Articulus 3 Article 3 Utrum sit in divinis alia processio a generatione Verbi Whether any other procession exists in God besides that of the Word? Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod non sit in divinis alia processio a generatione verbi. Eadem enim ratione erit aliqua alia processio ab illa alia processione, et sic procederetur in infinitum, quod est inconveniens. Standum est igitur in primo, ut sit una tantum processio in divinis. Objection 1: It would seem that no other procession exists in God besides the generation of the Word. Because, for whatever reason we admit another procession, we should be led to admit yet another, and so on to infinitude; which cannot be. Therefore we must stop at the first, and hold that there exists only one procession in God. Praeterea, in omni natura invenitur tantum unus modus communicationis illius naturae, et hoc ideo est, quia operationes secundum terminos habent unitatem et diversitatem. Sed processio in divinis non est nisi secundum communicationem divinae naturae. Cum igitur sit una tantum natura divina, ut supra ostensum est, relinquitur quod una sit tantum processio in divinis. Obj. 2: Further, every nature possesses but one mode of self-communication; because operations derive unity and diversity from their terms. But procession in God is only by way of communication of the divine nature. Therefore, as there is only one divine nature (Q. 11, A. 4), it follows that only one procession exists in God. Praeterea, si sit in divinis alia processio ab intelligibili processione verbi, non erit nisi processio amoris, quae est secundum voluntatis operationem. Sed talis processio non potest esse alia a processione intellectus intelligibili, quia voluntas in Deo non est aliud ab intellectu, ut supra ostensum est. Ergo in Deo non est alia processio praeter processionem verbi. Obj. 3: Further, if any other procession but the intelligible procession of the Word existed in God, it could only be the procession of love, which is by the operation of the will. But such a procession is identified with the intelligible procession of the intellect, inasmuch as the will in God is the same as His intellect (Q. 19, A. 1). Therefore in God there is no other procession but the procession of the Word. Sed contra est quod Spiritus Sanctus procedit a patre, ut dicitur Ioan. XV. Ipse autem est alius a filio, secundum illud Ioan. XIV, rogabo patrem meum, et alium Paracletum dabit vobis. Ergo in divinis est alia processio praeter processionem verbi. On the contrary, The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (John 15:26); and He is distinct from the Son, according to the words, I will ask My Father, and He will give you another Paraclete (John 14:16). Therefore in God another procession exists besides the procession of the Word. Respondeo dicendum quod in divinis sunt duae processiones, scilicet processio verbi, et quaedam alia. I answer that, There are two processions in God; the procession of the Word, and another. Ad cuius evidentiam, considerandum est quod in divinis non est processio nisi secundum actionem quae non tendit in aliquid extrinsecum, sed manet in ipso agente. Huiusmodi autem actio in intellectuali natura est actio intellectus et actio voluntatis. Processio autem verbi attenditur secundum actionem intelligibilem. Secundum autem operationem voluntatis invenitur in nobis quaedam alia processio, scilicet processio amoris, secundum quam amatum est in amante, sicut per conceptionem verbi res dicta vel intellecta, est in intelligente. Unde et praeter processionem verbi, ponitur alia processio in divinis, quae est processio amoris. In evidence whereof we must observe that procession exists in God, only according to an action which does not tend to anything external, but remains in the agent itself. Such an action in an intellectual nature is that of the intellect, and of the will. The procession of the Word is by way of an intelligible operation. The operation of the will within ourselves involves also another procession, that of love, whereby the object loved is in the lover; as, by the conception of the word, the object spoken of or understood is in the intelligent agent. Hence, besides the procession of the Word in God, there exists in Him another procession called the procession of love. Ad primum ergo dicendum quod non est necessarium procedere in divinis processionibus in infinitum. Processio enim quae est ad intra in intellectuali natura, terminatur in processione voluntatis. Reply Obj. 1: There is no need to go on to infinitude in the divine processions; for the procession which is accomplished within the agent in an intellectual nature terminates in the procession of the will. Ad secundum dicendum quod quidquid est in Deo, est Deus, ut supra ostensum est, quod non contingit in aliis rebus. Et ideo per quamlibet processionem quae non est ad extra, communicatur divina natura, non autem aliae naturae. Reply Obj. 2: All that exists in God, is God (Q. 3, AA. 3, 4); whereas the same does not apply to others. Therefore the divine nature is communicated by every procession which is not outward, and this does not apply to other natures. Ad tertium dicendum quod, licet in Deo non sit aliud voluntas et intellectus, tamen de ratione voluntatis et intellectus est, quod processiones quae sunt secundum actionem utriusque, se habeant secundum quendam ordinem. Non enim est processio amoris nisi in ordine ad processionem verbi, nihil enim potest voluntate amari, nisi sit in intellectu conceptum. Sicut igitur attenditur quidam ordo verbi ad principium a quo procedit, licet in divinis sit eadem substantia intellectus et conceptio intellectus; ita, licet in Deo sit idem voluntas et intellectus, tamen, quia de ratione amoris est quod non procedat nisi a conceptione intellectus, habet ordinis distinctionem processio amoris a processione verbi in divinis. Reply Obj. 3: Though will and intellect are not diverse in God, nevertheless the nature of will and intellect requires the processions belonging to each of them to exist in a certain order. For the procession of love occurs in due order as regards the procession of the Word; since nothing can be loved by the will unless it is conceived in the intellect. So as there exists a certain order of the Word to the principle whence He proceeds, although in God the substance of the intellect and its concept are the same; so, although in God the will and the intellect are the same, still, inasmuch as love requires by its very nature that it proceed only from the concept of the intellect, there is a distinction of order between the procession of love and the procession of the Word in God. Articulus 4 Article 4 Utrum processio amoris in divinis sit generatio Whether the procession of love in God is generation? Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod processio amoris in divinis sit generatio. Quod enim procedit in similitudine naturae in viventibus, dicitur generatum et nascens. Sed id quod procedit in divinis per modum amoris, procedit in similitudine naturae, alias esset extraneum a natura divina, et sic esset processio ad extra. Ergo quod procedit in divinis per modum amoris, procedit ut genitum et nascens. Objection 1: It would seem that the procession of love in God is generation. For what proceeds by way of likeness of nature among living things is said to be generated and born. But what proceeds in God by way of love proceeds in the likeness of nature; otherwise it would be extraneous to the divine nature, and would be an external procession. Therefore what proceeds in God by way of love, proceeds as generated and born. Praeterea, sicut similitudo est de ratione verbi, ita est etiam de ratione amoris, unde dicitur Eccli. XIII, quod omne animal diligit simile sibi. Si igitur ratione similitudinis verbo procedenti convenit generari et nasci, videtur etiam quod amori procedenti convenit generari. Obj. 2: Further, as similitude is of the nature of the word, so does it belong to love. Hence it is said, that every beast loves its like (Sir 13:19). Therefore if the Word is begotten and born by way of likeness, it seems becoming that love should proceed by way of generation. Praeterea, non est in genere quod non est in aliqua eius specie. Si igitur in divinis sit quaedam processio amoris, oportet quod, praeter hoc nomen commune, habeat aliquod nomen speciale. Sed non est aliud nomen dare nisi generatio. Ergo videtur quod processio amoris in divinis sit generatio. Obj. 3: Further, what is not in any species is not in the genus. So if there is a procession of love in God, there ought to be some special name besides this common name of procession. But no other name is applicable but generation. Therefore the procession of love in God is generation. Sed contra est quia secundum hoc sequeretur quod Spiritus Sanctus, qui procedit ut amor, procederet ut genitus. Quod est contra illud Athanasii, Spiritus Sanctus a patre et filio non factus nec creatus nec genitus, sed procedens. On the contrary, Were this true, it would follow that the Holy Spirit Who proceeds as love, would proceed as begotten; which is against the statement of Athanasius: The Holy Spirit is from the Father and the Son, not made, nor begotten, but proceeding. Respondeo dicendum quod processio amoris in divinis non debet dici generatio. Ad cuius evidentiam, sciendum est quod haec est differentia inter intellectum et voluntatem, quod intellectus fit in actu per hoc quod res intellecta est in intellectu secundum suam similitudinem, voluntas autem fit in actu, non per hoc quod aliqua similitudo voliti sit in voluntate, sed ex hoc quod voluntas