornatum regis, IV Reg. ult. supra III 2 omnem virum bellatorem, judicem et prophetam. Vel loquitur contra Aegyptios qui erant adjutores: in his, id est Aegyptiis, conducta, Ez. XXIX 19–20 et diripiet spolia ejus, et erit merces exercitui ejus, et operi pro quo servivit adversus eam.
259. Third, their captivity: in that day the Lord shall shave with a sharp razor, that is, through the king, by them, that is, through them, namely, the Assyrians; concerning a sharp razor, see Ezekiel 5:1: take you a sharp knife that shaves the hair: and cause it to pass over your head. The head, the king, the feet, craftsmen, the beard, soldiers who are for the adornment of the king (2 Kgs 25), above: every man of war, judge, and prophet (Isa 3:2). Or this is said against the Egyptians, who were their helpers: by them, that is, the Egyptians, that is hired. And he shall rifle the spoils thereof: and it shall be wages for his army. And for the service that he has done me against it (Ezek 29:19–20).
260. Et erit in die illa, nutriet. Hic ponit poenae effectum, vel signum destructionis.
260. And it shall come to pass in that day, that a man shall nourish a young cow. Here he sets out the effect of the punishment, or the sign of destruction.
Primo in animalium paucitate: duas oves, vaccam, quae erit propter pauca animalia, supra V 17 et deserta in ubertatem versa advenae comedent.
First, in the scarcity of animals: a young cow, and two sheep, because the animals are few, above: and strangers shall eat the deserts turned into fruitfulness (Isa 5:17).
Secundo ex victualium parcitate: butyrum et mel, propter inopiam panis, Thren. IV 5 qui vescebantur voluptuose interierunt in viis.
Second, from the slightness of provisions: butter and honey, because of the lack of bread: they that were fed delicately have died in the streets (Lam 4:5).
Tertio ex paucitate hominum,
Third, from the scarcity of men.
primo in vilitate possessionum: in quo fuerint mille vites, Jer. XXXII 25 eme agrum argento et adhibe testes, cum urbs data sit in manus Chaldaeorum, Prov. XXIV 30 per agrum hominis pigri transivi et per vineam stulti viri; et ecce totum repleverant urticae, operuerant superficiem ejus spinae;
First, in the worthlessness of their property: every place where there were a thousand vines: buy a field for money, and take witnesses, whereas the city is given into the hands of the Chaldeans (Jer 32:25); I passed by the field of the slothful man, and by the vineyard of the foolish man: and behold it was all filled with nettles, and thorns had covered the face thereof (Prov 24:30–31).
in multitudine latronum: cum sagittis et arcu, scilicet cum fugietis, ingredientur, infra XXIV 17 formido et fovea et laqueus super te et super habitatores terrae.
In the multitude of thieves: with arrows and with bows, namely, when you flee, they will enter, below: fear, and the pit, and the snare are upon you and upon the inhabitants of the earth (Isa 24:17).
Quarto in pavore hostium, quia colent montes et dimittent plana: et omnes montes, Jer. XLIX 13 et omnes civitates ejus erunt in solitudines, et infra et apprehendere niteris altitudinem collis.
Fourth, in the fear of their enemies, for they will tend the mountains and abandon the plains: and as for the hills: and all her cities shall be wastes (Jer 49:13), and: you endeavor to lay hold on the height of the hill (Jer 49:16).
261. Notandum super illo verbo vocabitur nomen ejus Emmanuel, id est Nobiscum Deus, quod Christus est nobiscum multipliciter.
261. It is to be noted on the words, his name shall be called Emmanuel (Isa 7:14), that is, “God with us,” that Christ is with us in many ways.
Primo tamquam frater per naturae consortium, Cant. VIII 1 quis mihi det te fratrem meum sugentem ubera matris meae ut inveniam te foris et deosculer te?
First, as a brother, through fellowship of nature: who shall give you to me for my brother, sucking the breasts of my mother, that I may find you without, and kiss you? (Song 8:1).
Secundo tamquam sponsus per amoris vinculum, Jo. XIV 23 si quis diligit me, sermonem meum servabit.
Second, as a bridegroom, through the bond of love: if any one love me, he will keep my word (John 14:23).
Tertio tamquam pastor, per internae consolationis solatium, Apoc. III 20 ecce ego sto ad ostium et pulso: si quis audierit vocem meam et aperuerit januam, intrabo ad illum et coenabo cum illo.
Third, as a shepherd, through the solace of inner consolation: behold, I stand at the gate and knock. If any man shall hear my voice and open to me the door, I will come in to him and will sup with him (Rev 3:20).
Quarto tamquam salvator per defensionis auxilium, Jer. XXX 10 tu ergo ne timeas, serve meus Jacob, ait Dominus, neque paveas Israel, quia ecce ego salvabo te de terra longinqua.
Fourth, as a savior, through the help of defense: therefore fear you not, my servant Jacob, says the Lord, neither be dismayed, O Israel: for behold, I will save you from a country afar off (Jer 30:10).
Quinto tamquam ductor per operis exemplum, Exo. XXXII Dominus solus dux ejus fuit.
Fifth, as a leader, through the example of his work: the Lord alone was his leader (Deut 32:12).
262. Notandum super illo verbo ecce virgo, quod dicitur ecce propter eminentiam singularem:
262. It is to be noted on the words, behold a virgin (Isa 7:14), that behold is said because of her singular eminence: