1104. Secundo assignat causam huius conditionis, dicens in hoc enim Christus mortuus est, et resurrexit, id est hoc adeptus est sua morte et resurrectione, ut vivorum dominaretur, quia resurrexit, vitam novam et perpetuam inchoando, et mortuorum, quia mortem nostram moriendo destruxit. II Cor. c. V, 15: pro quibus mortuus est Christus, ut qui vivunt, iam non sibi vivant, sed ei qui pro eis mortuus est, et resurrexit.
1104. Second, he assigns the cause of this condition, saying: for to this end Christ died and rose again, i.e., by his death and resurrection he obtained the right to be Lord of the living, because he rose to begin a new and perpetual life, and of the dead, because by dying he destroyed our death: he died for all that those who live might live no longer for themselves, but for him who for their sake died and arose (2 Cor 5:15).
Sic igitur per omnia praedicta Apostolus probavit, quod unusquisque domino suo stat aut cadit, per hoc scilicet quod fideles gratias agunt Deo, et quod Domino vivunt et moriuntur, et quod Domini sunt et in morte et in vita.
Thus, therefore, by all the foregoing the Apostle has proved that each one stands or falls before his master, namely, by the fact that believers give thanks to God and that they live and die to the Lord and that in life and in death we are the Lord’s.
1105. Deinde cum dicit tu autem quid iudicas, etc., ponit tertiam rationem quae sumitur ex futuro iudicio.
1105. Then when he says, but you, why do you judge, he presents the third reason, which is based on the future judgment.
Et circa hoc tria facit. Primo proponit superfluitatem praesentis iudicii, dicens tu autem quid iudicas? Id est qua utilitate vel necessitate iudicas, fratrem tuum, temere de occultis, quae tuo iudicio non sunt commissa? Aut tu, alius qui iudicaris, quare spernis fratrem tuum, pro nullo reputans ab eo iudicari? Mal. II, 10: quare despicit unusquisque fratrem suum?
In regard to this he does three things: first, he suggests that a judgment at present is unnecessary, saying: but you, why do you judge, i.e., of what use or need is your judgment, your brother, rashly judging hidden matters not committed to your judgment? Or you, who are judged, why do you despise your brother, regarding as nothing the fact that you are judged by him? Why does each one despise his brother? (Mic 2:10).
1106. Secundo praenuntiat futurum Christi iudicium, quasi dicat: recte dico cur iudicas, quia non debes timere quod absque iudicio remaneat, omnes enim stabimus ante tribunal Christi. Dicitur enim tribunal Christi eius iudiciaria potestas, sicut et Matth. c. XXV, 21 dicitur: cum venerit Filius hominis in maiestate sua, tunc sedebit super sedem maiestatis suae.
1106. Second, he foretells the future judgment of Christ: As if to say: I am correct in stating why you pass judgment, because you should not fear that anyone will remain unjudged. For we shall all stand before the tribunal of Christ. The tribunal of Christ is so called on account of his judiciary power, as it says in Matthew: when the Son of man comes in his glory and all the angels with him, then he will sit on the glorious throne (Matt 25:20).
Dicit autem omnes stabimus, quasi iudicandi, tam boni quam mali, quantum ad remunerationem vel punitionem. II Cor. V, v. 10: omnes nos manifestari oportet ante tribunal Christi, ut referat unusquisque propria corporis prout gessit, sive bonum sive malum.
He says that we shall all stand, as if to be judged, both good and evil in regard to reward or punishment: we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, so that each one may receive good or evil according to what he has done in the body (2 Cor 5:10).
Sed quantum ad discussionem non omnes stabunt ut iudicandi, sed quidam consedebunt, ut iudices. Matth. XIX, 28: sedebitis super sedes, iudicantes duodecim tribus Israel.
But as to the proceedings, not all will stand to be judged, but some will sit as judges: you will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matt 19:28).
1107. Tertio, ibi scriptum est enim, etc., probat quod dixerat.
1107. Third, when he says, for it is written, he proves what he had said:
Et primo inducit auctoritatem;
first, he appeals to an authority;
secundo infert conclusionem, ibi itaque unusquisque, et cetera.
second, he draws the conclusion, at therefore every one of us.
1108. Dicit ergo primo: dictum est quod omnes stabimus ante tribunal Christi, et hoc patet per auctoritatem Sacrae Scripturae. Scriptum est enim, Is. XLV, 23, vivo ego, dicit Dominus: quoniam mihi flectetur omne genu, et omnis lingua confitebitur Deo.
1108. First, therefore, he says: I have stated that all of us will stand before the tribunal of Christ. This is clear from the testimony of Sacred Scripture: for it is written: as I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God (Isa 45:23).
Littera nostra sic habet: in memetipso iuravi, quia mihi curvabitur omne genu et iurabit omnis lingua.
Our text has this: I have sworn by myself that to me every knee shall bow and every tongue shall swear.
1109. Tria autem in his verbis ponuntur. Primo quidem iuramentum, quod interdum in verbis Dei ponitur ad ostendendum id, quod dicitur, firmum esse immutabilitate divini consilii, non autem esse mutabile sicut ea quae praenuntiantur secundum causas inferiores, ut prophetia comminationis. Unde dicitur in Ps. CIX, 4: iuravit Dominus, et non poenitebit eum. Homines autem, ut Apostolus dicit Hebr. VI, 16: per maiorem sui iurant. Quia vero Deus non habet maiorem in quo maior firmitas consistat veritatis, per seipsum iurat.
1109. Three things are stated in these words: first, the oath sometimes used by God to show that what is said is as solid as the unchangeableness of God’s plan and not changeable as things foretold according to lower causes, as prophecies that threaten. Hence it says in a psalm: the Lord has sworn and will not change his mind (Ps 110:4). But men, as the Apostle says in Hebrews, swear by someone greater than themselves (Heb 6:16). But because God has none greater than himself on which the strength of his truth depends, he swears by himself.
Ipse autem est ipsa vita et fons vitae, secundum illud Deut. XXX, 20: ipse est enim vita tua, et longitudo dierum tuorum, etc., Ps. XXXV, 10: apud te est fons vitae, etc.; et ideo forma iuramenti Domini est vivo ego, quasi dicat: iuro per vitam qua ego singulariter vivo.
Furthermore, God is life itself and the source of life, as it says in Deuteronomy: he is your life and the length of your days (Deut 30:20); with you is the fountain of life (Ps 36:9). Therefore, the formula of the Lord’s oath is, as I live. As if to say: I swear by the life I uniquely live.
1110. Secundo praenuntiatur subiectio communis creaturae ad Christum, cum dicitur quoniam mihi, scilicet Christo, flectetur omne genu. In quo designatur perfecta subiectio rationalis creaturae ad Christum. Solent enim homines in signum subiectionis maioribus flectere genua. Unde Phil. II, 10 dicitur: in nomine Iesu omne genu flectatur caelestium, terrestrium et infernorum.
1110. Second, the coming subjection of the creature to God is foretold, when it is said: every knee shall bow to me, i.e., to Christ. In this is designated the complete subjection of the rational creature to Christ. For men are wont to signify subjection by bending the knee. Hence it says in Philippians: at the name of Jesus every knee shall bend in heaven and on the earth and under the earth (Phil 2:11).
1111. Tertio praenuntiat fidei confessionem qua omnes gloriam Christi confitebuntur. Unde sequitur et omnis lingua confitebitur Deo, id est confitebitur Christum esse Dominum, secundum illud Phil. II, 11: omnis lingua confiteatur, quia Dominus noster Iesus Christus in gloria est Dei Patris.
1111. Third, he foretells the confession of faith by which all will confess the glory of Christ. Hence he continues: and every tongue shall confess to God, i.e., will confess that Christ is God, as it says in Philippians: every tongue shall confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father (Phil 2:11).
Omnis enim lingua intelligi potest expressio cognitionis sive hominum, sive angelorum, secundum illud I Cor. XIII, 1: si linguis hominum loquar et angelorum, et cetera.
Every tongue can be understood as the expression of the knowledge of men or of angels, as it says in 1 Corinthians: if I speak in the tongues of men and of angels (1 Cor 13:1).
Hoc autem impletur nunc in hac vita, non quantum ad singulos homines sed quantum ad genera singulorum. De quolibet enim genere hominum nunc aliqui Christo subiiciuntur et ei confitentur per fidem, sed in futuro iudicio omnes et singuli ei subiicientur: boni quidem voluntarie, mali autem inviti. Unde dicitur Hebr. II, 8: in eo quod ei omnia subiecit, nihil dimisit non subiectum ei: nunc autem necdum videmus omnia subiecta ei.
This is fulfilled now in this life, not as to each man but as to the classes of each man. From each class of men some are not subjected to Christ and confess him by faith, but in the future judgment all and each will be subjected to him: the good voluntarily and the evil unwillingly. Hence, it says in Hebrews: now in subjecting everything to him, he left nothing outside his control (Heb 2:8).
1112. Deinde, cum dicit itaque unusquisque, etc., infert conclusionem ex dictis.
1112. Then when he says, therefore every one of us, he draws the conclusion from the foregoing.
Et primo conclusionem intentam ex eo quod immediate dixerat, dicens itaque, ex quo Christo flectitur omne genu, unusquisque nostrum per se reddet rationem Deo, scilicet ante tribunal Christi. Matth. XII, v. 36: de omni verbo otioso quod locuti fuerint homines, reddent Deo rationem in die iudicii. Et XVIII, 23: assimilatum est regnum caelorum homini regi qui voluit rationem ponere cum servis suis.
First, the conclusion intended from what he had just said, saying: therefore, from the fact that every knee will bend before Christ, every one of us shall render an account to God for himself, i.e., before the tribunal of Christ: on the day of judgment every man shall render an account for every careless word he uttered (Matt 12:36); the kingdom of heaven may be compared to a king who wished to settle accounts with his servants (Matt 18:23).
1113. Sed videtur quod non quilibet per se rationem reddet, sed unus pro alio. Hebr. ult.: obedite praepositis vestris et subiacete eis. Ipsi enim pervigilant quasi rationem reddituri pro animabus vestris.
1113. But it seems that not everyone will give an account of himself, but one for someone else: obey your leaders and submit to them. For they are keeping watch over your souls, as men who will have to give an account (Heb 13:17).
Sed dicendum quod in hoc ipso quod praelati pro aliis rationem reddent, reddent rationem pro suis actibus quos circa subditos agere debuerunt. Si enim fecerunt quod competebat eorum officio, non eis imputabitur si subditi pereant. Imputaretur autem eis si negligerent facere quod eorum officium requirebat. Unde dicitur Ezech. III, 18 s.: si dicente me ad impium, morte morieris, non annuntiaveris ei, ipse in iniquitate sua morietur, sanguinem autem eius de manu tua requiram. Si autem tu annuntiaveris impio, et ille non fuerit conversus, ipse quidem in iniquitate sua morietur, tu autem animam tuam liberasti.
The answer is that in the very fact that prelates will render an account for others, they will render an account for their own actions, which they should have performed for their subjects. For if they have done what their duties demanded, they will not be held accountable, if their subjects perished. But they would be held accountable, if they neglected to do what their office required. Hence it says in Ezekiel: if I say to the wicked, ‘you shall surely die,’ and you give him no warning, nor speak to warn the wicked from his wicked way, in order to save his life, that wicked man shall die in his iniquity, but his blood I shall require at your hand. But if you warn the wicked and he does not turn from his wickedness, he shall die in his iniquity, but you will have saved your life (Ezek 3:18ff.).
1114. Secundo infert conclusionem principaliter intentam in tota praecedenti parte, dicens non ergo amplius invicem iudicemus, scilicet temerario iudicio, quod includitur rationibus supradictis. I Cor. IV, 5: nolite ante tempus iudicare, et cetera.
1114. Second, he draws the conclusion chiefly intended from the entire preceding part, saying: let us not therefore judge one another any more, i.e., with a rash judgment, which is included in the reason given above: do not pronounce judgment before the time (1 Cor 4:5).
Misericordia ad infirmos
Mercy towards the weak
14:13 sed hoc judicate magis, ne ponatis offendiculum fratri, vel scandalum. [n. 1115]
14:13 But judge this rather, that you put not a stumbling block or a scandal in your brother’s way. [n. 1115]
14:14 Scio, et confido in Domino Jesu, quia nihil commune per ipsum, nisi ei qui existimat quid commune esset, illi commune est. [n. 1117]
14:14 I know, and am confident in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is common of itself: but to him who esteems any thing to be common, to him it is common. [n. 1117]
14:15 Si enim propter cibum frater tuus contristatur, jam non secundum caritatem ambulas. Noli cibo tuo illum perdere, pro quo Christus mortuus est. [n. 1122]
14:15 For if, because of food, your brother be grieved, you no longer walk according to charity. Destroy not him with your food, for whom Christ died. [n. 1122]
14:16 Non ergo blasphemetur bonum nostrum. [n. 1126]
14:16 Let not then our good be evil spoken of. [n. 1126]
14:17 Non est enim regnum Dei esca et potus: sed justitia, et pax, et gaudium in Spiritu Sancto: [n. 1127]
14:17 For the kingdom of God is not food and drink: but justice and peace and joy in the Holy Spirit. [n. 1127]
14:18 qui enim in hoc servit Christo, placet Deo, et probatus est hominibus. [n. 1129]
14:18 For he who in this serves Christ pleases God and is approved of men. [n. 1129]
14:19 Itaque quae pacis sunt, sectemur: et quae aedificationis sunt, in invicem custodiamus. [n. 1130]
14:19 Therefore, let us follow after the things that are of peace and keep the things that are of edification, one towards another. [n. 1130]
14:20 Noli propter escam destruere opus. Dei [n. 1131]
14:20 Destroy not the work of God for food. [n. 1131]
1115. Postquam Apostolus prohibuit humana iudicia, hic prohibet scandalum proximorum, et circa hoc duo facit.
1115. After forbidding human judgments, the Apostle now forbids putting stumbling blocks before one’s neighbor.
Primo proponit quod intendit;
First, he presents his proposition;
secundo manifestat propositum, ibi si enim propter cibum, et cetera.
second, he clarifies it, at for if, because of food.