In orationem Dominicam videlicet “Pater noster” expositio On the Lord’s Prayer, “Our Father” Collationes de Pater noster Sermons on the Our Father Prooemium Prologue Inter alias orationes oratio dominica principalior invenitur. Habet enim quinque excellentia, quae in oratione requiruntur. Debet enim esse oratio secura, recta, ordinata, devota et humilis. Among all other prayers, the Lord’s prayer holds the chief place. It has five excellent qualities which are required in all prayer. A prayer must be confident, ordered, suitable, devout, and humble. Secura quidem, ut cum fiducia adeamus ad thronum gratiae eius, ut dicitur Hebr. IV. In fide etiam non deficiens: dicitur enim Iac. I, 6: postulet autem in fide, nihil haesitans. Rationabiliter autem haec oratio est securissima: est enim ab advocato nostro formata, qui est sapientissimus petitor, in quo sunt omnes thesauri sapientiae, ut dicitur ad Coloss. II, de quo dicitur I Ioan. II: advocatum habemus apud patrem, Iesum Christum iustum; unde dicit Cyprianus in Lib. de oratione dominica: cum Christum habeamus advocatum apud patrem pro peccatis nostris, quando pro delictis nostris petimus, advocati nostri verba proponamus. It must be confident: let us, therefore, go with confidence to the throne of grace (Heb 4:16). It must not be wanting in faith, as it is said: but let him ask in faith, nothing wavering (Jas 1:6). That this is a most trustworthy prayer is reasonable, since it was formed by him who is our advocate and the most wise petitioner for us: in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge (Col 2:3); and of whom it is said: for we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the just one (1 John 2:1). Hence, St. Cyprian says (De Orat. Dom.): since we have Christ as our advocate with the Father for our sins, when we pray on account of our faults, we use the very words of our advocate. Ulterius securior apparet ex hoc quod ipse qui orationem exaudit cum patre, docuit nos orare, secundum illud Psal. XC, 15: clamabit ad me, et ego exaudiam eum. Unde dicit Cyprianus: amica, familiaris et devota oratio, Dominum de suo rogare. Unde ab hac oratione nunquam sine fructu receditur: nam per eam venialia dimittuntur, ut dicit Augustinus. Furthermore, this prayer is even more worthy of confidence in that he who taught us how to pray, graciously hears our prayer together with the Father, as it is said in the Psalm: he shall cry to me, and I will hear him (Ps 90:15). Thus writes St. Cyprian: it is a friendly, familiar, and devout prayer to ask of the Lord in his own words (De Orat. Dom.). And so no one goes away from this prayer without fruit: for through it our venial sins are remitted, as St. Augustine says (Enchiridion, 78). Debet etiam esse oratio nostra recta, ut petat orans a Deo quae sibi conveniunt. Nam Damascenus dicit: oratio est petitio decentium a Deo. Multoties enim non exauditur oratio, quia indecentia postulantur. Iac. IV, 3: petitis et non accipitis, eo quod male petatis. Scire autem quid sit petendum, difficillimum est, cum difficillimum sit scire quid sit desiderandum. Ea enim quae licite petuntur in oratione, licite desiderantur: et ideo Apostolus dicit, ad Rom. VIII, 26: nam quid oremus sicut oportet, nescimus. Ipse autem Christus doctor est: nam ipsius est docere quid nos orare oporteat. Nam discipuli dixerunt ei, Luc. XI, 1: Domine, doce nos orare. Ea ergo quae ipse orare docuit, rectissime postulantur: unde Augustinus: quaecumque autem verba dicamus, nihil aliud dicimus quam quod in ista oratione dominica positum est, si recte et congruenter oramus. Moreover, our prayer must be suitable, so that a person asks of God in prayer what is good for him. St. John Damascene says: prayer is the asking of what is right and fitting from God (De Fide Orth., 3, ch. 24). Many times our prayer is not heard because we seek that which is not good for us: you ask and you do not receive, because you ask amiss (Jas 4:3). To know, indeed, what one ought to pray for is most difficult; for it is not easy to know what one ought to desire. Those things which we rightly seek in prayer are rightly desired; hence the Apostle says: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought (Rom 8:26). Christ himself is our teacher; it is he who teaches us what we ought to pray for, and it was to him that the disciples said: Lord, teach us to pray (Luke 11:1). Those things, therefore, which he has taught us to pray for, we most properly ask for. Whatsoever words we use in prayer, says St. Augustine, we cannot but utter that which is contained in our Lord’s prayer, if we pray in a suitable and worthy manner (ad Probam, epistle 130). Debet etiam esse oratio ordinata sicut desiderium, cum oratio sit desiderii interpres. Est autem hic debitus ordo, ut spiritualia carnalibus, caelestia terrenis desiderando et orando praeferamus, secundum illud Matth. VI, 33: primum quaerite regnum Dei et iustitiam eius; et haec omnia adiicientur vobis. Hoc Dominus in hac oratione servare docuit: in qua primo petuntur caelestia, et postmodum terrena. Our prayer ought also to be ordered as our desires should be ordered, for prayer is but the expression of desire. Now, it is the correct order that we prefer spiritual to bodily things, and heavenly things to those merely earthly. This is according to what is written: seek ye first therefore the kingdom of God and his justice, and all these things shall be added unto you (Matt 6:33). Here our Lord shows that heavenly things must be sought first, and then things material. Debet etiam oratio esse devota, quia pinguedo devotionis facit sacrificium orationis esse Deo acceptum, secundum illud Psal. LXII, 5–6: in nomine tuo levabo manus meas: sicut adipe et pinguedine repleatur anima mea. Devotio autem plerumque propter prolixitatem orationis obtunditur: unde Dominus superfluam orationis prolixitatem docuit vitare, dicens Matth. VI, 7: orantes autem nolite multum loqui. Et Augustinus dicit ad Probam: absit ab oratione multa locutio; sed non desit multa provocatio, si fervens perseveret intentio. Unde Dominus hanc orationem brevem instituit. Consurgit autem devotio ex caritate, quae est amor Dei et proximi: quorum utrumque in hac oratione ostenditur. Nam ad insinuandum divinum amorem, vocamus eum patrem; ad insinuandum autem amorem proximi, communiter pro omnibus oramus dicentes, pater noster, et dimitte nobis debita nostra: ad quod proximorum dilectio nos induit. Our prayer must be devout, because a rich measure of piety makes the sacrifice of prayer acceptable to God: in thy name I will lift up my hands. Let my soul be filled with marrow and fatness (Ps 62:5–6). Many times because of the length of our prayers our devotion grows cool; hence our Lord taught us to avoid wordiness in our prayers: when you are praying, speak not much (Matt 6:7). And St. Augustine says (Ep. ad probam, 130): let much talking be absent from prayer; but as long as fervor continues, let prayer likewise go on. For this reason the Lord made his prayer short. Devotion in prayer rises from charity which is our love of God and neighbor, both of which are evident in this prayer. Our love for God is seen in that we call God our Father; and our love for our neighbor when we say: our Father, and forgive us our trespasses, which leads us to love of neighbor. Debet etiam oratio esse humilis, secundum illud Psal. CI, 18: respexit in orationem humilium; et Luc. XVIII, et Pharisaeo et publicano; et Iudith IX, 16: humilium et mansuetorum semper tibi placuit deprecatio. Quae quidem humilitas in hac oratione servatur: nam vera humilitas est quando aliquis nihil ex suis viribus praesumit, sed totum ex divina virtute impetrandum expectat. Prayer ought to be humble: he hath had regard for the prayer of the humble (Ps 101:18). This is seen in the parable of the Pharisee and the publican (Luke 18), and also in the words of Judith: the prayer of the humble and the meek hath always pleased thee (Jdt 9:16). This same humility is observed in this prayer, for true humility is had when a person does not presume upon his own powers, but expects all that he asks for from the divine strength. Nota insuper, quod tria bona facit oratio. It must be noted that prayer brings about three good effects. Primo enim est efficax et utile remedium contra mala. Liberat enim a peccatis commissis. Psal. XXXI, 5–6: tu remisisti impietatem peccati mei: pro hac orabit ad te omnis sanctus. Sic latro in cruce oravit, et remissionem obtinuit: quia, hodie mecum eris in Paradiso, Luc. XXIII, 43. Sic publicanus oravit, et iustificatus descendit in domum suam, Luc. XIII. Liberat etiam a timore peccatorum supervenientium, a tribulationibus et tristitiis. Iac. ult., 13: tristatur quis in vobis? Oret (aequo animo). Liberat etiam a persecutionibus et inimicis. Psal. CVIII, 4: pro eo ut me diligerent, detrahebant mihi: ego autem orabam. First, prayer is an efficacious and useful remedy against evils. Thus, it delivers us from the sins we have committed: thou hast forgiven the wickedness of my sin. For this shall every one that is holy pray to thee in a seasonable time (Ps 31:5–6). The thief on the cross prayed and received forgiveness: this day thou shalt be with me in paradise (Luke 23:43). Thus also prayed the publican, and went down to his home justified (Luke 18:14). Prayer, also, frees one from the fear of future sin, and from trials and sadness of soul: is any one of you sad? Let him pray (Jas 5:13). Again it delivers one from persecutors and enemies: instead of making me a return of love, they detracted me, but I gave myself to prayer (Ps 108:4). Secundo est efficax, et utilis ad omnia desideria obtinenda. Marc. XI, 24: omnia quaecumque orantes petitis credite quia accipietis. Et si non exaudimur, hoc est quia non instanter petimus: oportet (enim) semper orare, et non deficere, Luc. XVIII, 1, vel quia non petimus id quod magis expedit ad salutem: Augustinus: bonus Dominus, qui saepe non tribuit quod volumus, ut tribuat quod mallemus. Et hoc reperitur de Paulo, qui ter petiit a se removeri stimulum, et non est exauditus: II Cor. XII. Tertio est utilis, quia facit nos familiares Deo. Psal. CXL, 2: dirigatur oratio mea sicut incensum in conspectu tuo. In the second place, prayer is efficacious and useful to obtain all that one desires: all things whatsoever you ask when you pray, believe that you shall receive (Mark 9:24). When our prayers are not heard, either we do not persevere in prayer: [for] we ought always to pray, and not to faint (Luke 18:1), or we do not ask for that which is more conducive to our salvation: our good Lord often does not give us what we wish, says St. Augustine, because it would really be what we do not wish for. St. Paul gives us an example of this in that he thrice prayed that the sting of his flesh be removed from him, and his prayer was not heard (2 Cor 12:7). Thirdly, prayer is profitable because it makes us friends of God: let my prayer be directed as incense in thy sight (Ps 140:2). Dicit ergo, pater. Nota hic duo, quomodo scilicet pater sit, et quid debemus ei, quia pater est. Dicitur autem pater ratione specialis creationis, quia creavit nos ad imaginem et similitudinem suam quam aliis creaturis inferioribus non impressit. Deut. XXXII, 6: ipse est pater tuus, qui fecit et creavit te. Item ratione gubernationis: quanquam enim omnia gubernet, nos tamen gubernat ut dominos, alia ut servos. Sap. XIV, 3: tua, pater, providentia cuncta gubernat; et ibid. XII, 18: et cum magna reverentia disponis nos. Item ratione adoptionis: quia aliis creaturis dedit quasi munuscula, nobis autem hereditatem, et hoc quia filii; sed si filii et heredes. Apostolus, Rom. VIII, 15: non accepistis spiritum servitutis in timore, sed spiritum adoptionis filiorum, in quo clamamus, abba, pater. Therefore it says, Father. Note here two things, namely, that God is our Father, and what we owe to him because he is our Father. God is our Father by reason of our special creation, in that he created us in his image and likeness, and did not so create all inferior creatures: is not he thy Father, that made thee, and created thee? (Deut 32:6). Likewise God is our Father in that he governs us, yet treats us as masters, and not servants, as is the case with all other things. For thy providence, Father, governeth all things (Wis 14:3); and with great favor disposest of us (Wis 12:18). God is our Father also by reason of adoption. To other creatures he has given but a small gift, but to us an heredity—indeed, if sons, heirs also (Rom 8:17). For you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear; but you have received the spirit of adoption of sons, whereby we cry, Abba, Father (Rom 8:15). Debemus autem nos ei quatuor. Primo honorem. Mal. I, 6: si ego pater, ubi est honor meus?: Qui consistit in tribus. In laudis datione quoad Deum. Psal. XLIX, 23: sacrificium laudis honorificabit me: quae non solum debet esse in ore, sed etiam in corde. Isai. XXIX, 13: populus hic labiis me honorat; cor autem eorum longe est a me. In corporis puritate quoad seipsum. I Cor. VI, 20: glorificate et portate Deum in corpore vestro. In iudicii aequitate quoad proximum. Psal. XCVIII, 