Ad quartum dicendum quod licet uti malo propter bonum, sicut et Deus utitur, non tamen licet aliquem ad malum inducere. Unde licet eius qui paratus est per falsos deos iurare, iuramentum recipere, non tamen licet eum inducere ad hoc quod per falsos deos iuret. Alia tamen ratio esse videtur in eo qui per verum Deum falsum iurat. Quia in tali iuramento deest bonum fidei, qua utitur aliquis in iuramento illius qui verum per falsos deos iurat, ut Augustinus dicit, ad Publicolam. Unde in iuramento eius qui falsum per verum Deum iurat, non videtur esse aliquod bonum quo uti liceat.Reply Obj. 4: It is lawful to make use of an evil for the sake of good, as God does, but it is not lawful to lead anyone to do evil. Consequently it is lawful to accept the oath of one who is ready to swear by false gods, but it is not lawful to induce him to swear by false gods. Yet it seems to be different in the case of one who swears falsely by the true God, because an oath of this kind lacks the good of faith, which a man makes use of in the oath of one who swears truly by false gods, as Augustine says (ad Public. Ep. xlvii). Hence when a man swears falsely by the true God his oath seems to lack any good that one may use lawfully.Quaestio 99Question 99De sacrilegioSacrilegeDeinde considerandum est de vitiis ad irreligiositatem pertinentibus quibus rebus sacris irreverentia exhibetur. Et primo, de sacrilegio; secundo, de simonia.We must now consider the vices which pertain to irreligion, whereby sacred things are treated with irreverence. We shall consider (1) Sacrilege; (2) Simony.Circa primum quaeruntur quatuor.Under the first head there are four points of inquiry:Primo, quid sit sacrilegium.(1) What is sacrilege?Secundo, utrum sit speciale peccatum.(2) Whether it is a special sin?Tertio, de speciebus sacrilegii.(3) Of the species of sacrilege;Quarto, de poena sacrilegii.(4) Of the punishment of sacrilege.Articulus 1Article 1Utrum sacrilegium sit sacrae rei violatioWhether sacrilege is the violation of a sacred thing?Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod sacrilegium non sit sacrae rei violatio. Dicitur enim XVII, qu. IV, committunt sacrilegium qui de principis iudicio disputant, dubitantes an is dignus sit honore quem princeps elegerit. Sed hoc ad nullam rem sacram pertinere videtur. Ergo sacrilegium non importat sacrae rei violationem.Objection 1: It would seem that sacrilege is not the violation of a sacred thing. It is stated (XVII, qu. iv ): They are guilty of sacrilege who disagree about the sovereign’s decision, and doubt whether the person chosen by the sovereign be worthy of honor. Now this seems to have no connection with anything sacred. Therefore sacrilege does not denote the violation of something sacred.Praeterea, ibidem subditur quod si quis permiserit Iudaeos officia publica exercere, velut in sacrilegum excommunicatio proferatur. Sed officia publica non videntur ad aliquod sacrum pertinere. Ergo videtur quod sacrilegium non importet violationem alicuius sacri.Obj. 2: Further, it is stated further on that if any man shall allow the Jews to hold public offices, he must be excommunicated as being guilty of sacrilege. Yet public offices have nothing to do with anything sacred. Therefore it seems that sacrilege does not denote the violation of a sacred thing.Praeterea, maior est virtus Dei quam virtus hominis. Sed res sacrae a Deo sanctitatem obtinent. Non ergo possunt per hominem violari. Et ita sacrilegium non videtur esse sacrae rei violatio.Obj. 3: Further, God’s power is greater than man’s. Now sacred things receive their sacred character from God. Therefore they cannot be violated by man: and so a sacrilege would not seem to be the violation of a sacred thing.Sed contra est quod Isidorus dicit, in libro Etymol., quod sacrilegus dicitur ab eo quod sacra legit, idest furatur.On the contrary, Isidore says (Etym. x) that a man is said to be sacrilegious because he selects, i.e., steals, sacred things.Respondeo dicendum quod, sicut ex praedictis patet, sacrum dicitur aliquid ex eo quod ad divinum cultum ordinatur. Sicut autem ex eo quod aliquid