Initio Missionis Christi
Beginning of Christ’s Mission
4:1 Tunc Iesus ductus est in desertum a Spiritu, ut tentaretur a diabolo: [n. 307]
4:1 Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the desert, to be tempted by the devil. [n. 307]
4:2 et cum ieiunasset quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus, postea esuriit. [n. 312]
4:2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, afterwards he was hungry. [n. 312]
4:3 Et accedens tentator dixit ei: si Filius Dei es, dic ut lapides isti panes fiant. [n. 316]
4:3 And the tempter coming said to him: if you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread. [n. 316]
4:4 Qui respondens dixit: scriptum est: non in solo pane vivet homo, sed in omni verbo quod procedit de ore Dei. [n. 319]
4:4 Who answered and said: it is written, not in bread alone does man live, but in every word that proceeds from the mouth of God. [n. 319]
4:5 Tunc assumpsit eum diabolus in sanctam civitatem, et statuit eum supra pinnaculum templi, [n. 321]
4:5 Then the devil took him up into the holy city, and set him upon the pinnacle of the temple, [n. 321]
4:6 et dixit ei: si Filius Dei es, mitte te deorsum; scriptum est enim: quia angelis suis mandavit de te, et in manibus tollent te, ne forte offendas ad lapidem pedem tuum. [n. 329]
4:6 and said to him: if you are the Son of God, cast yourself down, for it is written: that he has given his angels charge over you, and in their hands will they bear you up, lest perhaps you offend your foot against a stone. [n. 329]
4:7 Ait illi Iesus rursum: scriptum est: non tentabis Dominum Deum tuum. [n. 333]
4:7 Jesus said to him: it is written again: you shall not tempt the Lord your God. [n. 333]
4:8 Iterum assumpsit eum diabolus in montem excelsum valde, et ostendit ei omnia regna mundi, et gloriam eorum, [n. 334]
4:8 Again the devil took him up onto a very high mountain, and showed him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them, [n. 334]
4:9 et dixit ei: haec tibi omnia dabo, si cadens adoraveris me. [n. 338]
4:9 and said to him: all these will I give you, if falling down you will adore me. [n. 338]
4:10 Tunc dixit ei Iesus: vade, satana; scriptum est enim: Dominum Deum tuum adorabis, et illi soli serviens. [n. 340]
4:10 Then Jesus said to him: begone, satan: for it is written, the Lord your God shall you adore, and him only shall you serve. [n. 340]
4:11 Tunc reliquit eum diabolus; et ecce angeli accesserunt, et ministrabant ei. [n. 345]
4:11 Then the devil left him; and behold angels came and ministered to him. [n. 345]
306. Supra ostensum est, quod Christus se praeparavit ad doctrinam, baptismum accipiendo; nunc autem tentationem superando.
306. Above, it was shown that Christ prepared himself for teaching by receiving baptism; and now, by overcoming temptation.
Circa hoc duo facit:
Concerning this, he does two things:
primo ponitur victoria, quam de tentatione habuit;
first, the victory which he won over temptation is set down;
secundo, quomodo discipulos ad doctrinam audiendam vocavit, ibi ambulans autem Iesus iuxta Mare Galilaeae.
second, how he called disciples to hear the teaching, at and Jesus walking by the Sea of Galilee (Matt 4:18).
Circa primum tria facit:
Concerning the first, he does three things:
primo praemittit quaedam praeambula de tentatione;
first he puts forth a certain preface about temptation;
secundo ponitur tentationis insultus, ibi et accedens tentator dixit;
second is set down an assult of temptation, at and the temptor coming to him said.
tertio victoria, ibi tunc reliquit eum diabolus.
third is the victory, at there the devil left him.
Ponuntur autem tria praeambula, scilicet locus, ieiunium et famis experientia.
Moreover, three preambles are set down, namely the place, the fast, and the experience of hunger.
Quantum ad primum quatuor tanguntur: tempus et locus, ductor et finis huius ducatus.
As regards the first, four things are touched upon: the time and place, the one leading, and the goal of this leading.
