Exaltation of Christ
2:9 Propter quod et Deus exaltavit illum, et donavit illi nomen, quod est super omne nomen: [n. 67]
2:9 For which cause, God also has exalted him and has given him a name which is above all names: [n. 67]
2:10 ut in nomine Jesu omne genu flectatur caelestium, terrestrium et infernorum, [n. 72]
2:10 That in the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those that are in heaven, on earth, and under the earth: [n. 72]
2:11 et omnis lingua confiteatur, quia Dominus Jesus Christus in gloria est Dei Patris. [n. 73]
2:11 And that every tongue should confess that the Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of God the Father. [n. 73]
2:12 Itaque carissimi mei (sicut semper obedistis, non ut in praesentia mei tantum, sed multo magis nunc in absentia mea) cum metu et tremore vestram salutem operamini. [n. 74]
2:12 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, (as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only but much more now in my absence) with fear and trembling work out your salvation. [n. 74]
2:13 Deus est enim, qui operatur in vobis et velle, et perficere pro bona voluntate. [n. 77]
2:13 For it is God who works in you, both to will and to accomplish, according to his good will. [n. 77]
67. Supra commendavit Christi humilitatem, hic commendat eius praemium, quod est exaltatio et gloria. Lc. XIV, 11 et c. XVIII, 14: omnis qui se exaltat, humiliabitur, et qui se humiliat, exaltabitur. Iob XXII, v. 29: qui humiliatus fuerit, erit in gloria.
67. Above he praised Christ’s humility; here he cites its reward, which is exaltation and glory: every one who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles himself will be exalted (Luke 14:11 and 18:14); for he that has been humbled, shall be in glory (Job 22:29).
Nota triplicem exaltationem Christi, scilicet quantum ad gloriam resurgentis, ibi propter quod, et cetera.
Note the threefold exaltation of Christ. First, as to the glory of the resurrection, at for which cause;
Quantum ad notificationem suae divinitatis, ibi et donavit, et cetera.
second, as to the manifestation of his divinity, at and has given him;
Et quantum ad reverentiam totius creaturae, ibi ut in nomine, et cetera.
third, as to the reverence shown by every creature, at that in the name.
68. Dicit ergo propter quod et Deus exaltavit illum, scilicet ut de morte resurgeret. Item, de mortalitate ad immortalitatem. Rom. VI, 9: Christus resurgens ex mortuis iam non moritur, mors illi ultra non dominabitur. Ps. CXVII, 16 s.: dextera Domini exaltavit me, non moriar, sed vivam. Item, exaltavit eum in dextris suis constituendo. Eph. I, 20 s.: constituens illum ad dexteram suam in caelestibus supra omnem principatum, et potestatem, et virtutem, et dominationem, et omne nomen, et cetera.
68. He says, for which cause God also has exalted him, namely, that he should rise from the dead and pass from mortality to immortality: Christ being raised from the dead will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him (Rom 6:9); the right hand of the Lord does valiantly! I shall not die, but I shall live (Ps 118:16). He also exalted him by setting him on his right hand: he raised him from the dead and made him sit at his right hand in the heavenly places, far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in that which is to come (Eph 1:20).
69. Sed verum est quod alii exaltantur in gloria, et in immortalitate, sed ille plus, quia dedit, ei nomen, et cetera. Nomen autem imponitur ad significandam rem aliquam, et tanto nomen est altius, quanto res significata per illud est altior, et ideo nomen divinitatis est altius. Ps. VIII, 2: Domine Dominus noster, quam admirabile est nomen tuum, et cetera. Ergo hoc nomen, ut Deus diceretur et esset, dedit isti, scilicet Christo, Pater, tamquam vero Deo.
69. But while it is true that others are raised to glory and immortality, he is more so, because God has given him a name which is above all names. Now a name is imposed to signify some thing, and the loftier the thing signified by a name, the loftier is the name: hence the name of the divinity is highest: O Lord, our Lord, how majestic is your name in all the earth! (Ps 8:1). Therefore, this name, that he should be called and should be God, the Father gave to him, i.e., to Christ, as to the true God.
70. Sed Photinus dicit, quod hoc ponitur hic sicut praemium humilitatis Christi: et dicit, quod non est verus Deus, sed quod sit sibi data quaedam eminentia creaturae, et similitudo divinitatis: quod non est verum, quia dictum est supra: cum in forma Dei esset, et cetera.
70. But Photinus says that this is mentioned here as a reward for Christ’s humility and that it does not mean he is true God, but merely that he received a certain pre-eminence over the creature and a likeness of the godhead. This however, is not true, because it was stated that he was in the form of God (Phil 2:6).
Dicendum ergo est quod in Christo est duplex natura, et unum suppositum. Haec enim persona Deus est et homo; et ideo potest hoc dupliciter exponi: uno modo ut donaverit ei hoc nomen Pater, inquantum est Filius Dei, et hoc ab aeterno per generationem aeternam; quae donatio nihil est aliud quam aeterna eius generatio. Io. V, 26: sicut Pater habet vitam in semetipso, sic dedit et Filio vitam habere in semetipso, et cetera.
Therefore, one must answer that there are two natures and one hypostasis in Christ: for this person is God and man. Therefore, this can be explained in two ways: in one way, that the Father gave him this name inasmuch as he is the Son of God; and this from all eternity by an eternal engendering, so that this giving is no more than his eternal generation: for as the Father has life in himself, so he has granted the Son also to have life in himself (John 5:26).
Alio modo de Christo homine, et sic Pater dedit illi homini nomen, ut Deus esset, non per naturam, quia alia est natura Dei, et alia hominis, sed ut esset Deus per gratiam, non adoptionis sed unionis, qua simul esset Deus et homo. Rom. I, 4: praedestinatus est Filius Dei in virtute, ille scilicet qui factus est ei ex semine David secundum carnem.
In another way it can refer to Christ as man; and then the Father gave that man the name of being God not by nature, because God’s nature is distinct from the nature of man, but to be God by the grace, not of adoption, but of union, by which he is at once God and man: designated Son of God in power, he, namely, who was descended from David according to the flesh (Rom 1:4).
Et haec est expositio Augustini secundum intentionem Apostoli. Similiter habetur Act. c. II, 36: certissime sciat omnis domus, et cetera. Prima autem est Ambrosii.
This second way is Augustine’s explanation in keeping with the Apostle’s intention. Similarly, it is stated in Acts: let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified (Acts 2:36). The first is Ambrose’s.
71. Sed quaeris, quantum ad utramque expositionem obiiciendo, cur, postquam dixit humiliavit semetipsum, etc., sequitur hic propter quod, etc., cum praemium non praecedat meritum. Non ergo aeterna generatio, nec Incarnatio est praemium passionis Christi, quia praecedunt.
71. But you might object to both explanations and ask why he says, he humbled himself, becoming obedient unto death (Phil 2:8) and follows with, for which cause, God also has exalted him, since the reward does not precede the merit. Therefore, neither the eternal engendering nor the Incarnation is the reward of Christ’s passion, because they precede it.
Sed dicendum est, quod in Sacra Scriptura dicitur aliquid fieri, quando innotescit. Donavit ergo, id est fecit manifestum mundo, quod hoc nomen haberet.
The answer is that in Sacred Scripture a thing is said to occur when it is known. Therefore, God has given, i.e., made manifest to the world, that he has this name.
Hoc enim manifestum est in resurrectione, quia ante non erat sic nota divinitas Christi. Et huic concordat textus sequens, quasi non donaverit quod non haberet, sed ut hoc omnes venerentur.
This was manifested in the resurrection, because prior to it the divinity of Christ was not that well known. This is supported by the text which follows: it implies that he did not give him a name he did not already have, but that all should venerate it.
72. Et ponitur duplex veneratio, scilicet in subiectione operis, et in confessione oris, ibi et omnis lingua, et cetera.
72. And he mentions two types of veneration, namely, subjecting the body and confessing with the mouth: every tongue should confess.
Dicit ergo et dedit illi nomen quod est super omne nomen, etiam secundum quod homo. Ideo subdit ut in nomine Iesu, quod est nomen hominis, omne genu flectatur. Is. XLV, 23: mihi curvabitur omne genu, et cetera.
He says therefore: he has given him a name which is above all names, even as man; hence he adds, that in the name of Jesus, which is the name of the man, every knee should bow; to me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear (Isa 45:23).
Sed hic erravit Origenes, quia cum audivit quod omne genu flectatur, quod est reverentiam exhibere, reddidit futurum quandoque quod omnis creatura rationalis, sive angeli, sive homines, sive daemones subiicerentur Christo subiectione caritatis.
But here is where Origen erred, because when he heard that every knee should bow, which is a sign of subjection, he believed that at some future time every rational creature, whether angels or men or devils, would be subjected to Christ by the allegiance of charity.
Sed contra hoc est illud Matth. XXV, 41: ite, maledicti, in ignem aeternum, et cetera.
But this is contrary to Matthew: depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels (Matt 25:41).
Sed dicendum est, quod est duplex subiectio: una voluntaria, et alia involuntaria. Et est futurum, quod omnes angeli sancti Christo subiiciantur voluntarie; et ideo dicit: omne genu flectatur. Et ponitur signum pro signato. Ps. XCVI, 7: adorate eum, omnes angeli eius. Item quod homines beati, et sancti ac iusti hoc modo subiicientur. Ps. LXXXV, v. 9: omnes gentes, quascumque fecisti, venient, et adorabunt coram te, Domine, et glorificabunt nomen tuum. Sed daemones et damnati non sic, sed involuntarie subiiciuntur. Iac. II, 19: daemones credunt, et contremiscunt, et cetera.
It should be noted that there are two kinds of subjection: one is voluntary and the other involuntary. In the future it will come about that all the holy angels will be subject to Christ voluntarily; hence he says, every knee should bow, where he mentions the sign for the thing signified: adore him all his angels (Ps 96:8). Likewise, holy and just and beatified men will be subject in this way: all the nations you have made shall come and bow down before you, O Lord, and shall glorify your name (Ps 86:9); but not the devils and the damned, for they will be subject involuntarily: even the demons believe—and shudder (Jas 2:19).
73. Deinde cum dicit et omnis lingua confiteatur, etc., ponitur exhibitio reverentiae in confessione oris. Omnis lingua, scilicet caelestium, terrestrium et infernorum. Non de confessione laudis dicitur hoc respectu Infernorum sed de coacta, quae fit per recognitionem Dei. Is. XL, 5: videbit omnis caro pariter, quod os Domini locutum est, et cetera. Ps. XCVIII, 3: confiteatur nomini tuo magno, quoniam terribile et sanctum est, et cetera.
73. Then when he says, every tongue should confess, he touches on the reverence shown by confessing with the mouth: every tongue, namely, in heaven, on earth, and under the earth. This does not refer to a confession of praise from those under the earth, but to a forced confession, which is made by recognizing God: and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together (Isa 40:5); let them praise your great and terrible name! Holy is he! (Ps 99:3).
Et hoc, quia Dominus Iesus Christus, etc., iste scilicet homo, in gloria, et cetera. Non dicit in simili, quia in eadem. Io. V, 23: omnes honorificent Filium, sicut honorificant Patrem.
And this confession will recognize that the Lord Jesus Christ, namely, the man, is in the glory of God the Father. He does not say in a similar glory, because it is the same glory: that all may honor the Son, even as they honor the Father (John 5:23).
Et notandum est, quod in principio dicit qui cum in forma, etc., hic dicit in gloria, quia futurum erat quod illud quod ab aeterno habuit, omnibus innotesceret, ut Io. XVII, 5: clarifica me tu, Pater, apud temetipsum claritate quam habui priusquam mundus fieret apud te.
It should be noted that earlier he had said that he was in the form of God (Phil 2:6), but here he says in the glory, because it would come to pass that what he had from all eternity would be known by all: Father, glorify me in your own presence with the glory which I had with you before the world was made (John 17:5).
74. Deinde cum dicit itaque, fratres, etc., concluditur exhortatio. Et
74. Then when he says, wherefore, my dearly beloved, the exhortation is brought to an end.
circa hoc tria facit: quia
In regard to this he does three things:
primo hortatur ad bene agendum;
first, he exhorts them to act well;
secundo ostendit quomodo debent agere, ibi omnia autem, etc.;
second, how to do so, at and do all things (Phil 2:14);
tertio, quo fructu, ibi ut sitis, et cetera.
third, with what fruit, at that you may be blameless (Phil 2:15).
Item prima in tres. Quia
The first part is divided into three.
primo commemorat praeteritam obedientiam;
First, he recalls their past obedience;
secundo ostendit quid agere debeant, ibi non in praesentia, etc.;
second, he shows what they should do, at not as in my presence;