1:8 Testis enim mihi est Deus, quomodo cupiam omnes vos in visceribus Jesu Christi. [n. 14]
1:8 For God is my witness, how I long after you all in the heart of Jesus Christ. [n. 14]
1:9 Et hoc oro, ut caritas vestra magis ac magis abundet in scientia, [n. 16] et in omni sensu: [n. 18]
1:9 And this I pray: That your charity may more and more abound in knowledge [n. 16] and in all sense: [n. 18]
1:10 ut probetis potiora, ut sitis sinceri, et sine offensa in diem Christi, [n. 19]
1:10 That you may approve the better things: that you may be sincere and without offense unto the day of Christ: [n. 19]
1:11 repleti fructu justitiae per Jesum Christum, in gloriam et laudem Dei.
1:11 Filled with the fruit of justice, through Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of God.
1:12 Scire autem vos volo fratres, quia quae circa me sunt, magis ad profectum venerunt Evangelii: [n. 20]
1:12 Now, brethren, I desire that you should know that the things which have happened to me have come about rather to the progress of the Gospel: [n. 20]
1:13 ita ut vincula mea manifesta fierent in Christo in omni praetorio, et in ceteris omnibus, [n. 22]
1:13 So that my bonds are made manifest in Christ, in all the court and in all other places. [n. 22]
1:14 et plures e fratribus in Domino confidentes vinculis meis, abundantius auderent sine timore verbum Dei loqui.
1:14 And many of the brethren in the Lord, growing confident by my bonds, are much more bold to speak the word of God without fear.
1:15 Quidam quidem et propter invidiam et contentionem: quidam autem et propter bonam voluntatem Christum praedicant:
1:15 Some indeed, even out of envy and contention: but some also preach Christ out of good will.
1:16 quidam ex caritate, scientes quoniam in defensionem Evangelii positus sum.
1:16 Some out of charity, knowing that I am set for the defense of the Gospel.
1:17 Quidam autem ex contentione Christum annuntiant non sincere, existimantes pressuram se suscitare vinculis meis.
1:17 And some out of contention preach Christ insincerely: supposing that they raise affliction to my bonds.
14. Posita materia gaudii de spe futura, hic ostendit super quo deprecationem pro eis facit. Et
14. Having stated the reason for hope concerning the future, he now indicates the matters for which he makes supplication for them.
primo praemittit suum desiderium, quod ostenditur omnino fervens;
First, he mentions his desire, which is shown to be very fervent;
secundo materiam deprecationis, ibi et hoc oro, et cetera.
second, the matter of his prayer, at and this I pray.
15. Et quia cordis desiderium soli Deo est manifestum, ideo invocat Deum testem quod pro eis deprecetur cum desiderio. Iob c. XVI, 19: ecce in caelo testis meus est, scilicet Deus, et cetera. Quomodo cupiam vos, scilicet ego, existens in visceribus Iesu Christi.
15. Since the heart’s desire is known to God alone, he calls on God to witness that he prays for them with desire: behold, my witness, God, is in heaven (Job 16:19). How I long after you all, i.e., I, living in the heart of Jesus Christ.
Vel quomodo cupiam vos esse in eis; quasi dicat: quomodo cupiam vestram salutem et participationem viscerosae caritatis Christi. Lc. I, 78: per viscera misericordiae Dei, etc.; quasi dicat: quia ad profunda et intima cordis, virtus amoris pertingit.
Or, how I long after you to be in it; as if to say: how I long after your salvation and participation in the merciful heart of Christ. Through the heart of the mercy of our God (Luke 1:78). As if to say that the power of love reaches to the inmost depths of the heart.
Vel cupiam ut sitis in visceribus Iesu Christi, id est ut ipsum intime diligatis, ut et diligamini ab eo; in hoc enim vita hominis consistit.
Or, I long for you to be in the heart of Jesus Christ, i.e., that you may love him intimately, and that you may be loved by him; for man’s life consists in this.
16. Deinde cum dicit et hoc oro, etc., ponit deprecationem, et tria bona optat.
16. Then when he says, and this I pray, he mentions his prayer. He asks three things.
Primo quantum ad interioris caritatis augmentum. Affectus enim interior perficitur per caritatem, et ideo non habenti caritatem optandum est ut habeat; habenti vero, ut perficiatur. Unde dicit ut caritas, et cetera. Pro augmento autem caritatis orandus est Deus, quia solus Deus hoc in nobis operatur. II Cor. IX, 8: potens est autem Deus omnem gratiam abundare facere in vobis, ut in omnibus semper omnem sufficientiam habentes, abundetis in omne opus bonum, et cetera. Et hoc necessarium est ut petamus et nos, quia Matth. V, 20: nisi abundaverit iustitia vestra plus quam scribarum et Pharisaeorum, non intrabitis in regnum caelorum.
The first pertains to increasing charity within. For the interior affections are perfected by charity; therefore, if one lacks charity, he should desire to obtain it; if he has it, he should desire that it be made perfect. Hence he says, that your charity may more and more abound. God is the one from whom an increase of charity should be sought, because God is the only one who works this in us: God is able to provide you with every blessing in abundance, so that you may always have enough of everything and may provide in abundance for every good work (2 Cor 9:8). Hence it is necessary that we pray for it, because unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven (Matt 5:20).
17. Secundo quantum ad intellectum. Unde dicit in omni scientia.
17. The second request regards understanding; hence he says, in knowledge.
Sed numquid ex caritate provenit scientia? Sic, quia dicitur I Io. II, 27: et vos unctionem quam accepistis ab eo, maneat in vobis, et non necesse habetis ut aliquis doceat vos, sed sicut unctio eius docet vos de omnibus, et cetera. Item, caritas est Spiritus, de quo dicitur Io. XVI, 13: cum venerit ille Spiritus veritatis, docebit vos omnem, et cetera. Cuius ratio est, quia qui habet habitum, si rectus est habitus, sequitur inde rectum iudicium de his quae pertinent ad illum habitum; si vero corruptus, falsum. Sicut circa venerea temperatus habet bonum iudicium, intemperatus non sed falsum.
But does knowledge arise from charity? It seems so, because it is said: but the anointing which you received from him abides in you, and you have no need that any one should teach you; as his anointing teaches you about everything, and is true, and is no lie (1 John 2:27). Furthermore, charity is the Spirit, of whom it is said: when the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth (John 16:13). The reason for this is that when a person has a habit, if that habit is right, then right judgment of things pertaining to that habit follows from it; but if it is corrupted, then false judgment follows. Thus, the temperate person has good judgment in regard to sex, but an intemperate person does not, having a false judgment.
Omnia autem quae a nobis fiunt, sunt informanda caritate, et ideo habens caritatem, habet rectum iudicium, et quantum ad cognoscibilia. Et sic dicit in omni scientia, qua scilicet agnoscat veritatem et inhaereat circa ea quae sunt fidei. Haec est scientia sanctorum, de qua dicitur Sap. X, 10.
Now all things that are done by us must be informed with charity. Therefore, a person with charity has a correct judgment both in regard to things knowable; hence he says, in knowledge, by which one recognizes the truth and adheres to the truths of faith; and this is the knowledge of holy things mentioned in Wisdom (Wis 10:10);
Et quantum ad operabilia, et sic dicit et in omni sensu, qui est vis cognoscitiva circa exteriora obiecta. Et proprium eius est ut statim iudicet de proprio sensibili recte. Et ideo hoc nomen translatum est ad interius iudicium rationis; unde sensati dicuntur qui habent rectum iudicium circa agibilia. Sap. I, v. 1: sentite de Domino in bonitate, et cetera. Sap. c. VI, 16: cogitare ergo de illa, sensus est consummatus, et cetera.
and in regard to things to be done; hence he says, and in all sense, which is the faculty that deals with external objects. Its function is to judge correctly and quickly about the proper sensible object. As a result, this name has been transferred to the internal judgment of reason; hence, those who possess correct judgment in regard to what they should do are called sensible. Think, i.e., sense, of the Lord with uprightness (Wis 1:1); to fix one’s thought on, i.e., to sense, her is perfect understanding (Wis 6:16).
Sed hic sensus debet esse non tantum considerativus sed etiam discretivus inter bonum et malum, et inter bonum et melius. Unde subdit ut probetis, et cetera.
But this sense should be able not only to recognize, but also to distinguish between good and evil, and between good and better; hence he says, so that you may approve the better things:
Nota quod caritas perficit sensum ut probet bona; sed perfecta caritas ut probet meliora. I Cor. XII, 31: aemulamini meliora charismata, etc. et in I Cor. XIV, 1: sectamini caritatem, et cetera. Et ideo dicit potiora.
Note that charity perfects sense that it may approve the good: earnestly desire the higher gifts (1 Cor 12:31), and make love your aim, and earnestly desire the spiritual gifts (1 Cor 14:1); hence he says, the better things.
18. Tertio quantum ad effectum. Et primo ponit immunitatem a malo; secundo perfectionem in bono.
18. The third request concerns behavior. First, he mentions immunity from evil; second, perfection in good.
Primum in hoc quod dicit ut sitis sinceri. Est enim duplex peccatum vitandum, scilicet interioris corruptionis, qua homo corrumpitur in se, et hoc excluditur per sinceritatem. I Cor. V, 8: in azymis sinceritatis, et cetera. Aliud est in proximum, scilicet offensa. Et ideo dicit et sine offensa. I Cor. X, 32: sine offensione estote Iudaeis et Gentilibus, et Ecclesiae Dei, sicut ego, et cetera. Et II Cor. VI, 3: nemini dantes ullam offensionem, et cetera.
The first, where it says, that you may be sincere. For there are two evils to be avoided: first, internal destruction, by which a man is destroyed in himself; and this is excluded by sincerity: the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth (1 Cor 5:8). The other concerns our neighbor, namely, offenses; hence he says, and without offense: give no offense to Jews or to Greeks or to the Church of God, just as I try to please all men in everything I do (1 Cor 10:32); we put no obstacle in anyone’s way, so that no fault may be found with our ministry (2 Cor 6:3).
In diem Christi Iesu, id est usque in finem vitae. Matth. XXIV, 13: qui perseveraverit usque in finem, hic salvus erit.
Unto the day of Christ, i.e., to the end of our lives: he who endures to the end will be saved (Matt 24:13).
19. Quantum ad gratiam dicit repleti fructu iustitiae, ut opera iustitiae quaedam fructus sint. Rom. VI, 22: habetis fructum vestrum in sanctificatione, et cetera. Vel fructu iustitiae, id est praemio iustitiae, scilicet corona. II Tim. IV, 8: in reliquo reposita est mihi corona iustitiae, et cetera. Sap. III, 15: bonorum enim laborum gloriosus est fructus, et cetera. Et hoc habetur per Christum, quia omnia, quae facimus, sunt bona per ipsum. Io. XV, 5: sine me nihil potestis facere, et cetera.
19. As to the effects of grace he says, filled with the fruit of justice. Good works are the fruit: the return you get is sanctification and its end, eternal life (Rom 6:22). Or, the fruit of justice, i.e., the reward of justice, namely, the crown: henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness (2 Tim 4:8); for the fruit of good labors is renowned (Wis 3:15). This is obtained through Jesus Christ, because all that we do is good through him. Apart from me you can do nothing (John 15:5).
Et haec facienda sunt hoc fine, scilicet in gloriam et laudem Dei, quia ex operibus sanctorum, Deus clarificatur, cum inde alii prorumpunt in laudem Dei. Ps. CL, 1: laudate dominum in sanctis eius, et cetera. Ier. XXXIII, 9: erit mihi in nomen, et in gaudium, et in laudem, et in exultationem cunctis gentibus terrae, quae audierint omnia bona, et cetera.
Furthermore, these things must be done for this end, unto the glory and praise of God, because God is glorified by the works of the saints, since they cause other people to break out in praise of God. Praise God in his saints (Ps 150:1); and it shall be to me a name of joy, a praise and a glory before all the nations of the earth who shall hear of all the good that I do for them (Jer 33:9).
20. Deinde cum dicit scire autem, etc., admonet ad futura. Et
20. Then when he says, now, brethren, I desire that you, he advises them in regard to the future.
primo ponit exempla exequenda et vitanda;
First, he gives examples to be followed and to be avoided;
secundo concludit moralem monitionem in IV cap., ibi itaque, fratres mei charissimi, et cetera.
second, he concludes his moral exhortation, at therefore, my dearly beloved brethren (Phil 4:1).
Circa primum duo facit, quia
In regard to the first he does two things:
primo ostendit quae sunt imitanda;
first, he shows what should be imitated;