Disputationes cum Pharisaeis
Debates with the Pharisees
Opera mala Pharisaeorum
Evil works of the Pharisees
23:1 Tunc Iesus locutus est ad turbas et ad discipulos suos, [n. 1832]
23:1 Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples, [n. 1832]
23:2 dicens: super cathedram Moysi sederunt scribae et Pharisaei. [n. 1832]
23:2 saying: The scribes and the Pharisees have sat on the chair of Moses. [n. 1832]
23:3 Omnia ergo quaecumque dixerint vobis, servate et facite; secundum opera vero eorum nolite facere: dicunt enim, et non faciunt. [n. 1835]
23:3 Therefore, all things whatever that they will say to you, observe and do, but according to their works, do not; for they say, and do not. [n. 1835]
23:4 Alligant autem opera gravia et importabilia, et imponunt in humeros hominum: digito autem suo nolunt ea movere. [n. 1840]
23:4 For they bind heavy and insupportable burdens, and lay them on men’s shoulders; but with a finger of their own they will not move them. [n. 1840]
23:5 Omnia vero opera sua faciunt ut videantur ab hominibus: dilatant enim phylacteria sua, et magnificant fimbrias. [n. 1841]
23:5 And all their works they do in order to be seen by men. For they make their phylacteries broad, and enlarge their fringes. [n. 1841]
23:6 Amant autem primos recubitus in coenis et primas cathedras in synagogis, [n. 1845]
23:6 And they love the first places at feasts, and the first chairs in the synagogues, [n. 1845]
23:7 et salutationes in foro, et vocari ab hominibus Rabbi. [n. 1845]
23:7 and salutations in the market place, and to be called by men, Rabbi. [n. 1845]
23:8 Vos autem nolite vocari Rabbi: unus enim est Magister vester, omnes autem vos fratres estis. [n. 1846]
23:8 But you, do not be called Rabbi. For one is your Master; and you are all brethren. [n. 1846]
23:9 Et patrem nolite vocare vobis super terram: unus enim est Pater vester qui in caelis est. [n. 1851]
23:9 And call none your father upon earth; for one is your Father, who is in heaven. [n. 1851]
23:10 Nec vocemini magistri, quia Magister vester unus est Christus. [n. 1852]
23:10 Neither be called masters; for one is your Master, Christ. [n. 1852]
23:11 Qui maior est vestrum, erit minister vester. [n. 1853]
23:11 He who is the greatest among you will be your servant. [n. 1853]
23:12 Qui autem se exaltaverit, humiliabitur; et qui se humiliaverit, exaltabitur. [n. 1855]
23:12 And whoever will exalt himself will be humbled: and he who will humble himself will be exalted. [n. 1855]
1831. Supra ostensum est quomodo Pharisaei et scribae provocati sunt ex gloria Christi, et etiam ex sapientia eius, qua colliserat eos, nunc autem ostendit quomodo ex iustitia qua eos arguebat: et duo facit.
1831. It was shown above how the Pharisees and the scribes were provoked by Christ’s glory, and also by his wisdom, with which he crushed them; and now he shows how they were provoked by the justice with which he accused them; and he does two things:
Primo instruit aliquos;
first, he teaches some things;
secundo redarguit. Secunda ibi vae autem vobis, scribae et Pharisaei.
second, he refutes some things. The second is at but woe to you scribes and Pharisees (Matt 23:13).
Circa primum duo facit.
Concerning the first, he does two things:
Primo ostendit eorum dignitatem;
first, he sets forth their dignity;
secundo aperit eorum intentionem in usu auctoritatis, ibi omnia opera sua faciunt ut videantur ab hominibus.
second, he reveals their intention in the use of authority, at and all their works they do in order to be seen by men.
Circa primum tria facit.
Concerning the first, he does three things:
Primo commendat eorum auctoritatem;
first, he commends their authority;
secundo docet exhibere obedientiam cum cautela;
second, he teaches the crowds to show obedience with caution;
tertio assignat rationem.
third, he gives the reason.
Secunda ibi omnia ergo quaecumque dixerint vobis, servate et facite etc.; tertia ibi dicunt enim et non faciunt.
The second is at therefore all things whatever they will say to you, observe and do; the third, at for they say, and do not.
1832. Dicit ergo tunc Iesus locutus est ad turbas et cetera. Ita continuandum est. Dominus intantum eos confutavit, quod nec interrogare audebant, nec respondere sciebant. Sed, secundum quod dicit Chrysostomus, inutilis est sermo qui redarguit et non instruit: ideo convertit se ad turbas et ad discipulos suos, ut eos instruat.
1832. It says therefore, then Jesus spoke to the multitudes. It should be continued in the following way. The Lord confounded them so greatly that they neither dared to ask questions nor knew how to respond. But, in accordance with what Chrysostom says, a speech which refutes and does not instruct is useless; so he turns himself toward the crowds and toward his disciples, and instructs them.