ordinatur in finem bonum, sortitur rationem boni; ita etiam ex hoc quod aliquid deputatur ad cultum Dei, efficitur quoddam divinum, et sic ei quaedam reverentia debetur quae refertur in Deum. Et ideo omne illud quod ad irreverentiam rerum sacrarum pertinet, ad iniuriam Dei pertinet, et habet sacrilegii rationem.I answer that, As stated above (Q. 81, A. 5; I-II, Q. 101, A. 4), a thing is called sacred through being deputed to the divine worship. Now just as a thing acquires an aspect of good through being deputed to a good end, so does a thing assume a divine character through being deputed to the divine worship, and thus a certain reverence is due to it, which reverence is referred to God. Therefore whatever pertains to irreverence for sacred things is an injury to God, and comes under the head of sacrilege.Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, secundum philosophum, in I Ethic., bonum commune gentis est quoddam divinum. Et ideo antiquitus rectores reipublicae divini vocabantur, quasi divinae providentiae ministri, secundum illud Sap. VI, cum essetis ministri regni illius, non recte iudicastis. Et sic, per quandam nominis extensionem, illud quod pertinet ad reverentiam principis, scilicet disputare de eius iudicio, an oporteat ipsum sequi, secundum quandam similitudinem sacrilegium dicitur.Reply Obj. 1: According to the Philosopher (Ethic. i, 2) the common good of the nation is a divine thing, wherefore in olden times the rulers of a commonwealth were called divines, as being the ministers of divine providence, according to Wis. 6:5, Being ministers of His kingdom, you have not judged rightly. Hence by an extension of the term, whatever savors of irreverence for the sovereign, such as disputing his judgment, and questioning whether one ought to follow it, is called sacrilege by a kind of likeness.Ad secundum dicendum quod populus Christianus per fidem et sacramenta Christi sanctificatus est, secundum illud I ad Cor. VI, sed abluti estis, sed sanctificati estis. Et ideo I Pet. II dicitur, vos estis genus electum, regale sacerdotium, gens sancta, populus acquisitionis. Et ita id quod fit in iniuriam populi Christiani, scilicet quod infideles ei praeficiantur, pertinet ad irreverentiam sacrae rei. Unde rationabiliter sacrilegium dicitur.Reply Obj. 2: Christians are sanctified by faith and the sacraments of Christ, according to 1 Cor. 6:11, But you are washed, but you are sanctified. Wherefore it is written (1 Pet 2:9): You are a chosen generation, a kingly priesthood, a holy nation, a purchased people. Therefore any injury inflicted on the Christian people, for instance that unbelievers should be put in authority over it, is an irreverence for a sacred thing, and is reasonably called a sacrilege.Ad tertium dicendum quod violatio hic large dicitur quaecumque irreverentia vel exhonoratio. Sicut autem honor est in honorante, non autem in eo qui honoratur, ut dicitur in I Ethic.; ita etiam irreverentia est in eo qui irreverenter se habet, quamvis etiam nihil noceat ei cui irreverentiam exhibet. Quantum ergo est in ipso, rem sacram violat, licet illa non violetur.Reply Obj. 3: Violation here means any kind of irreverence or dishonor. Now as honor is in the person who honors and not in the one who is honored (Ethic. i, 5), so again irreverence is in the person who behaves irreverently even though he do no harm to the object of his irreverence. Hence, so far he is concerned, he violates the sacred thing, though the latter be not violated in itself.Articulus 2Article 2Utrum sacrilegium sit speciale peccatumWhether sacrilege is a special sin?Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod sacrilegium non sit speciale peccatum. Dicitur enim XVII, qu. IV, committunt sacrilegium qui in divinae legis sanctitatem aut nesciendo committunt, aut negligendo violant et offendunt. Sed hoc fit per omne peccatum, nam peccatum est dictum vel factum vel concupitum contra legem Dei, ut Augustinus dicit, XXII contra Faustum. Ergo sacrilegium est generale peccatum.Objection 1: It would seem that sacrilege is not a special sin. It is stated (XVII, qu. iv) They are guilty of sacrilege who through ignorance sin against the sanctity of the law, violate and defile it by their negligence. But this is done in every sin, because sin is a word, deed or desire contrary to the law of God, according to Augustine (Contra Faust. xxi, 27). Therefore sacrilege is a general sin.Praeterea, nullum speciale peccatum continetur sub diversis generibus peccatorum. Sed sacrilegium sub diversis generibus peccatorum continetur, puta sub homicidio, si quis sacerdotem occidat; sub luxuria, si quis virginem sacratam violet, vel quamcumque mulierem in loco sacro; sub furto, si quis rem sacram furatus fuerit. Ergo sacrilegium non est speciale peccatum.Obj. 2: Further, no special sin is comprised under different kinds of sin. Now sacrilege is comprised under different kinds of sin, for instance under murder, if one kill a priest under lust, as the violation of a consecrate virgin, or of any woman in a sacred place under theft, if one steal a sacred thing. Therefore sacrilege is not a special sin.Praeterea, omne speciale peccatum invenitur distinctum ab aliis peccatis, ut de iniustitia speciali philosophus dicit, in V Ethic. Sed sacrilegium non videtur inveniri absque aliis peccatis, sed quandoque coniungitur furto, quandoque homicidio, ut dictum est. Non ergo est speciale peccatum.Obj. 3: Further, every special sin is to found apart from other sins as the Philosopher states, in speaking of special justice (Ethic. v, 11). But, seemingly, sacrilege is not to be found apart from other sins; for it is sometimes united to theft, sometimes to murder, as stated in the preceding objection. Therefore it is not a special sin.Sed contra est quod opponitur speciali virtuti, scilicet religioni, ad quam pertinet revereri Deum et divina. Ergo sacrilegium est speciale peccatum.On the contrary, That which is opposed to a special virtue is a special sin. But sacrilege is opposed to a special virtue, namely religion, to which it belongs to reverence God and divine things. Therefore sacrilege is a special sin.Respondeo dicendum quod ubicumque invenitur specialis ratio deformitatis, ibi necesse est quod sit speciale peccatum, quia species cuiuslibet rei praecipue attenditur secundum formalem rationem ipsius, non autem secundum materiam vel subiectum. In sacrilegio autem invenitur specialis ratio deformitatis, quia scilicet violatur res sacra per aliquam irreverentiam. Et ideo est speciale peccatum.I answer that, Wherever we find a special aspect of deformity, there must needs be a special sin; because the species of a thing is derived chiefly from its formal aspect, and not from its matter or subject. Now in sacrilege we find a special aspect of deformity, namely, the violation of a sacred thing by treating it irreverently. Hence it is a special sin.Et opponitur religioni. Sicut enim Damascenus dicit, in IV Lib., purpura, regale indumentum facta, honoratur et glorificatur, et si quis hanc perforaverit, morte damnatur, quasi contra regem agens. Ita etiam si quis rem sacram violat, ex hoc ipso contra Dei reverentiam agit, et sic per irreligiositatem peccat.Moreover, it is opposed to religion. For according to Damascene (De Fide Orth. iv, 3), When the purple has been made into a royal robe, we pay it honor and homage, and if anyone dishonor it he is condemned to death, as acting against the king: and in the same way if a man violate a sacred thing, by so doing his behavior is contrary to the reverence due to God and consequently he is guilty of irreligion.Ad primum ergo dicendum quod illi dicuntur in divinae legis sanctitatem committere qui legem Dei impugnant, sicut haeretici et blasphemi. Qui ex hoc quod Deo non credunt, incurrunt infidelitatis peccatum, ex hoc vero quod divinae legis verba pervertunt, sacrilegium incurrunt.Reply Obj. 1: Those are said to sin against the sanctity of the divine law who assail God’s law, as heretics and blasphemers do. These are guilty of unbelief, through not believing in God; and of sacrilege, through perverting the words of the divine law.Ad secundum dicendum quod nihil prohibet unam specialem rationem peccati in pluribus peccatorum generibus inveniri, secundum quod diversa peccata ad finem unius peccati ordinantur, prout etiam in virtutibus apparet quibus imperatur ab una virtute. Et hoc modo quocumque genere peccati aliquis faciat contra reverentiam debitam sacris rebus, sacrilegium formaliter committit, licet materialiter sint ibi diversa genera peccatorum.Reply Obj. 2: Nothing prevents one specific kind of sin being found in various generic kinds of sin, inasmuch as various sins are directed to the end of one sin, just as happens in the case of virtues commanded by one virtue. In this way, by whatever kind of sin a man acts counter to reverence due to sacred things, he commits a sacrilege formally; although his act contains various kinds of sin materially.Ad tertium dicendum quod sacrilegium interdum invenitur separatum ab aliis peccatis, eo quod actus non habet aliam deformitatem nisi quia res sacra violatur, puta si aliquis iudex rapiat aliquem de loco sacro, quem in aliis locis licite capere posset.Reply Obj. 3: Sacrilege is sometimes found apart from other sins, through its act having no other deformity than the violation of a sacred thing: for instance, if a judge were to take a person from a sacred place, for he might lawfully have taken him from elsewhere.Articulus 3Article 3Utrum species sacrilegii distinguantur secundum res sacrasWhether the species of sacrilege are distinguished according to the sacred things?Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod species sacrilegii non distinguantur secundum res sacras. Materialis enim diversitas non diversificat speciem, si sit eadem ratio formalis. Sed in violatione quarumcumque rerum sacrarum videtur esse eadem ratio formalis peccati, et quod non sit diversitas nisi materialis. Ergo per hoc non diversificantur sacrilegii species.Objection 1: It would seem that the species of sacrilege are not distinguished according to the sacred things. Material diversity does not differentiate species, if the formal aspect remains the same. Now there would seem to be the same formal aspect of sin in all violations of sacred things, and that the only difference is one of matter. Therefore the species of sacrilege are not distinguished thereby.Praeterea, non videtur esse possibile quod aliqua sint eiusdem speciei, et tamen specie differant. Sed homicidium et furtum et illicitus concubitus sunt diversae species peccatorum. Ergo non possunt convenire in una specie sacrilegii. Et ita videtur quod sacrilegii species distinguantur secundum diversas species aliorum peccatorum, et non secundum diversitatem rerum sacrarum.Obj. 2: Further, it does not seem possible that things belonging to the same species should at the same time differ specifically. Now murder, theft, and unlawful intercourse, are different species of sin. Therefore they cannot belong to the one same species of sacrilege: and consequently it seems that the species of sacrilege are distinguished in accordance with the species of other sins, and not according to the various sacred things.Praeterea, inter res sacras connumerantur etiam personae sacrae. Si ergo una species sacrilegii esset qua violatur persona sacra, sequeretur quod omne peccatum quod persona sacra committit esset sacrilegium, quia per quodlibet peccatum violatur persona peccantis. Non ergo species sacrilegii accipiuntur secundum res sacras.Obj. 3: Further, among sacred things sacred persons are reckoned. If, therefore, one species of sacrilege arises from the violation of a sacred person, it would follow that every sin committed by a sacred person is a sacrilege, since every sin violates the person of the sinner. Therefore the species of sacrilege are not reckoned according to the sacred things.Sed contra est quod actus et habitus distinguuntur secundum obiecta. Sed res sacra est obiectum sacrilegii. Ut dictum est. Ergo species sacrilegii distinguuntur secundum differentiam rerum sacrarum.On the contrary, Acts and habits are distinguished by their objects. Now the sacred thing is the object of sacrilege, as stated above (A. 1). Therefore the species of sacrilege are distinguished according to the sacred things.