4: honor regis iudicium diligit. We owe God, our Father, four things. First, honor: if then I be a Father, where is my honor? (Mal 1:6). Now, honor consists in three qualities. It consists in giving praise to God: the sacrifice of praise shall glorify me (Ps 49:23). This ought not merely come from the lips, but also from the heart, for: this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips glorify me, but their heart is far from me (Isa 29:13). Honor, again, consists in purity of body towards oneself: glorify and bear God in your body (1 Cor 4:20). Honor also consists in just estimate of one’s neighbor, for: the king’s honor loveth judgment (Ps 98:4). Secundo debemus ei imitationem, quia pater est. Ier. III, 19: patrem vocabis me, et post me ingredi non cessabis: quae perficitur in tribus. In dilectione. Ephes. V, 1: estote imitatores Dei, sicut filii carissimi, et ambulate in dilectione: et hoc oportet esse in corde. In miseratione. Dilectio enim debet esse cum miseratione. Luc. VI, 36: estote ergo misericordes: et hoc debet esse in opere. In perfectione. Quia dilectio et miseratio debet esse perfecta. Matth. V, 48: estote perfecti, sicut et pater vester caelestis perfectus est. Secondly, since God is our Father, we ought to imitate him: thou shalt call me Father, and shalt not cease to walk after me (Jer 3:19). This imitation of our Father consists of three things. It consists in love: be ye therefore followers of God, as most dear children; and walk in love (Eph 5:1). This love of God must be from the heart. It consists in mercy: be ye merciful (Luke 6:35). This mercy must likewise come from the heart, and it must be in deed. Finally, imitation of God consists in being perfect, since love and mercy should be perfect: be ye therefore perfect, as also your heavenly Father is perfect (Matt 5:48). Tertio debemus ei obedientiam. Hebr. XII, 9: multo magis obtemperabimus patri spirituum. Et hoc propter tria. Primo propter dominium: ipse enim est Dominus. Exod. XXIV, 7: omnia quae locutus est Dominus, faciemus, et erimus obedientes. Secundo propter exemplum: quia verus filius factus est patri obediens usque ad mortem, ut dicitur Philip. II. Tertio propter commodum: II Reg. VI, 21: ludam ante Dominum qui elegit me. Quarto debemus ei patientiam in castigationibus. Prov. III, 11–12: disciplinam Domini, fili mi, ne abiicias, nec deficies, cum ab eo corriperis. Quem enim diligit Dominus, corripit, et quasi pater in filio complacet sibi. Thirdly, we owe God obedience: shall we not much more obey the Father of spirits? (Heb 12:9). We must obey God for three reasons. First, because he is our Lord: all things that the Lord has spoken we will do, we will be obedient (Exod 24:7). Secondly, because he has given us the example of obedience, for the true Son of God became obedient to his Father even unto death (Phil 2:8). Thirdly, because it is for our good: I will play before the Lord who hath chosen me (2 Sam 6:21). Fourthly, we owe God patience when we are chastised by him: reject not the correction of the Lord; and do not faint when thou art chastised by him. For whom the Lord loveth he chastises; and as a father in the son he pleaseth himself (Prov 3:11–12). Noster. Ex hoc autem ostenditur quod duo debemus proximis. Primo amorem, quia fratres nostri sunt, nam omnes sunt filii Dei: I Ioan. IV, 20: qui non diligit fratrem suum quem videt; Deum, quem non videt, quomodo potest diligere?. Item reverentiam, quia filii Dei sunt. Mal. II, 10: nunquid non pater unus omnium nostrum? Numquid non Deus unus creavit nos? Quare ergo despicit unusquisque vestrum fratrem suum? Rom. XII, 10: honore invicem praevenientes. Et hoc propter fructum, quia ipse factus est omnibus obtemperantibus sibi causa salutis aeternae, Hebr. V, 9. Our Father. From this we see that we owe our neighbor both love and reverence. We must love our neighbor because we are all brothers, and all men are sons of God, our Father: for he that loveth not his brother whom he seeth, how can he love God whom he seeth not? (1 John 4:20). We owe reverence to our neighbor because he is also a child of God: have we not all one Father? Hath not one God created us? Why then does everyone of us despise his brother? (Mal 2:10). And again: with honor preventing one another (Rom 12:10). We do this because of the fruit we receive, for he became to all that obey the cause of eternal salvation (Heb 5:9). Qui es in caelis. Inter cetera quae oranti sunt necessaria, fiducia plurimum valet. Iac. I, 6: postulet autem in fide, nihil haesitans. Unde Dominus nos orare docens, ea praemittit ex quibus in nobis fiducia generetur: scilicet ex benignitate patris: unde pater noster dicit, secundum illud Luc. XI, 13: si vos, cum sitis mali, nostis bona data dare filiis vestris; quanto magis pater vester caelestis de caelo dabit spiritum bonum petentibus se? Et ex magnitudine potestatis: unde dicit, qui es in caelis. Unde Psal. CXXII, 1: ad te levavi oculos meos qui habitas in caelis. Who art in heaven. Among all that is necessary for one who prays, faith is above all important: let him ask in faith, nothing wavering (Jas 1:6). Hence, the Lord, teaching us to pray, first mentions that which causes faith to spring up, namely, the kindness of a father. So, he says Our Father, in the meaning which is had in the following: if you then being evil know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father from heaven give the good Spirit to them that ask him! (Luke 11:13) Then, he says, who art in heaven because of the greatness of his power: to thee have I lifted up my eyes, who dwellest in heaven (Ps 122:1). Potest autem hoc ad tria pertinere. Primo quidem ad orantis praeparationem: quia dicitur Eccli. XVIII, 23: ante orationem praepara animam tuam: ut intelligatur, in caelis, hoc est in caelesti gloria, secundum illud Matth. V, 12: merces vestra copiosa est in caelis. Et haec praeparatio debet esse per caelestium imitationem, quia filius debet imitari patrem. Unde dicitur I Cor. XV, 49: sicut portavimus imaginem terreni, portemus et imaginem caelestis. Item per caelestium contemplationem: quia homines solent frequentius cogitationem dirigere ubi habent patrem et alia quae diligunt, secundum illud Matth. VI, 21: ubi est thesaurus tuus, ibi est et cor tuum. Unde dicebat Apostolus Philip. III, 20: nostra conversatio in caelis est. Et per caelestium intentionem, ut ab eo qui in caelis est, non nisi caelestia quaeramus, secundum illud Coloss. III, 1: quae sursum sunt quaerite, ubi Christus est. The words, who art in heaven, signify three things. First, it serves as a preparation for him who utters the prayer, for, as it is said: before prayer prepare thy soul (Sir 18:23). Thus, in heaven is understood for the glory of heaven: for your reward is very great in heaven (Matt 5:12). And this preparation ought to be in the form of an imitation of heavenly things, since the son ought to imitate his father: therefore, as we have borne the image of the earthly, let us bear also the image of the heavenly (1 Cor 15:49). So also this preparation ought to be through contemplation of heavenly things, because men are wont to direct their thoughts to where they have a father and others whom they love, as it is written: for where thy treasure is, there is thy heart also (Matt 6:21). The Apostle wrote: our conversation is in heaven (Phil 3:20). Likewise, we prepare through attention to heavenly things, so that we may then seek only spiritual things from him who is in heaven: seek things that are above, where Christ is (Col 3:1). Secundo potest pertinere quod dicitur, qui es in caelis, ad audientis facilitatem, quia propinquus est nobis; ut intelligatur, qui es in caelis, idest in sanctis, in quibus Deus habitat, secundum illud Ier. XIV, 9: tu in nobis es Domine. Sancti enim caeli dicuntur, secundum illud Psal. XVIII, 2: caeli enarrant gloriam Dei. Habitat autem Deus in sanctis per fidem: Ephes. III, 17: Christum habitare per fidem in cordibus vestris. Per dilectionem: I Ioan. IV, 16: qui manet in caritate in Deo manet, et Deus in eo. Per mandatorum impletionem Ioan. XIV, 23: si quis diligit me, sermonem meum servabit; et pater meus diliget eum, et ad eum veniemus, et mansionem apud eum faciemus. Who art in heaven can also pertain to him who hears us, who is nearest to us; and then the in heaven is understood to mean in devout persons in whom God dwells, as it is written: thou, O Lord, art among us (Jer 14:9). For holy persons are called the heavens in the Psalm: the heavens show forth the glory of God (Ps 18:2), since God dwells in the devout through faith. That Christ may dwell by faith in your hearts (Eph 3:17). God also dwells in us through love: he that abideth in charity, abideth in God and God in him (1 John 4:16). And also through the keeping of the commandments: if any one love me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him, and will make our abode with him (John 14:23). Tertio potest pertinere quod dicitur, qui es in caelis, ad efficaciam exaudientis; ut per caelos, corporeos caelos intelligamus: non quod Deus corporalibus caelis includatur, secundum illud III Reg. VIII, 27: caelum et caeli caelorum te capere non possunt; sed ut significetur quod Deus est perspicax in consideratione, utpote qui de alto videt: Psal. CI, 20: prospexit de excelso sancto suo; et quod sublimis est in potestate, secundum illud Psal. CII, 19: Dominus in caelo paravit sedem suam; et quod stabilis est in aeternitate, secundum illud Psal. CI, 13: tu autem in aeternum permanes; item 28: et anni tui non deficient. Unde et de Christo dicitur Psal. LXXXVIII, 30: thronum eius sicut dies caeli. In the third place, who art in heaven can pertain to him who is in heaven, he who cannot be included in the physical heavens, for the heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain thee (1 Kgs 8:27). And so it can mean that God is all-seeing in his survey of us, in that he sees us from above, that is, from heaven: because he hath looked forth from his high sanctuary; from heaven the Lord hath looked upon the earth (Ps 101:20). It also signifies how sublime is God in his power: the Lord hath prepared his throne in heaven (Ps 102:19); and that he lives without change through eternity: but thou, O Lord, endurest forever (Ps 101:13). And again: thy years shall not fail (Ps 101:28). And so of Christ was it written: his throne as the days of heaven (Ps 88:30). Et philosophus dicit in I de caelo, quod propter incorruptionem caeli, omnes posuerunt caelum esse locum spirituum. Per hoc ergo quod dicitur, qui es in caelis, datur nobis fiducia orandi, quantum ad tria: quantum ad potestatem, et quantum ad familiaritatem eius a quo petitur, et quantum ad congruitatem petitionis. And the Philosopher says that on account of the incorruptibility of the heavens all have considered them as the abode of spirits (On the Heavens, 1). And so who art in heaven tends to give us confidence in our prayer which arises from a threefold consideration: of God’s power, of our familiarity with him, and of the fitness of our requests. Potestas enim eius a quo petitur, insinuatur, si per caelos intelligantur caeli corporei: et quamvis ipse locis corporalibus non comprehendatur, cum scriptum sit Ier. XXIII, 24: caelum et terram ego impleo, tamen dicitur esse in caelis corporeis ad insinuandum duo: scilicet potentiae eius virtutem, et sublimitatem naturae. Primum quidem est contra illos qui dicunt, omnia ex fato caelestium corporum ex necessitate accidere: secundum quam opinionem inutile esset aliquid a Deo orando petere. Sed hoc stultum est, cum Deus in caelis sic esse dicatur ut caelorum Dominus et stellarum, secundum illud Psal. CII, 19: Dominus in caelo paravit sedem suam. Secundum vero contra illos est qui in orando aliquas sibi corporeas phantasias de Deo proponunt et fingunt: ideo dicitur esse in caelis, ut per id quod in sensibilibus rebus est altissimum, ostendatur divina sublimitas omnia excedens, etiam hominum desiderium et intellectum: unde quidquid cogitari, vel desiderari potest, est minus quam Deus. Propter quod dicitur in Iob XXXVI, 26: ecce Deus magnus vincens scientiam nostram; Psal. CXII, 4: excelsus super omnes gentes Dominus; Isai. XL, 18: cui similem fecistis Deum?. The power of him to whom we pray is implied if we consider heaven as the corporeal heavens. God is not limited by any physical bounds: do I not fill heaven and earth? saith the Lord (Jer 23:24). Nevertheless, he is said to be in the corporeal heavens to indicate two things: the extent of his power and the greatness of his nature. The former of these attributes is contrary to the view that all things happen out of necessity, by a fate regulated by the celestial bodies; and thus all prayer would be vain and useless. But such is absurd, since God dwells in the heavens as their Lord: the Lord has prepared his throne in heaven (Ps 102:19). The latter attribute, namely, his sublime nature, is against those who in praying propose or build up any corporeal images of God. Therefore, God is stated to be in heaven in that he exceeds all corporeal things, and even the desires and intellects of men; so that whatsoever man thinks or desires is far less than God. Thus, it is said: behold, God is great, exceeding our knowledge (Job 36:26). And again: the Lord is high above all nations (Ps 112:4). And finally: to whom then have you likened God? Or what image will you make for him? (Isa 40:18). Familiaritas autem Dei ostenditur, si per caelos sancti accipiantur. Quia enim propter eius altitudinem aliqui dixerunt quod humana non curat, oportet considerare quia nobis est vicinus, immo intimus: quia dicitur esse in caelis, idest in sanctis, qui caeli dicuntur, secundum illud Psal. XVIII, 2: caeli enarrant gloriam Dei; Ierem. XIV, 9: tu in nobis es, Domine. Hoc enim affert fiduciam orantibus quantum ad duo. Primo quantum ad propinquitatem Dei, secundum illud Psal. CXLIV, 18: prope est Dominus omnibus invocantibus eum. Unde Matth. VI, 6: tu autem cum oraveris intra in cubiculum, scilicet cordis. Secundo, quia per patrocinium aliorum sanctorum possumus impetrare quod petimus, secundum illud Iob V, 1: ad aliquem sanctorum convertere; Iac. V, 16: orate pro invicem, ut salvemini. Familiar intercourse with God is shown through this in heaven. Some indeed have said that because of his great distance from us God does not care for men, and they cite these words: he walketh about the poles of heaven, and he doth not consider our things (Job 22:14). Against this is the fact that God is nearer to us than we are to ourselves. This brings confidence to one who prays. First, because of the nearness of God: the Lord is nigh unto all them that call upon him (Ps 144:18). Hence, it is written: but thou when thou shalt pray, enter into thy chamber (Matt 6:6), that is, into thy heart. Second, because of the intercession of all the saints among whom God dwells; for from this arises faith to ask through their merits for what we desire: turn to some of the saints (Job 5:1), and, pray one for another, that you may be saved (Jas 5:16). Idoneitatem etiam et congruitatem accipit oratio ex hoc quod dicitur esse in caelis, secundum quod per caelos spiritualia bona et aeterna intelliguntur, in quibus est beatitudo, propter duo. This part of the prayer—that is, in heaven—is appropriate and fitting also, if in heaven is taken to mean that spiritual and eternal good in which true happiness consists, on account of two things. Primo, quia per hoc excitatur nostrum desiderium ad caelestia. Tendere enim debet illuc desiderium nostrum ubi patrem habemus, quia illic est hereditas nostra. Coloss. III, 1: quae sursum sunt quaerite. I Petr. I, 4: in hereditatem immarcescibilem, conservatam in caelis. First, because of it our desires are lifted up towards heavenly things; since our desires ought to tend towards where we have our Father, because there is our true home: seek the things that are above (Col 3:1). And again: unto an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that cannot fade, reserved in heaven for you (1 Pet 1:4). Secundo, quia per hoc informamur ut sit vita caelestis, ut simus conformes patri caelesti, secundum illud I Cor. XV, 48: qualis caelestis, tales et caelestes. Et haec duo faciunt idoneum ad petendum, scilicet desiderium caeleste, et vita caelestis: ex quibus oratio congrua fit. Second, from it we are told that, if our life is to be in heaven, then we ought to be conformed to our heavenly Father: such as is the heavenly, such also are they that are heavenly (1 Cor 15:48). From all this the words in heaven are most appropriate in prayer in that they signify both a heavenly desire and heavenly life. Articulus 1 Petition 1 Sanctificetur nomen tuum Hallowed Be Thy Name Hallowed Be Thy Name Haec est prima petitio, in qua petitur ut nomen eius in nobis manifestetur et declaretur. Est autem nomen Dei primo mirabile, quia in omnibus creaturis mirabilia operatur: unde Dominus in Evangelio Marc. ult., 17: in nomine meo Daemonia eiicient, linguis loquentur novis, serpentes tollent: et si mortiferum quid biberint non eis nocebit. This is the first petition, and in it we ask that God’s name be manifested and declared in us. The name of God, first of all, is wonderful because it works wonders in all creatures. Thus said our Lord: in my name they shall cast out devils, they shall speak new tongues. They shall take up serpents; and if they shall drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them (Mark 14:17). Secundo est amabile. Act. IV, 12: non est aliud nomen datum sub caelo in quo oporteat nos salvos fieri. Salus autem est ab omnibus diligenda. Exemplum de beato Ignatio, qui intantum nomen Christi dilexit, quod cum Traianus requireret ab eo ut nomen Christi negaret, respondit quod de ore eius removeri non posset; et cum ille minaretur sibi caput abscindere, et Christum de eius ore removere, dixit: et si de ore abstuleris, nunquam tamen de corde eripere poteris: hoc enim nomen cordi meo inscriptum habeo, et ideo ab eius invocatione cessare non valeo. Quod audiens Traianus, et probari cupiens, servi Dei abscisso capite, cor eius extrahi iussit, et inventum est habens nomen Christi in se scriptum litteris aureis. Posuerat enim super cor suum hoc nomen quasi signaculum. Second, this name is lovable: there is no other name under heaven given to men, whereby we must be saved (Acts 4:12). We all should desire to be saved. We have an example in Blessed Ignatius, who had such great love for the name of Christ that, when Trajan ordered him to deny it, he affirmed that it could not be dragged from his mouth. Then, the emperor threatened to have him beheaded, and thus take the name of Christ out of the mouth of the saint. But Ignatius replied: even though you take it from my mouth, you will never snatch it from my heart. I have this name written in my heart and there I never cease to invoke it. Trajan heard this and wished to put it to the test. He had the servant of God beheaded and then commanded that his heart be taken out, and there upon the heart was found the name of Christ inscribed in letters of gold. This name had been engraved on the heart as a seal. Tertio est venerabile. Apostolus, Phil. II, 10: ut in nomine Iesu omne genu flectatur, caelestium, terrestrium et Infernorum. Caelestium quantum ad Angelos et beatos; terrestrium quantum ad mundanos, qui hoc faciunt ex amore adipiscendae gloriae vel timore fugiendae poenae; et Infernorum quoad damnatos, qui hoc faciunt ex timore. Third, the name of God is venerable: in the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those that are in heaven, on earth, and under the earth (Phil 2:10). Those that are in heaven refers to the angels and the blessed; those that are on earth to people living in this world, who do so for love of heaven which they wish to gain; those under the earth to the damned, who do so out of fear. Quarto inexplicabile, quia a narratione eius deficiunt omnes linguae. Et ideo explicatur aliquando per creaturas. Unde dicitur lapis ratione firmitatis: Matth. XVI, 18: super hanc petram aedificabo Ecclesiam meam. Item ignis ratione purificationis: quia sicut ignis metalla purificat, ita Deus purificat corda peccatorum: unde Deut. IV, 24: Deus tuus ignis consumens est. Item lux ratione illuminationis: quia sicut lux illuminat tenebras, ita nomen Dei illuminat tenebras mentis. Psal. XVII, 29: Deus meus, illumina tenebras meas. Fourth, this name is ineffable, for in the telling of it every tongue is wholly inadequate. Accordingly, it is sometimes compared to created things as, for instance, it is likened to a rock because of its firmness: upon this rock I will build my Church (Matt 16:18). It is likened to a fire because of its purifying power; for as fire purifies metal, so does God purify the hearts of sinners: my God is a consuming fire (Deut 4:24). It is compared to light because of its power of enlightening; for as light illumines the darkness, so does the name of God overcome the darkness of the mind: O my God, enlighten my darkness (Ps 17:29). Unde istud nomen petimus manifestari, ut cognoscatur, et teneatur sanctum. Sanctum autem tripliciter dicitur. Sanctum enim idem est quod firmum: unde omnes beati qui in caelo sunt, sancti dicuntur, quia sunt aeterna felicitate firmati. In mundo non possunt esse sancti, quia sunt continue mobiles. Augustinus: defluxi, Domine, a te, et erravi nimis: devius factus sum a stabilitate tua. We pray that this name may be manifested in us, that it be known and revered as holy. Now "holy" (or hallowed) may have a threefold meaning. First, it is the same as firm. Thus, those who are firmly established in eternal happiness are all the blessed in heaven, the saints. In this sense, none is a saint on earth because here all is continually changeable. As St. Augustine says: I sank away from thee, O Lord, and I wandered too much astray from thee who art my firm support (Confessions, 2, 10).