Sciendum autem quod quidam audiunt eum ut discipuli, quidam ut turbae: ut discipuli, qui veritatem percipiunt mente; Io. VIII, 31: si manseritis in sermone meo, vere discipuli mei eritis. Ut turbae, qui veritatem mente apprehendere non possunt. Ideo quandoque convertit sua verba ad turbas, quandoque ad discipulos, quandoque ad utrosque; et diversimode: quia ad discipulos alta dicendo, ut habetur Io. XV, 15: quaecumque audivi a Patre meo, nota feci vobis. Quandoque vero ad turbas profert parabolas, sicut habetur supra. Utrisque autem loquitur de necessitate salutis, et talia sunt haec verba.
But one should know that some men hear him as disciples, others as the crowds: as disciples, those who perceive truth with the mind; if you continue in my word, you will be my disciples indeed (John 8:31). As the crowds, those who cannot grasp truth with the mind. For this reason, sometimes he turned his words toward the crowds, sometimes toward the disciples, and sometimes toward both; and in different ways, for to the disciples by speaking high things, as is said in John, all things whatever I have heard of my Father, I have made known to you (John 15:15). But sometimes, toward the crowds, he sets out parables, as is said above. But he speaks to both about the necessity of salvation, and such are these words.
Super cathedram Moysi sederunt scribae et Pharisaei. Cathedra proprie est magistrorum; et ideo illi super cathedram dicuntur sedere, qui sunt successores Moysi; Eccli. XXIV, v. 33: legem mandavit Moyses in praeceptis iustitiarum. Unde illi qui Moysis legem docebant, sedebant super cathedram Moysi. Et in lege continebantur quaedam ad fidem pertinentia, et quaedam ad bonos mores. Ad fidem pertinentia erant ea, in quibus praefigurabatur Christus; unde ipse dicit, Io. V, 46: si crederetis Moysi, crederetis forsitan et mihi. Item continebantur praecepta moralia; Eccli. cap. XXIV, 33: legem mandavit Moyses in praeceptis iustitiarum.
The scribes and the Pharisees have sat on the chair of Moses. A chair properly belongs to teachers, and for this reason those who are the successors of Moses are said to sit on a chair; Moses commanded a law in the precepts of justices (Sir 24:33). Hence those who taught the law of Moses sat on the chair of Moses. And in the law there were contained some things pertaining to faith, and some things pertaining to good behavior. Those pertaining to faith were the things in which Christ was prefigured; hence he says, for if you believed Moses, you would perhaps believe me also (John 5:46). Likewise the moral precepts were contained in the law; Moses commanded a law in the precepts of justices (Sir 24:33).
1833. Sed notandum quod supra cathedram sedent et scribae, et Pharisaei, et discipuli Christi: scribae qui solam litteram considerant; Pharisaei qui aliquantulum de sensu suo interiori; discipuli Christi qui totum perpendunt: et non dicuntur discipuli Moysi, sed Christi; Lc. ult., 27: incipiens a lege et prophetis interpretabatur illis in omnibus Scripturis, quae de ipso erant.
1833. But one should note that on the chair sit both the scribes and the Pharisees, and the disciples of Christ: the scribes, who consider only the letter; the Pharisees, who consider a small part of its interior sense; the disciples of Christ, who ponder the whole. And they are not called disciples of Moses, but of Christ; and beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded to them in all the Scriptures, the things that were concerning him (Luke 24:27).
1834. Tunc monet eos ad obedientiam cum cautela; et facit duo.
1834. Then he warns them to obey with caution; and he does two things:
Primo hortatur ad obediendum;
first, he exhorts to obedience;
secundo ad cavendum.
second, to caution.
1835. Omnia quaecumque dixerint vobis, servate, scilicet in corde, et facite, in opere; Deut. XVII, 9: venies ad sacerdotes Levitici generis, et ad iudicem; et post: et facies quaecumque dixerint; et sequitur: sequerisque sententiam eorum. Et Apostolus: obedite praepositis vestris. Et hoc est contra Manichaeos qui dicebant legem veterem non esse bonam. Et patet quod sit bona, quia Dominus praecepit eam servari.
1835. Observe, namely in the heart, and do in deed whatever they will say to you; and you will come to the priests of the Levitical race, and to the judge (Deut 17:9–11), and afterwards, and you will do whatever they will say, and there follows, and you will follow their sentence. And the Apostle: obey your prelates (Heb 13:17). And this is against the Manichees, who said that the old law is not good. And it is clear that it is good, because the Lord commanded that it be preserved.
1836. Sed potest quis obiicere: ergo debemus legalia observare, quod est contra doctrinam apostolorum, Act. XV, 29.
1836. But someone could object: so we should keep the legal observances, which is against the teaching of the apostles (Acts 15:29).