3:1 In diebus autem illis venit Ioannes Baptista praedicans in deserto Iudaeae, [n. 242]
3:1 And in those days came John the Baptist preaching in the desert of Judea. [n. 242]
3:2 et dicens poenitentiam agite, appropinquavit enim regnum caelorum. [n. 247]
3:2 And saying: do penance: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. [n. 247]
3:3 hic est enim de quo dictum est per Isaiam prophetam dicentem: vox clamantis in deserto, parate viam Domini, rectas facite semitas eius. [n. 251]
3:3 For this is he that was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying: a voice of one crying in the desert, prepare you all the way of the Lord, make straight his paths. [n. 251]
3:4 Ipse autem Ioannes habebat vestimentum de pilis camelorum et zonam pelliceam circa lumbos suos; esca autem eius erat locustae et mel silvestre. [n. 256]
3:4 And the same John had his garment of camels’ hair, and a leather girdle about his loins: and his meat was locusts and wild honey. [n. 256]
3:5 Tunc exibat ad eum Ierosolyma, et omnis Iudaea, et omnis regio circa Iordanem. [n. 257]
3:5 Then went out to him Jerusalem and all Judea, and all the country about Jordan: [n. 257]
3:6 Et baptizabantur ab eo in Iordane confitentes peccata sua. [n. 259]
3:6 And were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. [n. 259]
3:7 Videns autem multos Pharisaeorum et Sadducaeorum, venientes ad baptismum suum, dixit eis: progenies viperarum, quis demonstravit vobis fugere a ventura ira? [n. 261]
3:7 And seeing many of the Pharisees and Sadducees coming to his baptism, he said to them: you brood of vipers, who has showed you to flee from the wrath to come? [n. 261]
3:8 Facite ergo fructum dignum poenitentiae. [n. 266]
3:8 Bring forth therefore fruit worthy of penance. [n. 266]
3:9 Et ne velitis dicere intra vos: Patrem habemus Abraham. Dico enim vobis, quoniam potest est Deus de lapidibus istis suscitare filios Abrahae. [n. 267]
3:9 And do not think to say within yourselves, we have Abraham for our father. For I tell you that God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham. [n. 267]
3:10 Iam enim securis ad radicem arborum posita est. Omnis ergo arbor, quae non facit fructum bonum, excidetur, et in ignem mittetur. [n. 270]
3:10 For now the axe is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that does not yield good fruit, will be cut down, and cast into the fire. [n. 270]
3:11 Ego quidem baptizo vos in aqua in poenitentiam; qui autem post me venturus est, fortior me est, cuius non sum dignus calceamenta portare: ipse vos baptizabit in Spiritu Sancto, et igni. [n. 274]
3:11 I indeed baptize you in the water unto penance, but he who will come after me, is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear; he will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire. [n. 274]
3:12 Cuius ventilabrum in manu sua, et permundabit aream suam, et congregabit triticum in horreum suum, paleas autem comburet igni inextinguibili. [n. 284]
3:12 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his floor and gather his wheat into the barn; but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire. [n. 284]
241. Supra egit Evangelista de ingressu Christi in mundum; nunc autem agit de eius processu, qui quidem est attendendus secundum processum suae doctrinae: ad hoc enim venit, Io. XVIII, 37.
241. Above, the Evangelist treated of the Christ’s entrance into the world; but now he treats of his progress, which indeed ought to be dealt with according to the progress of his teaching, because for this he came (John 18:37).
Circa doctrinam autem duo considerantur.
And concerning his teaching, two things are considered:
Primo enim ponitur praeparatio ad doctrinam;
first, he sets down the preparation for the teaching;
secundo ponitur ipsa doctrina cap. V.
second, he sets down the teaching itself (Matt 5).
Ad doctorem autem Evangelicae doctrinae duo requiruntur. Primo ut sit velatus sacris mysteriis; secundo ut probatus sit virtutibus: et sic duo praemittuntur ante doctrinam, scilicet baptismus eius, et tentatio cap. IV.
Further, two things are required in a teacher of the Gospel teaching: first, that he be veiled by sacred mysteries; second, that he be proven in virtue. And so two things are placed before the teaching, namely his baptism and temptation (Matt 4).
Circa primum duo facit.
