Quaestio 132 Question 132 De inani gloria Vainglory Deinde considerandum est de inani gloria. Et circa hoc quaeruntur quinque. We must now consider vainglory: under which head there are five points of inquiry: Primo, utrum appetitus gloriae sit peccatum. (1) Whether desire of glory is a sin? Secundo, utrum inanis gloria magnanimitati opponatur. (2) Whether it is opposed to magnanimity? Tertio, utrum sit peccatum mortale. (3) Whether it is a mortal sin? Quarto, utrum sit vitium capitale. (4) Whether it is a capital vice? Quinto, de filiabus eius. (5) Of its daughters. Articulus 1 Article 1 Utrum appetitus gloriae sit peccatum Whether the desire of glory is a sin? Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod appetitus gloriae non sit peccatum. Nullus enim peccat in hoc quod Deo assimilatur, quinimmo mandatur, Ephes. V, estote imitatores Dei, sicut filii carissimi. Sed in hoc quod homo quaerit gloriam, videtur Deum imitari, qui ab hominibus gloriam quaerit, unde dicitur Isaiae XLIII, omnem qui invocat nomen meum, in gloriam meam creavi eum. Ergo appetitus gloriae non est peccatum. Objection 1: It seems that the desire of glory is not a sin. For no one sins in being likened to God: in fact we are commanded (Eph 5:1): Be ye . . . followers of God, as most dear children. Now by seeking glory man seems to imitate God, Who seeks glory from men: wherefore it is written (Isa 43:6, 7): Bring My sons from afar, and My daughters from the ends of the earth. And every one that calleth on My name, I have created him for My glory. Therefore the desire for glory is not a sin. Praeterea, illud per quod aliquis provocatur ad bonum, non videtur esse peccatum. Sed per appetitum gloriae homines provocantur ad bonum, dicit enim Tullius, in libro de Tusculan. quaest., quod omnes ad studia impelluntur gloria. In sacra etiam Scriptura promittitur gloria pro bonis operibus, secundum illud Rom. II, his qui sunt secundum patientiam boni operis, gloriam et honorem. Ergo appetitus gloriae non est peccatum. Obj. 2: Further, that which incites a man to do good is apparently not a sin. Now the desire of glory incites men to do good. For Tully says (De Tusc. Quaest. i) that glory inflames every man to strive his utmost: and in Holy Writ glory is promised for good works, according to Rom. 2:7: To them, indeed, who according to patience in good work . . . glory and honor. Therefore the desire for glory is not a sin. Praeterea, Tullius dicit, in sua rhetorica, quod gloria est frequens de aliquo fama cum laude, et ad idem pertinet quod Ambrosius dicit, quod gloria est clara cum laude notitia. Sed appetere laudabilem famam non est peccatum, quinimmo videtur esse laudabile, secundum illud Eccli. XLI, curam habe de bono nomine; et ad Rom. XII, providentes bona non solum coram Deo, sed etiam coram omnibus hominibus. Ergo appetitus inanis gloriae non est peccatum. Obj. 3: Further, Tully says (De Invent. Rhet. ii) that glory is consistent good report about a person, together with praise: and this comes to the same as what Augustine says (Contra Maximin. iii), viz. that glory is, as it were, clear knowledge with praise. Now it is no sin to desire praiseworthy renown: indeed, it seems itself to call for praise, according to Ecclus. 41:15, Take care of a good name, and Rom. 12:17, Providing good things not only in the sight of God, but also in the sight of all men. Therefore the desire of vainglory is not a sin. Sed contra est quod Augustinus dicit, V de Civ. Dei, sanius videt qui et amorem laudis vitium esse cognoscit. On the contrary, Augustine says (De Civ. Dei v): He is better advised who acknowledges that even the love of praise is sinful. Respondeo dicendum quod gloria claritatem quandam significat, unde glorificari idem est quod clarificari, ut Augustinus dicit, super Ioan. Claritas autem et decorem quendam habet, et manifestationem. Et ideo nomen gloriae proprie importat manifestationem alicuius de hoc quod apud homines decorum videtur, sive illud sit bonum aliquod corporale, sive spirituale. Quia vero illud quod simpliciter clarum est, a multis conspici potest et a remotis, ideo proprie per nomen gloriae designatur quod bonum alicuius deveniat in multorum notitiam et approbationem, secundum quem modum dicitur in Tito Livio, gloriari ad unum non est. I answer that, Glory signifies a certain clarity, wherefore Augustine says (Tract. lxxxii, c, cxiv in Joan.) that to be glorified is the same as to be clarified. Now clarity and comeliness imply a certain display: wherefore the word glory properly denotes the display of something as regards its seeming comely in the sight of men, whether it be a bodily or a spiritual good. Since, however, that which is clear simply can be seen by many, and by those who are far away, it follows that the word glory properly denotes that somebody’s good is known and approved by many, according to the saying of Sallust (Catilin.): I must not boast while I am addressing one man. Largius tamen accepto nomine gloriae, non solum consistit in multitudinis cognitione, sed etiam paucorum vel unius, aut sui solius, dum scilicet aliquis proprium bonum considerat ut dignum laude. Quod autem aliquis bonum suum cognoscat et approbet, non est peccatum, dicitur enim I ad Cor. II, nos autem non spiritum huius mundi accepimus, sed spiritum qui ex Deo est, ut sciamus quae a Deo donata sunt nobis. Similiter etiam non est peccatum quod aliquis velit bona sua ab aliis approbari, dicitur enim Matth. V, luceat lux vestra coram hominibus. Et ideo appetitus gloriae de se non nominat aliquid vitiosum. Sed appetitus inanis vel vanae gloriae vitium importat, nam quidlibet vanum appetere vitiosum est, secundum illud Psalmi, ut quid diligitis vanitatem, et quaeritis mendacium? But if we take the word glory in a broader sense, it not only consists in the knowledge of many, but also in the knowledge of few, or of one, or of oneself alone, as when one considers one’s own good as being worthy of praise. Now it is not a sin to know and approve one’s own good: for it is written (1 Cor 2:12): Now we have received not the spirit of this world, but the Spirit that is of God that we may know the things that are given us from God. Likewise it is not a sin to be willing to approve one’s own good works: for it is written (Matt 5:16): Let your light shine before men. Hence the desire for glory does not, of itself, denote a sin: but the desire for empty or vain glory denotes a sin: for it is sinful to desire anything vain, according to Ps. 4:3, Why do you love vanity, and seek after lying? Potest autem gloria dici vana, uno modo, ex parte rei de qua quis gloriam quaerit, puta cum quis quaerit gloriam de eo quod non est, vel de eo quod non est gloria dignum, sicut de aliqua re fragili et caduca. Alio modo, ex parte eius a quo quis gloriam quaerit, puta hominis, cuius iudicium non est certum. Tertio modo, ex parte ipsius qui gloriam appetit, qui videlicet appetitum gloriae suae non refert in debitum finem, puta ad honorem Dei vel proximi salutem. Now glory may be called vain in three ways. First, on the part of the thing for which one seeks glory: as when a man seeks glory for that which is unworthy of glory, for instance when he seeks it for something frail and perishable: second, on the part of him from whom he seeks glory, for instance a man whose judgment is uncertain: third, on the part of the man himself who seeks glory, for that he does not refer the desire of his own glory to a due end, such as God’s honor, or the spiritual welfare of his neighbor. Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, sicut dicit Augustinus, super illud Ioan. XIII, vos vocatis me, magister et domine, et bene dicitis, periculosum est sibi placere cui cavendum est superbire. Ille autem qui super omnia est, quantumcumque se laudet, non se extollit. Nobis namque expedit Deum nosse, non illi, nec eum quisque cognoscit, si non se indicet ipse qui novit. Unde patet quod Deus suam gloriam non quaerit propter se, sed propter nos. Et similiter etiam homo laudabiliter potest ad aliorum utilitatem gloriam suam appetere, secundum illud Matth. V, videant opera vestra bona, et glorificent patrem vestrum qui in caelis est. Reply Obj. 1: As Augustine says on John 13:13, You call Me Master and Lord; and you say well (Tract. lviii in Joan.): Self-complacency is fraught with danger of one who has to beware of pride. But He Who is above all, however much He may praise Himself, does not uplift Himself. For knowledge of God is our need, not His: nor does any man know Him unless he be taught of Him Who knows. It is therefore evident that God seeks glory, not for His own sake, but for ours. In like manner a man may rightly seek his own glory for the good of others, according to Matt. 5:16, That they may see your good works, and glorify your Father Who is in heaven. Ad secundum dicendum quod gloria quae habetur a Deo, non est gloria vana, sed vera. Et talis gloria bonis operibus in praemium repromittitur. De qua dicitur, II ad Cor. X, qui gloriatur, in domino glorietur, non enim qui seipsum commendat, ille probatus est; sed quem Deus commendat. Provocantur etiam aliqui ad virtutum opera ex appetitu gloriae humanae, sicut etiam ex appetitu aliorum terrenorum bonorum, non tamen est vere virtuosus qui propter humanam gloriam opera virtutis operatur, ut Augustinus probat, in V de Civ. Dei. Reply Obj. 2: That which we receive from God is not vain but true glory: it is this glory that is promised as a reward for good works, and of which it is written (2 Cor 10:17, 18): He that glorieth let him glory in the Lord, for not he who commendeth himself is approved, but he whom God commendeth. It is true that some are heartened to do works of virtue, through desire for human glory, as also through the desire for other earthly goods. Yet he is not truly virtuous who does virtuous deeds for the sake of human glory, as Augustine proves (De Civ. Dei v). Ad tertium dicendum quod ad perfectionem hominis pertinet quod ipse cognoscat, sed quod ipse ab aliis cognoscatur non pertinet ad eius perfectionem, et ideo non est per se appetendum. Potest tamen appeti inquantum est utile ad aliquid, vel ad hoc quod Deus ab hominibus glorificetur; vel ad hoc quod homines proficiant ex bono quod in alio cognoscunt; vel ex hoc quod ipse homo ex bonis quae in se cognoscit per testimonium laudis alienae studeat in eis perseverare et ad meliora proficere. Et secundum hoc laudabile est quod curam habeat aliquis de bono nomine, et quod provideat bona coram hominibus, non tamen quod in hominum laude inaniter delectetur. Reply Obj. 3: It is requisite for man’s perfection that he should know himself; but not that he should be known by others, wherefore it is not to be desired in itself. It may, however, be desired as being useful for something, either in order that God may be glorified by men, or that men may become better by reason of the good they know to be in another man, or in order that man, knowing by the testimony of others’ praise the good which is in him, may himself strive to persevere therein and to become better. In this sense it is praiseworthy that a man should take care of his good name, and that he should provide good things in the sight of God and men: but not that he should take an empty pleasure in human praise. Articulus 2 Article 2 Utrum inanis gloria magnanimitati opponatur Whether vainglory is opposed to magnanimity? Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod inanis gloria magnanimitati non opponatur. Pertinet enim ad inanem gloriam, ut dictum est, quod aliquis glorietur in his quae non sunt, quod pertinet ad falsitatem; vel in rebus terrenis vel caducis, quod pertinet ad cupiditatem; vel in testimonio hominum, quorum iudicium non est certum, quod pertinet ad imprudentiam. Huiusmodi autem vitia non opponuntur magnanimitati. Ergo inanis gloria non opponitur magnanimitati. Objection 1: It seems that vainglory is not opposed to magnanimity. For, as stated above (A. 1), vainglory consists in glorying in things that are not, which pertains to falsehood; or in earthly and perishable things, which pertains to covetousness; or in the testimony of men, whose judgment is uncertain, which pertains to imprudence. Now these vices are not contrary to magnanimity. Therefore vainglory is not opposed to magnanimity. Praeterea, inanis gloria non opponitur magnanimitati per defectum, sicut pusillanimitas, quae inani gloriae repugnans videtur. Similiter etiam nec per excessum, sic enim opponitur magnanimitati praesumptio et ambitio, ut dictum est, a quibus inanis gloria differt. Ergo inanis gloria non opponitur magnanimitati. Obj. 2: Further, vainglory is not, like pusillanimity, opposed to magnanimity by way of deficiency, for this seems inconsistent with vainglory. Nor is it opposed to it by way of excess, for in this way presumption and ambition are opposed to magnanimity, as stated above (Q. 130, A. 2; Q. 131, A. 2): and these differ from vainglory. Therefore vainglory is not opposed to magnanimity. Praeterea, Philipp. II, super illud, nihil per contentionem aut inanem gloriam, dicit Glossa, erant aliqui inter eos dissentientes, inquieti, inanis gloriae causa contendentes. Contentio autem non opponitur magnanimitati. Ergo neque inanis gloria. Obj. 3: Further, a gloss on Phil. 2:3, Let nothing be done through contention, neither by vainglory, says: Some among them were given to dissension and restlessness, contending with one another for the sake of vainglory. But contention is not opposed to magnanimity. Neither therefore is vainglory. Sed contra est quod Tullius dicit, in I de Offic., cavenda est gloriae cupiditas, eripit enim animi libertatem, pro qua magnanimis viris omnis debet esse contentio. Ergo opponitur magnanimitati. On the contrary, Tully says (De Offic. i) under the heading, Magnanimity consists in two things: We should beware of the desire for glory, since it enslaves the mind, which a magnanimous man should ever strive to keep untrammeled. Therefore it is opposed to magnanimity. Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, gloria est quidam effectus honoris et laudis, ex hoc enim quod aliquis laudatur, vel quaecumque reverentia ei exhibetur, redditur clarus in notitia aliorum. Et quia magnanimitas est circa honorem, ut supra dictum est, consequens est etiam ut sit circa gloriam, ut scilicet sicut moderate utitur honore, ita moderate utatur gloria. Et ideo inordinatus appetitus gloriae directe magnanimitati opponitur. I answer that, As stated above (Q. 103, A. 1, ad 3), glory is an effect of honor and praise: because from the fact that a man is praised, or shown any kind of reverence, he acquires clarity in the knowledge of others. And since magnanimity is about honor, as stated above (Q. 129, AA. 1, 2), it follows that it also is about glory: seeing that as a man uses honor moderately, so too does he use glory in moderation. Wherefore inordinate desire of glory is directly opposed to magnanimity. Ad primum ergo dicendum quod hoc ipsum magnitudini animi repugnat, quod aliquis res modicas tantum appretietur quod de eis glorietur, unde in IV Ethic. dicitur de magnanimo quod sibi sit honor parvum. Similiter etiam et alia quae propter honorem quaeruntur, puta potentatus et divitiae, parva reputantur ab eo. Similiter etiam magnitudini animi repugnat quod aliquis de his quae non sunt glorietur. Unde de magnanimo dicitur in IV Ethic., quod magis curat veritatem quam opinionem. Similiter etiam et magnitudini animi repugnat quod aliquis glorietur in testimonio laudis humanae, quasi hoc magnum aliquid aestimetur. Unde de magnanimo dicitur in IV Ethic., quod non est ei cura ut laudetur. Et sic ea quae aliis virtutibus opponuntur nihil prohibet opponi magnanimitati, secundum quod habent pro magnis quae parva sunt. Reply Obj. 1: To think so much of little things as to glory in them is itself opposed to magnanimity. Wherefore it is said of the magnanimous man (Ethic. iv) that honor is of little account to him. In like manner he thinks little of other things that are sought for honor’s sake, such as power and wealth. Likewise it is inconsistent with magnanimity to glory in things that are not; wherefore it is said of the magnanimous man (Ethic. iv) that he cares more for truth than for opinion. Again it is incompatible with magnanimity for a man to glory in the testimony of human praise, as though he deemed this something great; wherefore it is said of the magnanimous man (Ethic. iv), that he cares not to be praised. And so, when a man looks upon little things as though they were great, nothing hinders this from being contrary to magnanimity, as well as to other virtues. Ad secundum dicendum quod inanis gloriae cupidus, secundum rei veritatem, deficit a magnanimo, quia videlicet gloriatur in his quae magnanimus parva aestimat, ut dictum est. Sed considerando aestimationem eius, opponitur magnanimo per excessum, quia videlicet gloriam quam appetit, reputat aliquid magnum, et ad eam tendit supra suam dignitatem. Reply Obj. 2: He that is desirous of vainglory does in truth fall short of being magnanimous, because he glories in what the magnanimous man thinks little of, as stated in the preceding Reply. But if we consider his estimate, he is opposed to the magnanimous man by way of excess, because the glory which he seeks is something great in his estimation, and he tends thereto in excess of his deserts. Ad tertium dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, oppositio vitiorum non attenditur secundum effectum. Et tamen hoc ipsum magnitudini animi opponitur, quod aliquis contentionem intendat, nullus enim contendit nisi pro re quam aestimat magnam. Unde philosophus dicit, in IV Ethic., quod magnanimus non est contentiosus, qui nihil aestimat magnum. Reply Obj. 3: As stated above (Q. 127, A. 2, ad 2), the opposition of vices does not depend on their effects. Nevertheless contention, if done intentionally, is opposed to magnanimity: since no one contends save for what he deems great. Wherefore the Philosopher says (Ethic. iv, 3) that the magnanimous man is not contentious, because nothing is great in his estimation. Articulus 3 Article 3 Utrum inanis gloria sit peccatum mortale Whether vainglory is a mortal sin? Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod inanis gloria sit peccatum mortale. Nihil enim excludit mercedem aeternam nisi peccatum mortale. Sed inanis gloria excludit mercedem aeternam, dicitur enim Matth. VI, attendite ne iustitiam vestram faciatis coram hominibus, ut videamini ab eis. Ergo inanis gloria est peccatum mortale. Objection 1: It seems that vainglory is a mortal sin. For nothing precludes the eternal reward except a mortal sin. Now vainglory precludes the eternal reward: for it is written (Matt 6:1): Take heed, that you do not give justice before men, to be seen by them: otherwise you shall not have a reward of your Father Who is in heaven. Therefore vainglory is a mortal sin. Praeterea, quicumque subripit sibi quod est Dei proprium, mortaliter peccat. Sed per appetitum inanis gloriae aliquis sibi attribuit quod est proprium Dei, dicitur enim Isaiae XLII, gloriam meam alteri non dabo; et I ad Tim. I, soli Deo honor et gloria. Ergo inanis gloria est peccatum mortale. Obj. 2: Further, whoever appropriates to himself that which is proper to God, sins mortally. Now by desiring vainglory, a man appropriates to himself that which is proper to God. For it is written (Isa 42:8): I will not give My glory to another, and (1 Tim 1:17): To . . . the only God be honor and glory. Therefore vainglory is a mortal sin. Praeterea, illud peccatum quod est maxime periculosum et nocivum, videtur esse mortale. Sed peccatum inanis gloriae est huiusmodi, quia super illud I ad Thess. II, Deo qui probat corda nostra, dicit Glossa Augustini, quas vires nocendi habeat humanae gloriae amor, non sentit nisi qui ei bellum indixerit, quia etsi cuiquam facile est laudem non cupere dum negatur, difficile tamen est ea non delectari cum offertur. Chrysostomus etiam dicit, Matth. VI, quod inanis gloria occulte ingreditur, et omnia quae intus sunt insensibiliter aufert. Ergo inanis gloria est peccatum mortale. Obj. 3: Further, apparently a sin is mortal if it be most dangerous and harmful. Now vainglory is a sin of this kind, because a gloss of Augustine on 1 Thess. 2:4, God, Who proveth our hearts, says: Unless a man war against the love of human glory he does not perceive its baneful power, for though it be easy for anyone not to desire praise as long as one does not get it, it is difficult not to take pleasure in it, when it is given. Chrysostom also says (Hom. xix in Matth.) that vainglory enters secretly, and robs us insensibly of all our inward possessions. Therefore vainglory is a mortal sin. Sed contra est quod Chrysostomus dicit, super Matth., quod cum cetera vitia locum habeant in servis Diaboli, inanis gloria locum habet etiam in servis Christi. In quibus tamen nullum est peccatum mortale. Ergo inanis gloria non est peccatum mortale. On the contrary, Chrysostom says that while other vices find their abode in the servants of the devil, vainglory finds a place even in the servants of Christ. Yet in the latter there is no mortal sin. Therefore vainglory is not a mortal sin.