Ad quintum dicendum quod epieikeia non adiungitur iustitiae particulari, sed legali. Et videtur esse idem cum ea quae dicta est eugnomosyna.Reply Obj. 5: Epieikeia is annexed, not to particular but to legal justice, and apparently is the same as that which goes by the name of eugnomosyne (common sense).Quaestio 81Question 81De religioneReligionDeinde considerandum est de singulis praedictarum virtutum, quantum ad praesentem intentionem pertinet. Et primo considerandum est de religione; secundo, de pietate; tertio, de observantia; quarto, de gratia; quinto, de vindicta; sexto, de veritate; septimo, de amicitia; octavo, de liberalitate; nono, de epieikeia. De aliis autem hic enumeratis supra dictum est, partim in tractatu de caritate, scilicet de concordia et aliis huiusmodi; partim in hoc tractatu de iustitia, sicut de bona commutatione et innocentia; de legispositiva autem in tractatu de prudentia.We must now consider each of the foregoing virtues, insofar as our present scope demands. We shall consider (1) religion, (2) piety, (3) observance, (4) gratitude, (5) revenge, (6) truth, (7) friendship, (8) liberality, (9) epieikeia. Of the other virtues that have been mentioned we have spoken partly in the treatise on charity, viz. of concord and the like, and partly in this treatise on justice, for instance, of right commutations and of innocence. Of legislative justice we spoke in the treatise on prudence.Circa religionem vero tria consideranda occurrunt, primo quidem, de ipsa religione secundum se; secundo, de actibus eius; tertio, de vitiis oppositis.Religion offers a threefold consideration: (1) Religion considered in itself; (2) its acts; (3) the opposite vices.Circa primum quaeruntur octo.Under the first head there are eight points of inquiry:Primo, utrum religio consistat tantum in ordine ad Deum.(1) Whether religion regards only our relation to God?Secundo, utrum religio sit virtus.(2) Whether religion is a virtue?Tertio, utrum religio sit una virtus.(3) Whether religion is one virtue?Quarto, utrum religio sit specialis virtus.(4) Whether religion is a special virtue?Quinto, utrum religio sit virtus theologica.(5) Whether religion is a theological virtue?Sexto, utrum religio sit praeferenda aliis virtutibus moralibus.(6) Whether religion should be preferred to the other moral virtues?Septimo, utrum religio habeat exteriores actus.(7) Whether religion has any external actions?Octavo, utrum religio sit eadem sanctitati.(8) Whether religion is the same as holiness?Articulus 1Article 1Utrum religio ordinet hominem solum ad DeumWhether religion directs man to God alone?Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod religio non ordinet hominem solum ad Deum. Dicitur enim Iac. I, religio munda et immaculata apud Deum et patrem haec est, visitare pupillos et viduas in tribulatione eorum, et immaculatum se custodire ab hoc saeculo. Sed visitare pupillos et viduas dicitur secundum ordinem ad proximum, quod autem dicit immaculatum se custodire ab hoc saeculo, pertinet ad ordinem quo ordinatur homo in seipso. Ergo religio non solum dicitur in ordine ad Deum.Objection 1: It would seem that religion does not direct man to God alone. It is written (Jas 1:27): Religion clean and undefiled before God and the Father is this, to visit the fatherless and widows in their tribulation, and to keep oneself unspotted from this world. Now to visit the fatherless and widows indicates an order between oneself and one’s neighbor, and to keep oneself unspotted from this world belongs to the order of a man within himself. Therefore religion does not imply order to God alone.Praeterea, Augustinus dicit, in X de Civ. Dei, quia Latina loquendi consuetudine, non imperitorum, verum etiam doctissimorum, cognationibus humanis atque affinitatibus et quibuscumque necessitudinibus dicitur exhibenda religio; non eo vocabulo vitatur ambiguum cum de cultu deitatis vertitur quaestio, ut fidenter dicere valeamus religionem non esse nisi cultum Dei. Ergo religio dicitur non solum in ordine ad Deum, sed etiam in ordine ad propinquos.Obj. 2: Further, Augustine says (De Civ. Dei x, 1) that since in speaking Latin not only unlettered but even most cultured persons ere wont to speak of religion as being exhibited, to our human kindred and relations as also to those who are linked with us by any kind of tie, that term does not escape ambiguity when it is a question of Divine worship, so that we be able to say without hesitation that religion is nothing else but the worship of God. Therefore religion signifies a relation not only to God but also to our kindred.Praeterea, ad religionem videtur latria pertinere. Latria autem interpretatur servitus, ut Augustinus dicit, in X de Civ. Dei. Servire autem debemus non solum Deo, sed etiam proximis, secundum illud Gal. V, per caritatem spiritus servite invicem. Ergo religio importat etiam ordinem ad proximum.Obj. 3: Further, seemingly latria pertains to religion. Now latria signifies servitude, as Augustine states (De Civ. Dei x, 1). And we are bound to serve not only God, but also our neighbor, according to Gal. 5:13, By charity of the spirit serve one another. Therefore religion includes a relation to one’s neighbor also.Praeterea, ad religionem pertinet cultus. Sed homo dicitur non solum colere Deum, sed etiam proximum, secundum illud Catonis, cole parentes. Ergo etiam religio nos ordinat ad proximum, et non solum ad Deum.Obj. 4: Further, worship belongs to religion. Now man is said to worship not only God, but also his neighbor, according to the saying of Cato, Worship thy parents. Therefore religion directs us also to our neighbor, and not only to God.Praeterea, omnes in statu salutis existentes Deo sunt subiecti. Non autem dicuntur religiosi omnes qui sunt in statu salutis, sed solum illi qui quibusdam votis et observantiis et ad obediendum aliquibus hominibus se adstringunt. Ergo religio non videtur importare ordinem subiectionis hominis ad Deum.Obj. 5: Further, all those who are in the state of grace are subject to God. Yet not all who are in a state of grace are called religious, but only those who bind themselves by certain vows and observances, and to obedience to certain men. Therefore religion seemingly does not denote a relation of subjection of man to God.Sed contra est quod Tullius dicit, II Rhet., quod religio est quae superioris naturae, quam divinam vocant, curam caeremoniamque affert.On the contrary, Tully says (Rhet. ii, 53) that religion consists in offering service and ceremonial rites to a superior nature that men call divine.Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut Isidorus dicit, in libro Etymol., religiosus, ut ait Cicero, a religione appellatus, qui retractat et tanquam relegit ea quae ad cultum divinum pertinent. Et sic religio videtur dicta a religendo ea quae sunt divini cultus, quia huiusmodi sunt frequenter in corde revolvenda, secundum illud Prov. III, in omnibus viis tuis cogita illum. Quamvis etiam possit intelligi religio ex hoc dicta quod Deum reeligere debemus, quem amiseramus negligentes, sicut Augustinus dicit, X de Civ. Dei. Vel potest intelligi religio a religando dicta, unde Augustinus dicit, in libro de vera Relig., religet nos religio uni omnipotenti Deo. Sive autem religio dicatur a frequenti lectione, sive ex iterata electione eius quod negligenter amissum est, sive a religatione, religio proprie importat ordinem ad Deum. Ipse enim est cui principaliter alligari debemus, tanquam indeficienti principio; ad quem etiam nostra electio assidue dirigi debet, sicut in ultimum finem; quem etiam negligenter peccando amittimus, et credendo et fidem protestando recuperare debemus.I answer that, as Isidore says (Etym. x), according to Cicero, a man is said to be religious from religio, because he often ponders over, and, as it were, reads again (relegit), the things which pertain to the worship of God, so that religion would seem to take its name from reading over those things which belong to Divine worship because we ought frequently to ponder over such things in our hearts, according to Prov. 3:6, In all thy ways think on Him. According to Augustine (De Civ. Dei x, 3) it may also take its name from the fact that we ought to seek God again, whom we had lost by our neglect. Or again, religion may be derived from religare (to bind together), wherefore Augustine says (De Vera Relig. 55): May religion bind us to the one Almighty God. However, whether religion take its name from frequent reading, or from a repeated choice of what has been lost through negligence, or from being a bond, it denotes properly a relation to God. For it is He to Whom we ought to be bound as to our unfailing principle; to Whom also our choice should be resolutely directed as to our last end; and Whom we lose when we neglect Him by sin, and should recover by believing in Him and confessing our faith.Ad primum ergo dicendum quod religio habet duplices actus. Quosdam quidem proprios et immediatos, quos elicit, per quos homo ordinatur ad solum Deum, sicut sacrificare, adorare et alia huiusmodi. Alios autem actus habet quos producit mediantibus virtutibus quibus imperat, ordinans eos in divinam reverentiam, quia scilicet virtus ad quam pertinet finis, imperat virtutibus ad quas pertinent ea quae sunt ad finem. Et secundum hoc actus religionis per modum imperii ponitur esse visitare pupillos et viduas in tribulatione eorum, quod est actus elicitus a misericordia, immaculatum autem custodire se ab hoc saeculo imperative quidem est religionis, elicitive autem temperantiae vel alicuius huiusmodi virtutis.Reply Obj. 1: Religion has two kinds of acts. Some are its proper and immediate acts, which it elicits, and by which man is directed to God alone, for instance, sacrifice, adoration and the like. But it has other acts, which it produces through the medium of the virtues which it commands, directing them to the honor of God, because the virtue which is concerned with the end, commands the virtues which are concerned with the means. Accordingly to visit the fatherless and widows in their tribulation is an act of religion as commanding, and an act of mercy as eliciting; and to keep oneself unspotted from this world is an act of religion as commanding, but of temperance or of some similar virtue as eliciting.Ad secundum dicendum quod religio refertur ad ea quae exhibentur cognationibus humanis, extenso nomine religionis, non autem secundum quod religio proprie dicitur. Unde Augustinus, parum ante verba inducta, praemittit, religio distinctius non quemlibet, sed Dei cultum significare videtur.Reply Obj. 2: Religion is referred to those things one exhibits to one’s human kindred, if we take the term religion in a broad sense, but not if we take it in its proper sense. Hence, shortly before the passage quoted, Augustine says: In a stricter sense religion seems to denote, not any kind of worship, but the worship of God.Ad tertium dicendum quod cum servus dicatur ad dominum, necesse est quod ubi est propria et specialis ratio dominii, ibi sit specialis et propria ratio servitutis. Manifestum est autem quod dominium convenit Deo secundum propriam et singularem quandam rationem, quia scilicet ipse omnia fecit, et quia summum in omnibus rebus obtinet principatum. Et ideo specialis ratio servitutis ei debetur. Et talis servitus nomine latriae designatur apud Graecos. Et ideo ad religionem proprie pertinet.Reply Obj. 3: Since servant implies relation to a lord, wherever there is a special kind of lordship there must needs be a special kind of service. Now it is evident that lordship belongs to God in a special and singular way, because He made all things, and has supreme dominion over all. Consequently a special kind of service is due to Him, which is known as latria in Greek; and therefore it belongs to religion.Ad quartum dicendum quod colere dicimus homines quos honorificatione, vel recordatione, vel praesentia frequentamus. Et etiam aliqua quae nobis subiecta sunt coli a nobis dicuntur, sicut agricolae dicuntur ex eo quod colunt agros, et incolae dicuntur ex eo quod colunt loca quae inhabitant. Quia tamen specialis honor debetur Deo, tanquam primo omnium principio, etiam specialis ratio cultus ei debetur, quae Graeco nomine vocatur eusebia vel theosebia, ut patet per Augustinum, X de Civ. Dei.Reply Obj. 4: We are said to worship those whom we honor, and to cultivate a man’s memory or presence: we even speak of cultivating things that are beneath us, thus a farmer (agricola) is one who cultivates the land, and an inhabitant (incola) is one who cultivates the place where he dwells. Since, however, special honor is due to God as the first principle of all things, to Him also is due a special kind of worship, which in Greek is Eusebeia or Theosebeia, as Augustine states (De Civ. Dei x, 1).Ad quintum dicendum quod quamvis religiosi dici possint communiter omnes qui Deum colunt, specialiter tamen religiosi dicuntur qui totam vitam suam divino cultui dedicant, a mundanis negotiis se abstrahentes. Sicut etiam contemplativi dicuntur non qui contemplantur, sed qui contemplationi totam vitam suam deputant. Huiusmodi autem non se subiiciunt homini propter hominem sed propter Deum, secundum illud apostoli, Gal. IV, sicut Angelum Dei excepistis me, sicut Christum Iesum.Reply Obj. 5: Although the name religious may be given to all in general who worship God, yet in a special way religious are those who consecrate their whole life to the Divine worship, by withdrawing from human affairs. Thus also the term contemplative is applied, not to those who contemplate, but to those who give up their whole lives to contemplation. Such men subject themselves to man, not for man’s sake but for God’s sake, according to the word of the Apostle (Gal 4:14), You . . . received me as an angel of God, even as Christ Jesus.Articulus 2Article 2Utrum religio sit virtusWhether religion is a virtue?Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod religio non sit virtus. Ad religionem enim pertinere videtur Deo reverentiam exhibere. Sed revereri est actus timoris, qui est donum, ut ex supradictis patet. Ergo religio non est virtus, sed donum.Objection 1: It would seem that religion is not a virtue. Seemingly it belongs to religion to pay reverence to God. But reverence is an act of fear which is a gift, as stated above (Q. 19, A. 9). Therefore religion is not a virtue but a gift.Praeterea, omnis virtus in libera voluntate consistit, unde dicitur habitus electivus, vel voluntarius. Sed sicut dictum est, ad religionem pertinet latria, quae servitutem quandam importat. Ergo religio non est virtus.Obj. 2: Further, every virtue is a free exercise of the will, wherefore it is described as an elective or voluntary habit. Now, as stated above (A. 1, ad 3) latria belongs to religion, and latria denotes a kind of servitude. Therefore religion is not a virtue.Praeterea, sicut dicitur in II Ethic., aptitudo virtutum inest nobis a natura, unde ea quae pertinent ad virtutes sunt de dictamine rationis naturalis. Sed ad religionem pertinet caeremoniam divinae naturae afferre. Caeremonialia autem, ut supra dictum est, non sunt de dictamine rationis naturalis. Ergo religio non est virtus.Obj. 3: Further, according to Ethic. ii, 1, aptitude for virtue is in us by nature, wherefore things pertaining to virtue belong to the dictate of natural reason. Now, it belongs to religion to offer ceremonial worship to the Godhead, and ceremonial matters, as stated above (I-II, Q. 99, A. 3, ad 2; Q. 101), do not belong to the dictate of natural reason. Therefore religion is not a virtue.Sed contra est quia connumeratur aliis virtutibus, ut ex praemissis patet.On the contrary, It is enumerated with the other virtues, as appears from what has been said above (Q. 80).Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut supra dictum est, virtus est quae bonum facit habentem et opus eius bonum reddit. Et ideo necesse est dicere omnem actum bonum ad virtutem pertinere. Manifestum est autem quod reddere debitum alicui habet rationem boni, quia per hoc quod aliquis alteri debitum reddit, etiam constituitur in proportione convenienti respectu ipsius, quasi convenienter ordinatus ad ipsum; ordo autem ad rationem boni pertinet, sicut et modus et species, ut per Augustinum patet, in libro de natura boni. Cum igitur ad religionem pertineat reddere honorem debitum alicui, scilicet Deo, manifestum est quod religio virtus est.I answer that, As stated above (Q. 58, A. 3; I-II, Q. 55, AA. 3, 4) a virtue is that which makes its possessor good, and his act good likewise, wherefore we must needs say that every good act belongs to a virtue. Now it is evident that to render anyone his due has the aspect of good, since by rendering a person his due, one becomes suitably proportioned to him, through being ordered to him in a becoming manner. But order comes under the aspect of good, just as mode and species, according to Augustine (De Nat. Boni iii). Since then it belongs to religion to pay due honor to someone, namely, to God, it is evident that religion is a virtue.Ad primum ergo dicendum quod revereri Deum est actus doni timoris. Ad religionem autem pertinet facere aliqua propter divinam reverentiam. Unde non sequitur quod religio sit idem quod donum timoris, sed quod ordinetur ad ipsum sicut ad aliquid principalius. Sunt enim dona principaliora virtutibus moralibus, ut supra habitum est.Reply Obj. 1: To pay reverence to God is an act of the gift of fear. Now it belongs to religion to do certain things through reverence for God. Hence it follows, not that religion is the same as the gift of fear, but that it is referred thereto as to something more excellent; for the gifts are more excellent than the moral virtues, as stated above (Q. 9, A. 1, ad 3; I-II, Q. 68, A. 8).