307. Tempus tunc, quando scilicet iam declarabatur voce paterna quod esset Filius Dei. In quo dat intelligi, quia illis tentatio imminet, qui efficiuntur filii Dei per baptismum; Eccli. II, 1: Fili, accedens ad servitutem Dei sta in iustitia et timore, et praepara animam tuam ad tentationem.
307. The time was then, namely when it had already been declared by the paternal voice that he was the Son of God. In which one is given to understand that this temptation threatens those who have been made sons of God through baptism; son, when you come to the service of God, stand in justice and in fear, and prepare your soul for temptation (Sir 2:1).
Istud desertum erat inter Ierusalem et Iericho, ubi multi occidebantur, de quo Lc. X, v. 30: homo quidam descendit ab Ierusalem in Iericho, et incidit in latrones, qui etiam despoliaverunt eum, et plagis impositis abierunt, semivivo relicto.
That desert was between Jerusalem and Jericho, where many were being killed, concerning which see: a certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among robbers, who also stripped him, and having wounded him went away, leaving him half dead (Luke 10:30).
308. Et nota quinque rationes, quare quis post acceptam spiritualem gratiam tentatur. Prima ut accipiat experimentum suae iustitiae; Eccli. XXXIV, 9: qui non est tentatus, qualia scit? Secundo ad reprimendam superbiam; II Cor. XII, 7: ne magnitudo revelationum extollat me, datus est mihi stimulus carnis meae, angelus satanae qui me colaphizet et cetera. Tertio ad confundendum diabolum, ut sciat quanta sit virtus Christi, ut superare non possit. Huius exemplum habetur Iob I, 8: numquid considerasti servum meum Iob? et cetera. Quarto, ut fortior reddatur, sicut milites fortes redduntur per experientiam; Iudic. III: quare voluit dimittere hostes cum filiis Israel? Quinto, ut suam dignitatem cognoscat: quia quando diabolus aggreditur aliquem, hoc cedit ad honorem, quia diabolus sanctos aggreditur; Iob XL, 10: cibus eius foenum . . . et habet fiduciam quod influat Iordanis in os eius.
308. And note five reasons why someone is tempted after receiving spiritual grace. First, so that he may receive experience of his justice; what does he know, who has not been tried? (Sir 34:9). Second, to prevent arrogance; and lest the greatness of the revelations should exalt me, there was given me a sting of my flesh, an angel of satan, to buffet me (2 Cor 12:7). Third, to confound the devil, so that he may know how great is the strength of Christ, so great that he is not able to overcome it. An example of this is given: have you considered my servant Job? (Job 1:8). Fourth, so that he may be made stronger, just as a soldier is made strong by experience; that afterwards their children might learn to fight with their enemies, and to be trained up to war (Judg 3:1). Fifth, so that he may know his own dignity; because when the devil attacks someone, it results in honor, since the devil attacks those who are holy; he eats grass . . . and he trusts that the Jordan may run into his mouth (Job 40:10, 18).
309. Sequitur de loco tunc ductus est Iesus in desertum. Hoc convenit praecedentibus et subsequentibus: quia conveniens fuit quod post baptismum desertum intraret. Hoc significatur in populo Israelitico, qui post transitum Maris Rubri, qui fuit figura baptismi, in terram promissionis venit per desertum et solitudinem: ita baptizati vitam solitariam et quietam debent quaerere, corpore mundum derelinquendo, vel mente; Osee II, v. 14: ducam eam in solitudinem, et loquar ad cor eius. Ps. LIV, 8: ecce elongavi fugiens, et mansi in solitudine.
309. There follows about the place, then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the desert. This fits both with what came before and with what follows, because it was fitting that he should go into the desert after baptism. This is signified in the Israelite people, who after the crossing of the Red Sea, which was a figure of baptism, came into the land of promise through the desert and the wilderness. The baptized should seek solitude and quiet in this way, leaving the world behind either in body or in mind; behold I will allure her, and will lead her into the wilderness: and I will speak to her heart (Hos 2:14). Lo, I have gone far off flying away; and I abode in the wilderness (Ps 54:8).