habet quandam inclinationem in rem volitam. Processio igitur quae attenditur secundum rationem intellectus, est secundum rationem similitudinis, et intantum potest habere rationem generationis, quia omne generans generat sibi simile. Processio autem quae attenditur secundum rationem voluntatis, non consideratur secundum rationem similitudinis, sed magis secundum rationem impellentis et moventis in aliquid. I answer that, The procession of love in God ought not to be called generation. In evidence whereof we must consider that the intellect and the will differ in this respect, that the intellect is made actual by the object understood residing according to its own likeness in the intellect; whereas the will is made actual, not by any similitude of the object willed within it, but by its having a certain inclination to the thing willed. Thus the procession of the intellect is by way of similitude, and is called generation, because every generator begets its own like; whereas the procession of the will is not by way of similitude, but rather by way of impulse and movement towards an object. Et ideo quod procedit in divinis per modum amoris, non procedit ut genitum vel ut filius, sed magis procedit ut spiritus, quo nomine quaedam vitalis motio et impulsio designatur, prout aliquis ex amore dicitur moveri vel impelli ad aliquid faciendum. So what proceeds in God by way of love, does not proceed as begotten, or as son, but proceeds rather as spirit; which name expresses a certain vital movement and impulse, accordingly as anyone is described as moved or impelled by love to perform an action. Ad primum ergo dicendum quod quidquid est in divinis, est unum cum divina natura. Unde ex parte huius unitatis non potest accipi propria ratio huius processionis vel illius, secundum quam una distinguatur ab alia, sed oportet quod propria ratio huius vel illius processionis accipiatur secundum ordinem unius processionis ad aliam. Huiusmodi autem ordo attenditur secundum rationem voluntatis et intellectus. Unde secundum horum propriam rationem sortitur in divinis nomen utraque processio, quod imponitur ad propriam rationem rei significandam. Et inde est quod procedens per modum amoris et divinam naturam accipit, et tamen non dicitur natum. Reply Obj. 1: All that exists in God is one with the divine nature. Hence the proper notion of this or that procession, by which one procession is distinguished from another, cannot be on the part of this unity: but the proper notion of this or that procession must be taken from the order of one procession to another; which order is derived from the nature of the will and intellect. Hence, each procession in God takes its name from the proper notion of will and intellect; the name being imposed to signify what its nature really is; and so it is that the Person proceeding as love receives the divine nature, but is not said to be born. Ad secundum dicendum quod similitudo aliter pertinet ad verbum, et aliter ad amorem. Nam ad verbum pertinet inquantum ipsum est quaedam similitudo rei intellectae, sicut genitum est similitudo generantis, sed ad amorem pertinet, non quod ipse amor sit similitudo, sed inquantum similitudo est principium amandi. Unde non sequitur quod amor sit genitus, sed quod genitum sit principium amoris. Reply Obj. 2: Likeness belongs in a different way to the word and to love. It belongs to the word as being the likeness of the object understood, as the thing generated is the likeness of the generator; but it belongs to love, not as though love itself were a likeness, but because likeness is the principle of loving. Thus it does not follow that love is begotten, but that the one begotten is the principle of love. Ad tertium dicendum quod Deum nominare non possumus nisi ex creaturis, ut dictum est supra. Et quia in creaturis communicatio naturae non est nisi per generationem, processio in divinis non habet proprium vel speciale nomen nisi generationis. Unde processio quae non est generatio, remansit sine speciali nomine. Sed potest nominari spiratio, quia est processio spiritus. Reply Obj. 3: We can name God only from creatures (Q. 13, A. 1). As in creatures generation is the only principle of communication of nature, procession in God has no proper or special name, except that of generation. Hence the procession which is not generation has remained without a special name; but it can be called spiration, as it is the procession of the Spirit. Articulus 5 Article 5 Utrum sint plures processiones in divinis quam duae Whether there are more than two processions in God? Ad quintum sic proceditur. Videtur quod sint plures processiones in divinis quam duae. Sicut enim scientia et voluntas attribuitur Deo, ita et potentia. Si igitur secundum intellectum et voluntatem accipiuntur in Deo duae processiones, videtur quod tertia sit accipienda secundum potentiam. Objection 1: It would seem that there are more than two processions in God. As knowledge and will are attributed to God, so is power. Therefore, if two processions exist in God, of intellect and will, it seems that there must also be a third procession of power. Praeterea, bonitas maxime videtur esse principium processionis, cum bonum dicatur diffusivum sui esse. Videtur igitur quod secundum bonitatem aliqua processio in divinis accipi debeat. Obj. 2: Further, goodness seems to be the greatest principle of procession, since goodness is diffusive of itself. Therefore there must be a procession of goodness in God. Praeterea, maior est fecunditatis virtus in Deo quam in nobis. Sed in nobis non est tantum una processio verbi, sed multae, quia ex uno verbo in nobis procedit aliud verbum; et similiter ex uno amore alius amor. Ergo et in Deo sunt plures processiones quam duae. Obj. 3: Further, in God there is greater power of fecundity than in us. But in us there is not only one procession of the word, but there are many: for in us from one word proceeds another; and also from one love proceeds another. Therefore in God there are more than two processions. Sed contra est quod in Deo non sunt nisi duo procedentes, scilicet Filius et Spiritus Sanctus. Ergo sunt ibi tantum duae processiones. On the contrary, In God there are not more than two who proceed—the Son and the Holy Spirit. Therefore there are in Him but two processions. Respondeo dicendum quod processiones in divinis accipi non possunt nisi secundum actiones quae in agente manent. Huiusmodi autem actiones in natura intellectuali et divina non sunt nisi duae, scilicet intelligere et velle. Nam sentire, quod etiam videtur esse operatio in sentiente, est extra naturam intellectualem, neque totaliter est remotum a genere actionum quae sunt ad extra; nam sentire perficitur per actionem sensibilis in sensum. Relinquitur igitur quod nulla alia processio possit esse in Deo, nisi verbi et amoris. I answer that, The divine processions can be derived only from the actions which remain within the agent. In a nature which is intellectual, and in the divine nature, these actions are two, the acts of intelligence and of will. The act of sensation, which also appears to be an operation within the agent, takes place outside the intellectual nature, nor can it be reckoned as wholly removed from the sphere of external actions; for the act of sensation is perfected by the action of the sensible object upon sense. It follows that no other procession is possible in God but the procession of the Word, and of Love. Ad primum ergo dicendum quod potentia est principium agendi in aliud, unde secundum potentiam accipitur actio ad extra. Et sic secundum attributum potentiae non accipitur processio divinae personae, sed solum processio creaturarum. Reply Obj. 1: Power is the principle whereby one thing acts on another. Hence it is that external action points to power. Thus the divine power does not imply the procession of a divine person; but is indicated by the procession therefrom of creatures. Ad secundum dicendum quod bonum, sicut dicit Boetius in libro de Hebd., pertinet ad essentiam et non ad operationem, nisi forte sicut obiectum voluntatis. Reply Obj. 2: As Boethius says (De Hebdom.), goodness belongs to the essence and not to the operation, unless considered as the object of the will. Unde, cum processiones divinas secundum aliquas actiones necesse sit accipere, secundum bonitatem et huiusmodi alia attributa non accipiuntur aliae processiones nisi verbi et amoris, secundum quod Deus suam essentiam, veritatem et bonitatem intelligit et amat. Thus, as the divine processions must be denominated from certain actions, no other processions can be understood in God according to goodness and the like attributes except those of the Word and of Love, according as God understands and loves His own essence, truth and goodness. Ad tertium dicendum quod, sicut supra habitum est, Deus uno simplici actu omnia intelligit, et similiter omnia vult. Unde in eo non potest esse processio verbi ex verbo, neque amoris ex amore, sed est in eo solum unum verbum perfectum, et unus amor perfectus. Et in hoc eius perfecta fecunditas manifestatur. Reply Obj. 3: As above explained (Q. 14, A. 5; Q. 19, A. 5), God understands all things by one simple act; and by one act also He wills all things. Hence there cannot exist in Him a procession of Word from Word, nor of Love from Love: for there is in Him only one perfect Word, and one perfect Love; thereby being manifested His perfect fecundity. Quaestio 28 Question 28 De relationibus divinis The Divine Relations Deinde considerandum est de relationibus divinis. Et circa hoc quaeruntur quatuor. The divine relations are next to be considered, in four points of inquiry: