456. Sed secundum hoc videtur quod omnis lex humana, quae gratiam non confert diminuentem concupiscentiam, faciat abundare peccata: quod est contra intentiones legislatorum, quia ad hoc tendunt, ut cives faciant bonos, ut patet per Philosophum, II Ethicorum.
456. But according to this it seems that every human law, which of course does not confer grace to lessen concupiscence, would make sin increase. However, that seems to be against the lawgiver’s intention, because his aim is to make the citizen good, as the Philosopher says in Ethics II.
Sed dicendum, quod alia est intentio legis humanae, et alia legis divinae. lex enim humana refertur ad humanum iudicium, quod est de exterioribus actibus; sed lex divina refertur ad divinum iudicium, quod est de interioribus motibus cordis, secundum illud I Reg. XVI, 7: homo videt ea quae patent, sed Deus intuetur cor. Sic igitur lex humana suam intentionem consequitur, dum per prohibitionem et poenae comminationem impedit ne multiplicentur exteriores actus peccati, licet concupiscentia interior magis augeatur: sed quantum ad legem divinam etiam interiores concupiscentiae malae imputantur ad peccatum, quae abundant lege prohibente, et non auferente concupiscentiam.
The answer is that the intention of human law is one thing and that of divine law another. For human law is subject to human judgment, which is concerned with external acts; but the divine law is subject to divine judgment, which is concerned with the inward movement of the heart, as is said, man looks on the outward appearance, but God looks at the heart (1 Sam 16:7). Accordingly, human law achieves its aim when by means of prohibitions and threats of punishment it prevents external sinful acts, even though the inward concupiscence increases more. But as far as the divine law is concerned, it imputes as sin even the inward evil desires, which increase when the law forbids them without destroying them.
457. Sciendum tamen, quod, sicut Philosophus dicit in X Ethic., prohibitio legis, licet illos qui sunt male dispositi cohibeat ab exterioribus peccatis solo poenae timore; quosdam tamen bene dispositos inducit per amorem virtutis. Sed ista bona dispositio quantum ad aliquid potest esse a natura, sed eius perfectio non est nisi per gratiam; ex qua contingit, quod etiam lege veteri data, non in omnibus peccatum abundat, sed in pluribus. Quidam vero, lege prohibente et gratia ulterius adiuvante, ad perfectionem virtutum tandem pervenerunt, secundum illud Eccli. XLIV, 1: laudemus viros gloriosos, etc., et infra: homines magnos virtute.
457. Yet it should be noted, as the Philosopher says in Ethics X, that although a legal prohibition restrains the ill disposed from outward sins by the fear of punishment, it nevertheless guides the well disposed through love of virtue. Now that good disposition is present to a certain extent by nature, although its perfection is achieved only by grace. Consequently, even after the old law had been given, sin did not increase in all but in the majority. But some, guided by the law’s prohibitions and further strengthened by grace, reached the heights of virtue: let us now praise glorious men . . . men great in virtue (Sir 44:1).
458. Secundo superabundavit delictum lege superveniente quantum ad gravitatem reatus. Gravius enim fuit peccatum ubi accessit praevaricatio, non tantum legis naturae, sed etiam legis scriptae. Unde supra IV, 15 dictum est quod ubi non est lex, nec praevaricatio.
458. Second, with the coming of the law sin abounded as far as the weight of guilt was concerned. For sin was more grievous when it became a transgression not only of the law of nature but also of the written law. Hence it was said above that where there is no law, neither is there transgression (Rom 4:15).
459. Secundo, autem potest responderi ut dicitur, quod ut teneatur causaliter, ita tamen quod loquatur Apostolus de abundantia delicti secundum quod est in nostra cognitione, ut sit sensus: lex subintravit ut abundaret delictum, id est ut abundantius delictum cognosceretur, secundum modum loquendi quo dicitur aliquid fieri cum innotescit. Unde supra dictum est, quod per legem est cognitio peccati.
459. A second answer is that the word that can be taken causally but in the sense that the Apostle is speaking of sin’s increase as far as our knowledge of it is concerned. As if to say: law entered in that sin might abound, i.e., that sin might be more abundantly known, according to the manner of speaking whereby something is said to come to pass when it is recognized. Hence, he said above that by the law is the knowledge of sin (Rom 3:20).
460. Tertio modo potest exponi ita quod ut teneatur causaliter, ita tamen quod abundantia delicti non intelligatur finis legis subintrantis, sed id quod ex abundantia delicti sequitur, scilicet humiliatio hominis.
460. The third answer also takes that in a causal sense, but not as meaning that increase of sin is the goal of the law’s entering in, but what results from sin’s increase, namely, man’s humiliation.
Lege enim subintrante abundavit delictum, ut dictum est in prima expositione. Ex qua quidem delicti abundantia consecutum est, quod homo infirmitatem suam recognoscens humilietur. Dicebat enim homo superbus, de viribus suis praesumens: non deest qui impleat, sed deest qui iubeat, secundum illud Ex. XXIV, 7: omnia quae locutus est Dominus, facimus, et ei obediemus. Sed quando, lege data, consecuta est multitudo delictorum, homo suam infirmitatem cognovit ad observantiam legis, secundum illud Sap. IX, 5: infirmus homo et exigui temporis, et cetera.
For after the law came in, sin abounded, as was said in the first explanation. The consequence of this increase of sin was that man, recognizing his weakness, was humbled. For the proud man, presuming on his own strength, said: there is no lack of doers, but of commanders, in accord with Exodus, all that the Lord has spoken we will do and will be obedient (Exod 24:7). But when, after the law had been given, the number of sins increased, men recognized how weak they were in observing the law: man is weak and short-lived, with little understanding of judgment and laws (Wis 9:5).
Intentio ergo Dei legem dantis non terminatur ad abundantiam peccatorum, sed ad humilitatem hominis, propter quam permisit abundare delicta. Sic ergo quia hoc erat occultum, signanter quantum ad hoc dicit quod lex subintravit.
Therefore, God’s intention in giving the law is not aimed at increasing sin but at man’s humility, for the sake of which he permitted sin to abound. Accordingly, because this purpose was hidden, he says that the law entered in secretly.
461. Quia vero hic agitur de lege et fine legis, duo consideranda occurrunt. Primo quidem quot modis lex dicatur; secundo, quis sit finis legis.
461. Since we are dealing with the law and the end of the law, two things propose themselves for consideration. First, the number of senses of the word ‘law’; second, what is the end of the law.
462. Circa primum sciendum est, quod lex, uno modo, dicitur tota Scriptura Veteris Testamenti, secundum illud Io. XV, 25: ut impleatur sermo eorum, qui in lege eorum scriptus est, quia odio habuerunt me gratis, cum tamen hoc scriptum sit in Psalmo. Quandoque vero dicitur lex Scriptura quinque librorum Moysis, secundum illud Deut. XXXIII, 4: legem praecepit nobis Moyses. Tertio dicitur Decalogus praeceptorum, secundum illud Exodi XXIV, 12: dabo tibi duas tabulas lapideas, et legem ac mandata quae scripsi ut doceas. Quarto dicitur lex tota continentia caeremonialium, secundum illud Hebr. X, 1: umbram habens lex futurorum bonorum. Quinto dicitur lex aliquod speciale praeceptum caeremoniale, secundum illud Lev. VII, 11: haec est lex hostiae pacificorum.
462. In regard to the first it should be noted that ‘law,’ taken one way, names the entire scripture of the Old Testament; for example, John says, it is to fulfill the word that is written in the law, that now they have sin and hated both me and my Father (John 15:25), when this was written in a psalm (Ps 24:19). But sometimes the ‘law’ refers to the five books of Moses, in accord with Deuteronomy, Moses commanded us a law (Deut 33:4). Third, the precepts of the Decalogue are called the ‘law’: I will give you the tables of stone, with the law and commandment, which I have written for their instruction (Exod 24:12). Fourth, the entire content of the ceremonial precepts is called the ‘law,’ as in Hebrews, since the law has but a shadow of the good things to come (Heb 10:1). Fifth, any definite ceremonial precept is called a ‘law,’ as in Leviticus: this is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings (Lev 7:11).
Sumitur autem hic lex communiter ab Apostolo, quantum ad totam doctrinam legis Moysi, id est, quantum ad moralia et caeremonialia praecepta, quia scilicet per caeremonias legis non dabatur gratia, per quam homo adiuvaretur ad implenda praecepta moralia concupiscentia diminuta.
But in this section of the epistle, the Apostle takes ‘law’ in a general way, i.e., as referring to the total doctrine of the Mosaic law, namely, the moral and ceremonial precepts, because through the ceremonies of the law grace was not given to help man fulfill the precepts and to reduce concupiscences.
463. Circa finem autem legis sciendum est quod in populo Iudaeorum tria fuerunt hominum genera, sicut et in quolibet alio populo, scilicet duri, id est peccatores et rebelles, proficientes et perfecti.
463. In regard to the end of the law it should be noted that among the Jewish people, as among every people, there were three kinds of men: the obstinate, i.e., sinners and rebels, the proficient, and the perfect.
Quantum igitur ad duros, lex fuit data in flagellum, et quantum ad praecepta moralia, ad quorum observantiam cogebantur per poenae comminationem, ut patet Lev. II, et quantum ad caeremonialia, quae ideo sunt multiplicata, ne liceret eis diis alienis alium cultum superaddere. Ex. XX, 34: in manu valida et brachio extento, et in furore effuso regnabo super vos.
With respect to the obstinate the law was given as a scourge both as to the moral precepts to whose observance they were compelled by threats of punishment, as is evident from Leviticus 2, and as to the ceremonial precepts, which were multiplied to prevent them from cultivating alien gods: with a strong hand and outstretched arm, and with anger poured out I will rule over you (Ezek 20:34).
Sed proficientibus, qui dicuntur mediocres, lex fuit in paedagogum, secundum illud Gal. III, 24: lex paedagogus noster fuit in Christo. Et hoc quantum ad caeremonialia, quibus continebantur in divino cultu: et quantum ad moralia, quibus ad iustitiam promovebantur.
For the proficient, who are called the ordinary people, the law was a pedagogue: the law was our pedagogue in Christ (Gal 3:24). It was so with respect to the ceremonial precepts, by which they were restrained in divine worship, and with respect to the moral precepts, by which they were advanced toward justice.
Perfectis autem fuit quantum ad caeremonialia quidem in signum, secundum illud Ezech. XX, 12: sabbata mea dedi eis, ut essent signum inter me, et cetera. Quantum ad moralia vero in solatium, secundum illud infra VII, 22: condelector legi Dei secundum interiorem hominem.
For the perfect the law regarding ceremonies was a sign: I gave them my sabbaths, as a sign between me and them, that they might know that I the Lord sanctify them (Ezek 20:12); the law regarding morals acted as a consolation, as expressed below: I am delighted with the law of God (Rom 7:22).
464. Deinde cum dicit ubi abundavit, etc., ostendit quomodo per gratiam tollitur abundantia delictorum.
464. Then when he says, where sin abounded, he shows how increase of sin was taken away by grace.
Et primo ponit gratiae abundantiam;
First, he sets out that grace abounded;
secundo ostendit abundantis gratiae effectum, ibi ut sicut regnavit, et cetera.
second, the effect of abounding grace, at that as sin has reigned.
465. Dicit ergo primo: dictum est quod lege subintrante abundavit delictum: nec tamen propter hoc impeditur divinum propositum de salute Iudaeorum et totius humani generis, quia ubi abundavit delictum, scilicet in humano genere et specialiter in Iudaeis, superabundavit et gratia, scilicet Christi condonantis peccata. II Cor. IX, 8: potens est Deus omnem gratiam abundare facere in vobis.
465. First, therefore, he says: it has been stated that with the coming of the law sin abounded. But this was no obstacle to the divine plan for the salvation of the Jews and of the whole human race, because where sin abounded, namely, in the human race and especially among the Jews, grace did more abound, namely, the grace of Christ forgiving sins: God is powerful to make every grace abound in you (2 Cor 9:8).
466. Eius autem quod hic dicitur, duplex ratio assignari potest.
466. Two reasons can be given for what is said here.
Una quidem ex effectu gratiae. Sicut enim magnitudinem morbi non sanat nisi fortis et efficax medicina, ita requirebatur abundans gratia ad hoc ut sanaret abundantiam delictorum. Lc. VII, 47: dimissa sunt ei peccata multa, quoniam dilexit multum, et cetera.
One is based on the effect of grace. For just as the enormity of a disease is not cured except by a strong and effective medicine, so an abundant grace was required to heal the abundance of sins: many sins are forgiven her, for she has loved much (Luke 7:47).