Conveniens enim erat ut exiret in desertum, quasi ad singulare certamen cum diabolo. Chrysostomus: ille in desertum vadit, qui exit extra fines, idest voluntatem, carnis et mundi, ubi non est locus tentationis. Quomodo enim de libidine tentatur, qui tota die est cum uxore? Sed qui non exeunt a voluntate carnis et mundi, non sunt filii Dei, sed filii diaboli, qui etiam uxorem propriam habentes, appetunt alienam; sed filii Dei habentes Spiritum Sanctum ducuntur in desertum, ut tententur cum Christo, de quo sequitur:
For it was fitting that he should go out into the desert, as though to a one-on-one combat with the devil. Chrysostom: that man goes into the desert who escapes beyond the boundaries, i.e., the will, of the body and of the world, where there is no place for temptation. For how is he tempted by lust, who is with a wife the whole day? But those who do not escape from the will of the flesh and the world are not sons of God, but sons of the devil, who even when they have their own wife desire another; but the sons of God, having the Holy Spirit, are led into the desert, that they may be tempted with Christ, about whom there follows:
310. ductus est a Spiritu, intellige Sancto.
310. led by the Spirit, understand the word Holy.
Sed ille qui ducit, maior est eo qui ducitur. Ergo Spiritus Sanctus maior Christo.
But he who leads is greater than he who is led. Therefore the Holy Spirit is greater than Christ.
Respondendum: si referatur ad Iesum secundum quod est Filius Dei, sic est aequalis Spiritui Sancto. Et aliquis potest alium ducere, vel imperio, et sic est maior: vel exhortatione, et sic est par; Io. I, 40 s., Andreas duxit Petrum ad Iesum; et sic ductus est Iesus. Hilarius refert ad Christum, secundum quod homo: scilicet Spiritus Sanctus hominem quem repleverat, exponit tentationi.
One should respond: if this be referred to Jesus insofar as he is the Son of God, in this way he is equal with the Holy Spirit. And someone can lead another either by command, and in this way he is greater, or by exhortation, and in this way he is equal; Andrew led Peter to Jesus (John 1:40). And in this way Jesus was led. Hilary refers this to Christ insofar as he is a man; that is, the Holy Spirit exposed to temptation the man whom he had filled.
Homines enim tunc ducuntur a Spiritu Sancto, quando caritate moventur, sic quod non motu proprio moventur, sed alieno, quia sequuntur impetum caritatis; II Cor. V, 14: caritas Dei urget nos. Et sic filii Dei aguntur a Spiritu Sancto, ut tempus huius vitae, quae plena est tentationibus Iob VII, 1: tentatio est vita hominis super terram, transeant cum victoria per Christi virtutem.
For men are led by the Holy Spirit when they are moved by charity, because in this way they are not moved by their own proper motion, but by another, because they follow the impulse of charity; for the charity of Christ presses us (2 Cor 5:14). And in this way the sons of God are led by the Holy Spirit, so that they may cross through the time of this life, which is full of temptation, the life of man upon earth is a warfare (Job 7:1), with victory by the strength of Christ.
311. Ipse enim tentari voluit, ut sicut morte sua vicit nostram, sic tentatione sua superet omnes tentationes nostras; Hebr. IV, v. 15: non habemus pontificem, qui non possit compati infirmitatibus nostris; tentatum autem per omnia pro similitudine absque peccato.
311. He himself willed to be tempted, so that just as he conquered our death by his own, so he might overcome all our temptations by his temptation; for we do not have a high priest who cannot have compassion on our infirmities: but one tempted in all things like as we are, without sin (Heb 4:15).
Gregorius dicit, quod est triplex tentationis gradus, scilicet per suggestionem, delectationem et consensum. Prima ab extrinseco est, et potest esse sine peccato; secunda est ab intrinseco, in qua incipit esse peccatum; quae quidem perficitur per consensum. Primus gradus potuit esse in Christo, non alii.
Gregory says that there are three steps of temptation, namely suggestion, delight, and consent. The first is from the outside, and can be present without sin; the second is from the inside, in which there begins to be sin; which indeed is perfected by consent. The first step could be present in Christ, but not the others.