Concerning the first, he does two things:
Primo introducitur Ioannis Baptismus, ibi exibat ad eum Ierosolyma;
first, he introduces John the Baptist, at then went out to him Jerusalem;
secundo instructio baptizatorum, ibi videns autem multos.
second, the Baptizer’s instruction, at and seeing many.
Invitantur autem dupliciter a Ioanne, scilicet verbo et exemplo. Secundum ibi ipse autem Ioannes habebat vestimentum de pilis camelorum et cetera.
Now, they are attracted by John in two ways, namely by word and by example. The second is at and the same John had his garment of camels’ hair.
Circa doctrinam Ioannis tria facit, sive tanguntur.
Concerning John’s teaching he does or touches upon three things:
Primo persona doctoris introducitur; secundo ponitur doctrina; tertio confirmatio.
first, he introduces the person of the teacher; second, he sets down the teaching; third, a confirmation;
Secundum ibi poenitentiam agite; tertium ibi hic est enim de quo dictum est.
the second is at do penance; the third is at for this is he that was spoken of.
242. Circa personam quinque ponuntur, scilicet tempus, persona, officium, studium, et locus.
242. Concerning the person, he sets down five things, namely the time, the person, the office, the zeal, and the place.
Primum ibi in diebus illis et cetera. Et notandum quod tempus praedicationis Lucas describit per principes reipublicae et Iudaeorum. Illud ergo quod dicit Lucas, exprimitur hic, cum dicit in diebus illis. Nec debet hoc referri ad dies, de quibus facta est mentio, scilicet ad tempus infantiae Christi; non enim est intelligendum hoc fuisse in diebus illis, in quibus Christus reversus est de Aegypto. Sed hoc sic ponitur, quia Christus habitavit continue in Nazareth; Luc. II, 40: puer autem crescebat, et confortabatur plenus sapientia, et gratia Dei erat in illo.
The first is at and in those days. And one should note that Luke describes the time of his preaching by the princes of the republic and of the Jews (Luke 3:1–2). So what Luke says is expressed here, when he says, and in those days. Nor should this be referred to the days which were mentioned before, namely to the time of Christ’s infancy; for this should not be understood to have happened in the days when Christ returned from Egypt. But this is set down in this way because Christ dwelled in Nazareth without interruption; and the child grew, and waxed strong, full of wisdom; and the grace of God was in him (Luke 2:40).
243. Secundo ponitur persona, ibi venit Ioannes; venit, idest apparuit, qui primo occultus erat. Hic est de quo Io. I, 7: hic venit in testimonium, ut testimonium perhiberet de lumine.
243. Second, the person is set down, at came John the Baptist; came, i.e., he appeared who was hidden at first. It is he of whom it is said, this man came for a witness, to give testimony of the light (John 1:7).
Sed quare Christus voluit eius testimonium, cum haberet testimonium operum?
But why did Christ want his testimony, when he had the testimony of works?
Dicendum quod propter tria. Primo propter nos qui ducimur in cognitionem spiritualium per ea quae sunt similia nobis; Io. I, 7: hic venit ut testimonium perhiberet de lumine. Et quare? Ut omnes crederent per illum. Secundo propter malitiam Iudaeorum, quia non solum Christus sibi testimonium perhibet, secundum quod ipsi dicebant, Io. VIII, 13: tu de teipso testimonium perhibes, sed etiam alius; Io. V, 33: vos misistis ad Ioannem, et testimonium perhibuit veritati. Tertio ad ostendendum aequalitatem Christi ad Patrem, quia sicut Pater praenuntios habuit, scilicet prophetas, ita Christus; Luc. I, 76: tu, puer, propheta Altissimi vocaberis: praeibis enim ante faciem Domini parare vias eius.
One should say, for three reasons. First, for our sake, for we are brought to spiritual knowledge through those things which are like us; this man came for a witness, to give testimony of the light, and why? That all men might believe through him (John 1:7). Second, owing to the malice of the Jews, because not only did Christ bear testimony to himself, as they said, you give testimony of yourself (John 8:13), but another bore testimony as well. You sent to John, and he gave testimony to the truth (John 5:33). Third, to show Christ’s equality with the Father, because as the Father had heralds, namely the prophets, so also Christ; and you, child, will be called the prophet of the Highest: for you will go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways (Luke 1:76).
244. Tertio ponitur officium baptizandi. Hoc fuit speciale eius officium, quia primus baptizavit, et fuit eius baptismus praeparatorius ad baptismum Christi: quia si Christus novum ritum adiunxisset, statim potuissent homines scandalizari. Et ideo praevenit Ioannes ut praepararet homines ad baptismum; Io. I, 31: ut manifestetur in Israel.
244. Third, the office of baptizing is set down. This was his special office, because he baptized first; and his baptism was preparatory to the baptism of Christ, because if Christ had suddenly added a new ritual, men might have been scandalized. And so John came beforehand, to prepare men for baptism; that he may be made manifest in Israel (John 1:31).
245. Quarto ponitur studium, quia venit, ut diligenter praedicaret. Et hoc est praedicans baptismum. Christus quidem baptizaturus ista adiunxit, Matth. ult., 19: ite, docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Ioannes autem in utroque praeparavit viam.
245. Fourth, the zeal is set down, because he came to preach diligently. And this is preaching a baptism. Indeed Christ, the one about to be baptized, added those things: going therefore, teach all nations; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit (Matt 28:19). But John prepared the way in both.
Et notandum quod Ioannes in trigesimo anno hoc fecit, in qua aetate David etiam factus est rex, et Ioseph gubernacula regni Aegypti suscepit, Gen. XLI, 46. Per quod datur intelligi, quod ad nullum officium debet aliquis assumi ante perfectam aetatem.
And one should note that John did this in his thirtieth year, at which age also David was made king, and Joseph took the helm of the kingdom of Egypt. By which one is given to understand that no one should be taken up for an office before the perfect age.
246. Quinto ponitur locus in deserto. Praedicavit autem in deserto propter quatuor. Primo ut quietius audirent: in civitate enim multi curiosi impedientes convenissent, sed in deserto non nisi studiosi ibant; Eccle. XII, 11: verba sapientium sicut stimuli, et quasi clavi in altum defixi, quae per magistrorum consilium data sunt a pastore uno. Secundo quia congruebat suae praedicationi; quia ipse poenitentiam praedicabat. Talis autem debet esse locus poenitentiae, vel corporaliter, vel mentaliter; Ps. LIV, 8: ecce elongavi fugiens, et mansi in solitudine. Tertio ad designandam conditionem Ecclesiae, quae per desertum significatur: datur enim intelligi, quod non est in synagoga praedicatio salutis, sed in Ecclesia; Is. LIV, 1: laetare, sterilis, quae non paris; decanta laudem, et, hinni, quae non pariebas, quoniam multi filii desertae, magis quam eius quae habebat virum, dicit Dominus. Quarto ad designandam conditionem Iudaeae, quae iam derelinquebatur a Deo; inf. XXIII, 38: ecce relinquetur vobis domus vestra deserta.
246. Fifth, the place is set down, in the desert. Now, he preached in the desert for four reasons. First, so that they might hear more quietly; for in the city many curious men come together, getting in the way, but only the eager go into the desert; the words of the wise are as goads, and as nails deeply fastened in, which by the counsel of masters are given from one shepherd (Eccl 12:11). Second, because it fit with his preaching, since he preached penance. Now, a place of penance ought to be that way, either bodily or mentally; lo, I have gone far off flying away; and I abode in the wilderness (Ps 54:8). Third, to point to the Church’s condition, which is signified by the desert: for one is given to understand that the preaching of salvation happens not in the synagogue, but in the Church; give praise, O you barren, that bears not: sing forth praise, and make a joyful noise, you who did not travail with child: for many are the children of the desolate, more than of her that has a husband, says the Lord (Isa 54:1). Fourth, to indicate the condition of the Jews, who were already abandoned by God; below, behold, your house will be left to you, desolate (Matt 23:38).
247. Sequitur poenitentiam agite et cetera. Ioannes annuntiat quamdam novam vitam, sicut dicit Augustinus in libro de Poenitentia: nullus qui suae voluntatis arbiter constituitur, potest novam vitam inchoare, nisi poeniteat veteris vitae. Quaere in Glossa. Et ideo
247. There follows do penance. John announces a certain new life, as Augustine says in the book On Penance: no one who is established as the judge of his own will can begin a new life, unless he repents of the old life. Look in the Gloss. And so