Alia ratio sumi potest ex dispositione peccantis, qui, dum magnitudinem peccatorum suorum recognoscit, quandoque quidem desperat et contemnit, secundum illud Prov. c. XVIII, 3: impius cum in profundum venerit peccatorum, contemnit, etc., quandoque vero per auxilium divinum ex consideratione suorum peccatorum magis humiliatur, et maiorem consequitur gratiam, secundum illud Ps. XV, 4: multiplicatae sunt infirmitates eorum, postea acceleraverunt.
The other reason is based on the attitude of the sinner. Some, realizing the enormity of their sins, give way to despair and contempt: when wickedness comes, contempt comes also (Prov 18:3); others by the help of divine grace are humbled when they consider their sins and so obtain a greater grace: their infirmities were multiplied; afterwards they made haste (Ps 16:4).
467. Deinde cum dicit ut, sicut regnavit peccatum in mortem, etc. ostendit effectum gratiae abundantis, qui quidem est per oppositum respondens effectui peccati.
467. Then when he says that as sin has reigned to death, he shows the effect of abundant grace, an effect that corresponds by way of opposition to that of sin.
Ut, scilicet sicut peccatum, introductum per primum hominem, et abundans per legem, regnavit, id est plenum dominium in homines obtinuit, et hoc quousque duceret eos in mortem temporalem et aeternam, infra VI, 23: stipendia peccati morsita et gratia Dei regnet, id est plene dominetur in nobis, per iustitiam, quam scilicet in nobis facit; supra eodem: iustificati gratis per gratiam ipsius. Et hoc quousque nos ducat in vitam aeternam, secundum illud infra VI, 23: gratia Dei vita aeterna.
That as sin, introduced by the first man and abounding through the law, has reigned, i.e., obtained complete dominion over men, and this until it brought them to death both temporal and eternal: the wages of sin is death (Rom 6:23), so also grace, i.e., God’s grace, might reign, i.e., rule entirely in us, by justice, which it produces in us: they are justified by his grace (Rom 3:24). And this until it brings us unto life everlasting: the free gift of God is eternal life (Rom 6:23).
Et hoc totum est per Iesum Christum Dominum nostrum, qui est dator gratiae, secundum illud Io. I, 17: gratia et veritas per Iesum Christum facta est, et etiam iustitia, I Cor. I, 30: qui factus est nobis iustitia a Deo, et dator vitae aeternae, Io. X, 28: ego vitam aeternam do eis.
And all of this is through Jesus Christ our Lord, who is the giver of grace: grace and truth came through Jesus Christ (John 1:17). He is justice: whom God made our justice (1 Cor 1:30); and he is the giver of eternal life: I give them eternal life (John 10:28).
Moriens et Resurgens cum Christo
Dying and Rising with Christ
Baptismum in mortem
Baptism into death
6:1 Quid ergo dicemus? permanebimus in peccato ut gratia abundet? [n. 468]
6:1 What shall we say, then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? [n. 468]
6:2 Absit. Qui enim mortui sumus peccato, quomodo adhuc vivemus in illo? [n. 470]
6:2 God forbid! For we that are dead to sin, how shall we live any longer therein? [n. 470]
6:3 an ignoratis quia quicumque baptizati sumus in Christo Jesu, in morte ipsius baptizati sumus?
6:3 Know you not that all we who are baptized in Christ Jesus are baptized in his death?
6:4 Consepulti enim sumus cum illo per baptismum in mortem: ut quomodo Christus surrexit a mortuis per gloriam Patris, ita et nos in novitate vitae ambulemus. [n. 474]
6:4 For we are buried together with him by baptism into death: that, as Christ is risen from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we also may walk in newness of life. [n. 474]
6:5 Si enim complantati facti sumus similitudini mortis ejus: simul et resurrectionis erimus. [n. 477]
6:5 For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection. [n. 477]
468. Postquam Apostolus ostendit quod per gratiam Christi liberamur a peccato praeterito, tam introducto per primum hominem, quam etiam abundante per legem, hic ostendit quod per gratiam Christi datur nobis facultas ad resistendum peccatis futuris.
468. After showing that it is through Christ’s grace that we are freed from the sin of our first parent and from that which abounded by reason of the law, the Apostle now shows that Christ’s grace gives us the power to resist further sin (C. 5, L. 5–6.).
Et circa hoc duo facit.
In regard to this he does two things: