Articulus 2 Article 2 Utrum missio possit esse aeterna Whether mission can be eternal? Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod missio possit esse aeterna. Dicit enim Gregorius, eo mittitur filius, quo generatur. Sed generatio filii est aeterna. Ergo et missio. Objection 1: It would seem that mission can be eternal. For Gregory says (Hom. xxvi, in Ev.), The Son is sent as He is begotten. But the Son’s generation is eternal. Therefore mission is eternal. Praeterea, cuicumque convenit aliquid temporaliter, illud mutatur. Sed persona divina non mutatur. Ergo missio divinae personae non est temporalis, sed aeterna. Obj. 2: Further, a thing is changed if it becomes something temporally. But a divine person is not changed. Therefore the mission of a divine person is not temporal, but eternal. Praeterea, missio processionem importat. Sed processio divinarum personarum est aeterna. Ergo et missio. Obj. 3: Further, mission implies procession. But the procession of the divine persons is eternal. Therefore mission is also eternal. Sed contra est quod dicitur Galat. IV, cum venit plenitudo temporis, misit Deus filium suum. On the contrary, It is said (Gal 4:4): When the fullness of the time was come, God sent His Son. Respondeo dicendum quod in his quae important originem divinarum personarum, est quaedam differentia attendenda. Quaedam enim in sui significatione important solam habitudinem ad principium, ut processio et exitus. Quaedam vero, cum habitudine ad principium, determinant processionis terminum. Quorum quaedam determinant terminum aeternum, sicut generatio et spiratio, nam generatio est processio divinae personae in naturam divinam; et spiratio, passive accepta, importat processionem amoris subsistentis. Quaedam vero, cum habitudine ad principium, important terminum temporalem, sicut missio et datio, mittitur enim aliquid ad hoc ut sit in aliquo, et datur ad hoc quod habeatur; personam autem divinam haberi ab aliqua creatura, vel esse novo modo existendi in ea, est quoddam temporale. I answer that, A certain difference is to be observed in all the words that express the origin of the divine persons. For some express only relation to the principle, as procession and going forth. Others express the term of procession together with the relation to the principle. Of these some express the eternal term, as generation and spiration; for generation is the procession of the divine person into the divine nature, and passive spiration is the procession of the subsisting love. Others express the temporal term with the relation to the principle, as mission and giving. For a thing is sent that it may be in something else, and is given that it may be possessed; but that a divine person be possessed by any creature, or exist in it in a new mode, is temporal. Unde missio et datio in divinis dicuntur temporaliter tantum. Generatio autem et spiratio solum ab aeterno. Processio autem et exitus dicuntur in divinis et aeternaliter et temporaliter, nam filius ab aeterno processit ut sit Deus; temporaliter autem ut etiam sit homo, secundum missionem visibilem; vel etiam ut sit in homine, secundum invisibilem missionem. Hence mission and giving have only a temporal significance in God; but generation and spiration are exclusively eternal; whereas procession and giving, in God, have both an eternal and a temporal signification: for the Son may proceed eternally as God; but temporally, by becoming man, according to His visible mission, or likewise by dwelling in man according to His invisible mission. Ad primum ergo dicendum quod Gregorius loquitur de generatione temporali filii, non a patre, sed a matre. Vel, quia ex hoc ipso filius habet quod possit mitti, quod est ab aeterno genitus. Reply Obj. 1: Gregory speaks of the temporal generation of the Son, not from the Father, but from His mother; or it may be taken to mean that He could be sent because eternally begotten. Ad secundum dicendum quod divinam personam esse novo modo in aliquo, vel ab aliquo haberi temporaliter, non est propter mutationem divinae personae, sed propter mutationem creaturae, sicut et Deus temporaliter dicitur dominus, propter mutationem creaturae. Reply Obj. 2: That a divine person may newly exist in anyone, or be possessed by anyone in time, does not come from change of the divine person, but from change in the creature; as God Himself is called Lord temporally by change of the creature. Ad tertium dicendum quod missio non solum importat processionem a principio, sed determinat processionis terminum temporalem. Unde missio solum est temporalis. Vel, missio includit processionem aeternam, et aliquid addit, scilicet temporalem effectum, habitudo enim divinae personae ad suum principium non est nisi ab aeterno. Unde gemina dicitur processio, aeterna scilicet et temporalis, non propter hoc quod habitudo ad principium geminetur, sed geminatio est ex parte termini temporalis et aeterni. Reply Obj. 3: Mission signifies not only procession from the principle, but also determines the temporal term of the procession. Hence mission is only temporal. Or we may say that it includes the eternal procession, with the addition of a temporal effect. For the relation of a divine person to His principle must be eternal. Hence the procession may be called a twin procession, eternal and temporal, not that there is a double relation to the principle, but a double term, temporal and eternal. Articulus 3 Article 3 Utrum missio invisibilis divinae personae sit solum secundum donum gratiae gratum facientis Whether the invisible mission of the divine person is only according to the gift of sanctifying grace? Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod missio invisibilis divinae personae non sit solum secundum donum gratiae gratum facientis. Divinam enim personam mitti, est ipsam donari. Si igitur divina persona mittitur solum secundum dona gratiae gratum facientis, non donabitur ipsa persona divina, sed solum dona eius. Quod est error dicentium spiritum sanctum non dari, sed eius dona. Objection 1: It would seem that the invisible mission of the divine person is not only according to the gift of sanctifying grace. For the sending of a divine person means that He is given. Hence if the divine person is sent only according to the gift of sanctifying grace, the divine person Himself will not be given, but only His gifts; and this is the error of those who say that the Holy Spirit is not given, but that His gifts are given. Praeterea, haec praepositio secundum denotat habitudinem alicuius causae. Sed persona divina est causa quod habeatur donum gratiae gratum facientis, et non e converso; secundum illud Rom. V, caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum, qui datus est nobis. Ergo inconvenienter dicitur quod persona divina secundum dona gratiae gratum facientis mittatur. Obj. 2: Further, this preposition, according to, denotes the habitude of some cause. But the divine person is the cause why the gift of sanctifying grace is possessed, and not conversely, according to Rom. 5:5, the charity of God is poured forth in our hearts by the Holy Spirit, Who is given to us. Therefore it is improperly said that the divine person is sent according to the gift of sanctifying grace. Praeterea, Augustinus dicit, IV de Trin., quod filius, cum ex tempore mente percipitur, mitti dicitur. Sed filius cognoscitur non solum per gratiam gratum facientem, sed etiam per gratiam gratis datam, sicut per fidem et per scientiam. Non ergo persona divina mittitur secundum solam gratiam gratum facientem. Obj. 3: Further, Augustine says (De Trin. iv, 20) that the Son, when temporally perceived by the mind, is sent. But the Son is known not only by sanctifying grace, but also by gratuitous grace, as by faith and knowledge. Therefore the divine person is not sent only according to the gift of sanctifying grace. Praeterea, Rabanus dicit quod Spiritus Sanctus datus est apostolis ad operationem miraculorum. Hoc autem non est donum gratiae gratum facientis, sed gratiae gratis datae. Ergo persona divina non solum datur secundum gratiam gratum facientem. Obj. 4: Further, Rabanus says that the Holy Spirit was given to the apostles for the working of miracles. This, however, is not a gift of sanctifying grace, but a gratuitous grace. Therefore the divine person is not given only according to the gift of sanctifying grace. Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, XV de Trin., quod Spiritus Sanctus procedit temporaliter ad sanctificandam creaturam. Missio autem est temporalis processio. Cum igitur sanctificatio creaturae non sit nisi per gratiam gratum facientem, sequitur quod missio divinae personae non sit nisi per gratiam gratum facientem. On the contrary, Augustine says (De Trin. XV, 27) that the Holy Spirit proceeds temporally for the creature’s sanctification. But mission is a temporal procession. Since then the creature’s sanctification is by sanctifying grace, it follows that the mission of the divine person is only by sanctifying grace. Respondeo dicendum quod divinae personae convenit mitti, secundum quod novo modo existit in aliquo; dari autem, secundum quod habetur ab aliquo. Neutrum autem horum est nisi secundum gratiam gratum facientem. I answer that, The divine person is fittingly sent in the sense that He exists newly in any one; and He is given as possessed by anyone; and neither of these is otherwise than by sanctifying grace. Est enim unus communis modus quo Deus est in omnibus rebus per essentiam, potentiam et praesentiam, sicut causa in effectibus participantibus bonitatem ipsius. Super istum modum autem communem, est unus specialis, qui convenit creaturae rationali, in qua Deus dicitur esse sicut cognitum in cognoscente et amatum in amante. Et quia, cognoscendo et amando, creatura rationalis sua operatione attingit ad ipsum Deum, secundum istum specialem modum Deus non solum dicitur esse in creatura rationali, sed etiam habitare in ea sicut in templo suo. Sic igitur nullus alius effectus potest esse ratio quod divina persona sit novo modo in rationali creatura, nisi gratia gratum faciens. Unde secundum solam gratiam gratum facientem, mittitur et procedit temporaliter persona divina. For God is in all things by His essence, power and presence, according to His one common mode, as the cause existing in the effects which participate in His goodness. Above and beyond this common mode, however, there is one special mode belonging to the rational nature wherein God is said to be present as the object known is in the knower, and the beloved in the lover. And since the rational creature by its operation of knowledge and love attains to God Himself, according to this special mode God is said not only to exist in the rational creature but also to dwell therein as in His own temple. So no other effect can be put down as the reason why the divine person is in the rational creature in a new mode, except sanctifying grace. Hence, the divine person is sent, and proceeds temporally only according to sanctifying grace. Similiter illud solum habere dicimur, quo libere possumus uti vel frui. Habere autem potestatem fruendi divina persona, est solum secundum gratiam gratum facientem. Sed tamen in ipso dono gratiae gratum facientis, Spiritus Sanctus habetur, et inhabitat hominem. Unde ipsemet Spiritus Sanctus datur et mittitur. Again, we are said to possess only what we can freely use or enjoy: and to have the power of enjoying the divine person can only be according to sanctifying grace. And yet the Holy Spirit is possessed by man, and dwells within him, in the very gift itself of sanctifying grace. Hence the Holy Spirit Himself is given and sent. Ad primum ergo dicendum quod per donum gratiae gratum facientis perficitur creatura rationalis, ad hoc quod libere non solum ipso dono creato utatur, sed ut ipsa divina persona fruatur. Et ideo missio invisibilis fit secundum donum gratiae gratum facientis, et tamen ipsa persona divina datur. Reply Obj. 1: By the gift of sanctifying grace the rational creature is perfected so that it can freely use not only the created gift itself, but enjoy also the divine person Himself; and so the invisible mission takes place according to the gift of sanctifying grace; and yet the divine person Himself is given. Ad secundum dicendum quod gratia gratum faciens disponit animam ad habendam divinam personam, et significatur hoc, cum dicitur quod Spiritus Sanctus datur secundum donum gratiae. Sed tamen ipsum donum gratiae est a spiritu sancto, et hoc significatur, cum dicitur quod caritas Dei diffunditur in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum. Reply Obj. 2: Sanctifying grace disposes the soul to possess the divine person; and this is signified when it is said that the Holy Spirit is given according to the gift of grace. Nevertheless the gift itself of grace is from the Holy Spirit; which is meant by the words, the charity of God is poured forth in our hearts by the Holy Spirit. Ad tertium dicendum quod, licet per aliquos effectus filius cognosci possit a nobis, non tamen per aliquos effectus nos inhabitat, vel etiam habetur a nobis. Reply Obj. 3: Although the Son can be known by us according to other effects, yet neither does He dwell in us, nor is He possessed by us according to those effects. Ad quartum dicendum quod operatio miraculorum est manifestativa gratiae gratum facientis, sicut et donum prophetiae, et quaelibet gratia gratis data. Unde I Cor. XII, gratia gratis data nominatur manifestatio spiritus. Sic igitur apostolis dicitur datus Spiritus Sanctus ad operationem miraculorum, quia data est eis gratia gratum faciens cum signo manifestante. Si autem daretur solum signum gratiae gratum facientis sine gratia, non diceretur dari simpliciter Spiritus Sanctus; nisi forte cum aliqua determinatione, secundum quod dicitur quod alicui datur spiritus propheticus vel miraculorum, inquantum a spiritu sancto habet virtutem prophetandi vel miracula faciendi. Reply Obj. 4: The working of miracles manifests sanctifying grace as also does the gift of prophecy and any other gratuitous graces. Hence gratuitous grace is called the manifestation of the Spirit (1 Cor 12:7). So the Holy Spirit is said to be given to the apostles for the working of miracles, because sanctifying grace was given to them with the outward sign. Were the sign only of sanctifying grace given to them without the grace itself, it would not be simply said that the Holy Spirit was given, except with some qualifying term; just as we read of certain ones receiving the gift of the spirit of prophecy, or of miracles, as having from the Holy Spirit the power of prophesying or of working miracles. Articulus 4 Article 4 Utrum etiam patri conveniat mitti Whether the Father can also be fittingly sent? Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod etiam patri conveniat mitti. Mitti enim divinam personam est ipsam dari. Sed pater dat seipsum, cum haberi non possit, nisi se ipso donante. Ergo potest dici quod pater mittat seipsum. Objection 1: It would seem that it is fitting also that the Father should be sent. For being sent means that the divine person is given. But the Father gives Himself since He can only be possessed by His giving Himself. Therefore it can be said that the Father sends Himself. Praeterea, persona divina mittitur secundum inhabitationem gratiae. Sed per gratiam tota Trinitas inhabitat in nobis, secundum illud Ioan. XIV, ad eum veniemus, et mansionem apud eum faciemus. Ergo quaelibet divinarum personarum mittitur. Obj. 2: Further, the divine person is sent according to the indwelling of grace. But by grace the whole Trinity dwells in us according to John 14:23: We will come to him and make Our abode with him. Therefore each one of the divine persons is sent. Praeterea, quidquid convenit alicui personae, convenit omnibus, praeter notiones et personas. Sed missio non significat aliquam personam, neque etiam notionem, cum sint tantum quinque notiones, ut supra dictum est. Ergo cuilibet personae divinae convenit mitti. Obj. 3: Further, whatever belongs to one person, belongs to them all, except the notions and persons. But mission does not signify any person; nor even a notion, since there are only five notions, as stated above (Q. 32, A. 3). Therefore every divine person can be sent. Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, in II libro de Trin., quod solus pater nunquam legitur missus. On the contrary, Augustine says (De Trin. ii, 3), The Father alone is never described as being sent. Respondeo dicendum quod missio in sui ratione importat processionem ab alio; et in divinis, secundum originem, ut supra dictum est. Unde, cum pater non sit ab alio, nullo modo convenit sibi mitti; sed solum filio et spiritui sancto, quibus convenit esse ab alio. I answer that, The very idea of mission means procession from another, and in God it means procession according to origin, as above expounded. Hence, as the Father is not from another, in no way is it fitting for Him to be sent; but this can only belong to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, to Whom it belongs to be from another. Ad primum ergo dicendum quod si dare importet liberalem communicationem alicuius, sic pater dat seipsum, inquantum se liberaliter communicat creaturae ad fruendum. Si vero importet auctoritatem dantis respectu eius quod datur, sic non convenit dari in divinis nisi personae quae est ab alio; sicut nec mitti. Reply Obj. 1: In the sense of giving as a free bestowal of something, the Father gives Himself, as freely bestowing Himself to be enjoyed by the creature. But as implying the authority of the giver as regards what is given, to be given only applies in God to the Person Who is from another; and the same as regards being sent. Ad secundum dicendum quod, licet effectus gratiae sit etiam a patre, qui inhabitat per gratiam, sicut et filius et Spiritus Sanctus; quia tamen non est ab alio, non dicitur mitti. Et hoc est quod dicit Augustinus, IV de Trin., quod pater, cum in tempore a quoquam cognoscitur, non dicitur missus, non enim habet de quo sit, aut ex quo procedat. Reply Obj. 2: Although the effect of grace is also from the Father, Who dwells in us by grace, just as the Son and the Holy Spirit, still He is not described as being sent, for He is not from another. Thus Augustine says (De Trin. iv, 20) that The Father, when known by anyone in time, is not said to be sent; for there is no one whence He is, or from whom He proceeds. Ad tertium dicendum quod missio, inquantum importat processionem a mittente, includit in sui significatione notionem, non quidem in speciali, sed in generali, prout esse ab alio est commune duabus notionibus. Reply Obj. 3: Mission, meaning procession from the sender, includes the signification of a notion, not of a special notion, but in general; thus to be from another is common to two of the notions. Articulus 5 Article 5