Utrum missio invisibilis divinae personae sit solum secundum donum gratiae gratum facientis
Whether the invisible mission of the divine person is only according to the gift of sanctifying grace?
Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod missio invisibilis divinae personae non sit solum secundum donum gratiae gratum facientis. Divinam enim personam mitti, est ipsam donari. Si igitur divina persona mittitur solum secundum dona gratiae gratum facientis, non donabitur ipsa persona divina, sed solum dona eius. Quod est error dicentium spiritum sanctum non dari, sed eius dona.
Objection 1: It would seem that the invisible mission of the divine person is not only according to the gift of sanctifying grace. For the sending of a divine person means that He is given. Hence if the divine person is sent only according to the gift of sanctifying grace, the divine person Himself will not be given, but only His gifts; and this is the error of those who say that the Holy Spirit is not given, but that His gifts are given.
Praeterea, haec praepositio secundum denotat habitudinem alicuius causae. Sed persona divina est causa quod habeatur donum gratiae gratum facientis, et non e converso; secundum illud Rom. V, caritas Dei diffusa est in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum, qui datus est nobis. Ergo inconvenienter dicitur quod persona divina secundum dona gratiae gratum facientis mittatur.
Obj. 2: Further, this preposition, according to, denotes the habitude of some cause. But the divine person is the cause why the gift of sanctifying grace is possessed, and not conversely, according to Rom. 5:5, the charity of God is poured forth in our hearts by the Holy Spirit, Who is given to us. Therefore it is improperly said that the divine person is sent according to the gift of sanctifying grace.
Praeterea, Augustinus dicit, IV de Trin., quod filius, cum ex tempore mente percipitur, mitti dicitur. Sed filius cognoscitur non solum per gratiam gratum facientem, sed etiam per gratiam gratis datam, sicut per fidem et per scientiam. Non ergo persona divina mittitur secundum solam gratiam gratum facientem.
Obj. 3: Further, Augustine says (De Trin. iv, 20) that the Son, when temporally perceived by the mind, is sent. But the Son is known not only by sanctifying grace, but also by gratuitous grace, as by faith and knowledge. Therefore the divine person is not sent only according to the gift of sanctifying grace.
Praeterea, Rabanus dicit quod Spiritus Sanctus datus est apostolis ad operationem miraculorum. Hoc autem non est donum gratiae gratum facientis, sed gratiae gratis datae. Ergo persona divina non solum datur secundum gratiam gratum facientem.
Obj. 4: Further, Rabanus says that the Holy Spirit was given to the apostles for the working of miracles. This, however, is not a gift of sanctifying grace, but a gratuitous grace. Therefore the divine person is not given only according to the gift of sanctifying grace.
Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, XV de Trin., quod Spiritus Sanctus procedit temporaliter ad sanctificandam creaturam. Missio autem est temporalis processio. Cum igitur sanctificatio creaturae non sit nisi per gratiam gratum facientem, sequitur quod missio divinae personae non sit nisi per gratiam gratum facientem.
On the contrary, Augustine says (De Trin. XV, 27) that the Holy Spirit proceeds temporally for the creature’s sanctification. But mission is a temporal procession. Since then the creature’s sanctification is by sanctifying grace, it follows that the mission of the divine person is only by sanctifying grace.
Respondeo dicendum quod divinae personae convenit mitti, secundum quod novo modo existit in aliquo; dari autem, secundum quod habetur ab aliquo. Neutrum autem horum est nisi secundum gratiam gratum facientem.
I answer that, The divine person is fittingly sent in the sense that He exists newly in any one; and He is given as possessed by anyone; and neither of these is otherwise than by sanctifying grace.
Est enim unus communis modus quo Deus est in omnibus rebus per essentiam, potentiam et praesentiam, sicut causa in effectibus participantibus bonitatem ipsius. Super istum modum autem communem, est unus specialis, qui convenit creaturae rationali, in qua Deus dicitur esse sicut cognitum in cognoscente et amatum in amante. Et quia, cognoscendo et amando, creatura rationalis sua operatione attingit ad ipsum Deum, secundum istum specialem modum Deus non solum dicitur esse in creatura rationali, sed etiam habitare in ea sicut in templo suo. Sic igitur nullus alius effectus potest esse ratio quod divina persona sit novo modo in rationali creatura, nisi gratia gratum faciens. Unde secundum solam gratiam gratum facientem, mittitur et procedit temporaliter persona divina.
For God is in all things by His essence, power and presence, according to His one common mode, as the cause existing in the effects which participate in His goodness. Above and beyond this common mode, however, there is one special mode belonging to the rational nature wherein God is said to be present as the object known is in the knower, and the beloved in the lover. And since the rational creature by its operation of knowledge and love attains to God Himself, according to this special mode God is said not only to exist in the rational creature but also to dwell therein as in His own temple. So no other effect can be put down as the reason why the divine person is in the rational creature in a new mode, except sanctifying grace. Hence, the divine person is sent, and proceeds temporally only according to sanctifying grace.
Similiter illud solum habere dicimur, quo libere possumus uti vel frui. Habere autem potestatem fruendi divina persona, est solum secundum gratiam gratum facientem. Sed tamen in ipso dono gratiae gratum facientis, Spiritus Sanctus habetur, et inhabitat hominem. Unde ipsemet Spiritus Sanctus datur et mittitur.
Again, we are said to possess only what we can freely use or enjoy: and to have the power of enjoying the divine person can only be according to sanctifying grace. And yet the Holy Spirit is possessed by man, and dwells within him, in the very gift itself of sanctifying grace. Hence the Holy Spirit Himself is given and sent.
Ad primum ergo dicendum quod per donum gratiae gratum facientis perficitur creatura rationalis, ad hoc quod libere non solum ipso dono creato utatur, sed ut ipsa divina persona fruatur. Et ideo missio invisibilis fit secundum donum gratiae gratum facientis, et tamen ipsa persona divina datur.
Reply Obj. 1: By the gift of sanctifying grace the rational creature is perfected so that it can freely use not only the created gift itself, but enjoy also the divine person Himself; and so the invisible mission takes place according to the gift of sanctifying grace; and yet the divine person Himself is given.
Ad secundum dicendum quod gratia gratum faciens disponit animam ad habendam divinam personam, et significatur hoc, cum dicitur quod Spiritus Sanctus datur secundum donum gratiae. Sed tamen ipsum donum gratiae est a spiritu sancto, et hoc significatur, cum dicitur quod caritas Dei diffunditur in cordibus nostris per spiritum sanctum.
Reply Obj. 2: Sanctifying grace disposes the soul to possess the divine person; and this is signified when it is said that the Holy Spirit is given according to the gift of grace. Nevertheless the gift itself of grace is from the Holy Spirit; which is meant by the words, the charity of God is poured forth in our hearts by the Holy Spirit.
Ad tertium dicendum quod, licet per aliquos effectus filius cognosci possit a nobis, non tamen per aliquos effectus nos inhabitat, vel etiam habetur a nobis.
Reply Obj. 3: Although the Son can be known by us according to other effects, yet neither does He dwell in us, nor is He possessed by us according to those effects.
Ad quartum dicendum quod operatio miraculorum est manifestativa gratiae gratum facientis, sicut et donum prophetiae, et quaelibet gratia gratis data. Unde I Cor. XII, gratia gratis data nominatur manifestatio spiritus. Sic igitur apostolis dicitur datus Spiritus Sanctus ad operationem miraculorum, quia data est eis gratia gratum faciens cum signo manifestante. Si autem daretur solum signum gratiae gratum facientis sine gratia, non diceretur dari simpliciter Spiritus Sanctus; nisi forte cum aliqua determinatione, secundum quod dicitur quod alicui datur spiritus propheticus vel miraculorum, inquantum a spiritu sancto habet virtutem prophetandi vel miracula faciendi.
Reply Obj. 4: The working of miracles manifests sanctifying grace as also does the gift of prophecy and any other gratuitous graces. Hence gratuitous grace is called the manifestation of the Spirit (1 Cor 12:7). So the Holy Spirit is said to be given to the apostles for the working of miracles, because sanctifying grace was given to them with the outward sign. Were the sign only of sanctifying grace given to them without the grace itself, it would not be simply said that the Holy Spirit was given, except with some qualifying term; just as we read of certain ones receiving the gift of the spirit of prophecy, or of miracles, as having from the Holy Spirit the power of prophesying or of working miracles.
Utrum etiam patri conveniat mitti
Whether the Father can also be fittingly sent?
Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod etiam patri conveniat mitti. Mitti enim divinam personam est ipsam dari. Sed pater dat seipsum, cum haberi non possit, nisi se ipso donante. Ergo potest dici quod pater mittat seipsum.
Objection 1: It would seem that it is fitting also that the Father should be sent. For being sent means that the divine person is given. But the Father gives Himself since He can only be possessed by His giving Himself. Therefore it can be said that the Father sends Himself.
Praeterea, persona divina mittitur secundum inhabitationem gratiae. Sed per gratiam tota Trinitas inhabitat in nobis, secundum illud Ioan. XIV, ad eum veniemus, et mansionem apud eum faciemus. Ergo quaelibet divinarum personarum mittitur.
Obj. 2: Further, the divine person is sent according to the indwelling of grace. But by grace the whole Trinity dwells in us according to John 14:23: We will come to him and make Our abode with him. Therefore each one of the divine persons is sent.
Praeterea, quidquid convenit alicui personae, convenit omnibus, praeter notiones et personas. Sed missio non significat aliquam personam, neque etiam notionem, cum sint tantum quinque notiones, ut supra dictum est. Ergo cuilibet personae divinae convenit mitti.
Obj. 3: Further, whatever belongs to one person, belongs to them all, except the notions and persons. But mission does not signify any person; nor even a notion, since there are only five notions, as stated above (Q. 32, A. 3). Therefore every divine person can be sent.
Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, in II libro de Trin., quod solus pater nunquam legitur missus.
On the contrary, Augustine says (De Trin. ii, 3), The Father alone is never described as being sent.
Respondeo dicendum quod missio in sui ratione importat processionem ab alio; et in divinis, secundum originem, ut supra dictum est. Unde, cum pater non sit ab alio, nullo modo convenit sibi mitti; sed solum filio et spiritui sancto, quibus convenit esse ab alio.
I answer that, The very idea of mission means procession from another, and in God it means procession according to origin, as above expounded. Hence, as the Father is not from another, in no way is it fitting for Him to be sent; but this can only belong to the Son and to the Holy Spirit, to Whom it belongs to be from another.
Ad primum ergo dicendum quod si dare importet liberalem communicationem alicuius, sic pater dat seipsum, inquantum se liberaliter communicat creaturae ad fruendum. Si vero importet auctoritatem dantis respectu eius quod datur, sic non convenit dari in divinis nisi personae quae est ab alio; sicut nec mitti.
Reply Obj. 1: In the sense of giving as a free bestowal of something, the Father gives Himself, as freely bestowing Himself to be enjoyed by the creature. But as implying the authority of the giver as regards what is given, to be given only applies in God to the Person Who is from another; and the same as regards being sent.
Ad secundum dicendum quod, licet effectus gratiae sit etiam a patre, qui inhabitat per gratiam, sicut et filius et Spiritus Sanctus; quia tamen non est ab alio, non dicitur mitti. Et hoc est quod dicit Augustinus, IV de Trin., quod pater, cum in tempore a quoquam cognoscitur, non dicitur missus, non enim habet de quo sit, aut ex quo procedat.
Reply Obj. 2: Although the effect of grace is also from the Father, Who dwells in us by grace, just as the Son and the Holy Spirit, still He is not described as being sent, for He is not from another. Thus Augustine says (De Trin. iv, 20) that The Father, when known by anyone in time, is not said to be sent; for there is no one whence He is, or from whom He proceeds.
Ad tertium dicendum quod missio, inquantum importat processionem a mittente, includit in sui significatione notionem, non quidem in speciali, sed in generali, prout esse ab alio est commune duabus notionibus.
Reply Obj. 3: Mission, meaning procession from the sender, includes the signification of a notion, not of a special notion, but in general; thus to be from another is common to two of the notions.
Utrum filio conveniat invisibiliter mitti
Whether it is fitting for the Son to be sent invisibly?
Ad quintum sic proceditur. Videtur quod filio non conveniat invisibiliter mitti. Missio enim invisibilis divinae personae attenditur secundum dona gratiae. Sed omnia dona gratiae pertinent ad spiritum sanctum, secundum illud I Cor. XII, omnia operatur unus atque idem spiritus. Ergo invisibiliter non mittitur nisi Spiritus Sanctus.
Objection 1: It would seem that it is not fitting for the Son to be sent invisibly. For invisible mission of the divine person is according to the gift of grace. But all gifts of grace belong to the Holy Spirit, according to 1 Cor. 12:11: One and the same Spirit worketh all things. Therefore only the Holy Spirit is sent invisibly.
Praeterea, missio divinae personae fit secundum gratiam gratum facientem. Sed dona quae pertinent ad perfectionem intellectus, non sunt dona gratiae gratum facientis, cum sine caritate possint haberi, secundum illud I ad Cor. XIII, si habuero prophetiam, et noverim mysteria omnia, et omnem scientiam, et si habuero omnem fidem, ita ut montes transferam, caritatem autem non habeam, nihil sum. Cum ergo filius procedat ut verbum intellectus, videtur quod non conveniat sibi invisibiliter mitti.
Obj. 2: Further, the mission of the divine person is according to sanctifying grace. But the gifts belonging to the perfection of the intellect are not gifts of sanctifying grace, since they can be held without the gift of charity, according to 1 Cor. 13:2: If I should have prophecy, and should know all mysteries, and all knowledge, and if I should have all faith so that I could move mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. Therefore, since the Son proceeds as the word of the intellect, it seems unfitting for Him to be sent invisibly.
Praeterea, missio divinae personae est quaedam processio, ut dictum est. Sed alia est processio filii, alia spiritus sancti. Ergo et alia missio, si uterque mittitur. Et sic altera earum superflueret, cum una sit sufficiens ad sanctificandam creaturam.
Obj. 3: Further, the mission of the divine person is a procession, as expounded above (AA. 1, 4). But the procession of the Son and of the Holy Spirit differ from each other. Therefore they are distinct missions if both are sent; and then one of them would be superfluous, since one would suffice for the creature’s sanctification.
Sed contra est quod Sap. IX dicitur de divina sapientia, mitte illam de caelis sanctis tuis, et a sede magnitudinis tuae.
On the contrary, It is said of divine Wisdom (Wis 9:10): Send her from heaven to Thy Saints, and from the seat of Thy greatness.
Respondeo dicendum quod per gratiam gratum facientem tota Trinitas inhabitat mentem, secundum illud Ioan. XIV, ad eum veniemus, et mansionem apud eum faciemus. Mitti autem personam divinam ad aliquem per invisibilem gratiam, significat novum modum inhabitandi illius personae, et originem eius ab alia. Unde, cum tam filio quam spiritui sancto conveniat et inhabitare per gratiam et ab alio esse, utrique convenit invisibiliter mitti. Patri autem licet conveniat inhabitare per gratiam, non tamen sibi convenit ab alio esse; et per consequens nec mitti.
I answer that, The whole Trinity dwells in the mind by sanctifying grace, according to John 14:23: We will come to him, and will make Our abode with him. But that a divine person be sent to anyone by invisible grace signifies both that this person dwells in a new way within him and that He has His origin from another. Hence, since both to the Son and to the Holy Spirit it belongs to dwell in the soul by grace, and to be from another, it therefore belongs to both of them to be invisibly sent. As to the Father, though He dwells in us by grace, still it does not belong to Him to be from another, and consequently He is not sent.
Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, licet omnia dona, inquantum dona sunt, attribuantur spiritui sancto, quia habet rationem primi doni, secundum quod est amor, ut supra dictum est; aliqua tamen dona, secundum proprias rationes, attribuuntur per quandam appropriationem filio, scilicet illa quae pertinent ad intellectum et secundum illa dona attenditur missio filii. Unde Augustinus dicit, IV de Trin., quod tunc invisibiliter filius cuiquam mittitur, cum a quoquam cognoscitur atque percipitur.
Reply Obj. 1: Although all the gifts, considered as such, are attributed to the Holy Spirit, forasmuch as He is by His nature the first Gift, since He is Love, as stated above (Q. 38, A. 1), some gifts nevertheless, by reason of their own particular nature, are appropriated in a certain way to the Son, those, namely, which belong to the intellect, and in respect of which we speak of the mission of the Son. Hence Augustine says (De Trin. iv, 20) that The Son is sent to anyone invisibly, whenever He is known and perceived by anyone.
Ad secundum dicendum quod anima per gratiam conformatur Deo. Unde ad hoc quod aliqua persona divina mittatur ad aliquem per gratiam, oportet quod fiat assimilatio illius ad divinam personam quae mittitur per aliquod gratiae donum. Et quia Spiritus Sanctus est amor, per donum caritatis anima spiritui sancto assimilatur, unde secundum donum caritatis attenditur missio spiritus sancti. Filius autem est verbum, non qualecumque, sed spirans amorem; unde Augustinus dicit, in IX libro de Trin., verbum quod insinuare intendimus, cum amore notitia est. Non igitur secundum quamlibet perfectionem intellectus mittitur filius, sed secundum talem instructionem intellectus, qua prorumpat in affectum amoris, ut dicitur Ioan. VI, omnis qui audivit a patre, et didicit, venit ad me; et in Psalm., in meditatione mea exardescet ignis. Et ideo signanter dicit Augustinus quod filius mittitur, cum a quoquam cognoscitur atque percipitur, perceptio enim experimentalem quandam notitiam significat. Et haec proprie dicitur sapientia, quasi sapida scientia, secundum illud Eccli. VI, sapientia doctrinae secundum nomen eius est.
Reply Obj. 2: The soul is made like to God by grace. Hence for a divine person to be sent to anyone by grace, there must needs be a likening of the soul to the divine person Who is sent, by some gift of grace. Because the Holy Spirit is Love, the soul is assimilated to the Holy Spirit by the gift of charity: hence the mission of the Holy Spirit is according to the mode of charity. Whereas the Son is the Word, not any sort of word, but one Who breathes forth Love. Hence Augustine says (De Trin. ix 10): The Word we speak of is knowledge with love. Thus the Son is sent not in accordance with every and any kind of intellectual perfection, but according to the intellectual illumination, which breaks forth into the affection of love, as is said (John 6:45): Everyone that hath heard from the Father and hath learned, cometh to Me, and (Ps 38:4): In my meditation a fire shall flame forth. Thus Augustine plainly says (De Trin. iv, 20): The Son is sent, whenever He is known and perceived by anyone. Now perception implies a certain experimental knowledge; and this is properly called wisdom, as it were a sweet knowledge, according to Ecclus. 6:23: The wisdom of doctrine is according to her name.
Ad tertium dicendum quod, cum missio importet originem personae missae et inhabitationem per gratiam, ut supra dictum est, si loquamur de missione quantum ad originem, sic missio filii distinguitur a missione spiritus sancti, sicut et generatio a processione. Si autem quantum ad effectum gratiae, sic communicant duae missiones in radice gratiae, sed distinguuntur in effectibus gratiae, qui sunt illuminatio intellectus, et inflammatio affectus. Et sic manifestum est quod una non potest esse sine alia, quia neutra est sine gratia gratum faciente, nec una persona separatur ab alia.
Reply Obj. 3: Since mission implies the origin of the person Who is sent, and His indwelling by grace, as above explained (A. 1), if we speak of mission according to origin, in this sense the Son’s mission is distinguished from the mission of the Holy Spirit, as generation is distinguished from procession. If we consider mission as regards the effect of grace, in this sense the two missions are united in the root which is grace, but are distinguished in the effects of grace, which consist in the illumination of the intellect and the kindling of the affection. Thus it is manifest that one mission cannot be without the other, because neither takes place without sanctifying grace, nor is one person separated from the other.
Utrum missio invisibilis fiat ad omnes qui sunt participes gratiae
Whether the invisible mission is to all who participate in grace?