Sed contra est quod dominus dicit, Ioan. VI, panis quem ego dabo, caro mea est pro mundi vita. Sed vita spiritualis est per gratiam. Ergo per hoc sacramentum gratia confertur.
On the contrary, Our Lord says (John 6:52): The bread which I will give, is My flesh for the life of the world. But the spiritual life is the effect of grace. Therefore grace is bestowed through this sacrament.
Respondeo dicendum quod effectus huius sacramenti debet considerari, primo quidem et principaliter, ex eo quod in hoc sacramento continetur, quod est Christus. Qui sicut, in mundum visibiliter veniens, contulit mundo vitam gratiae, secundum illud Ioan. I, gratia et veritas per Iesum Christum facta est; ita, in hominem sacramentaliter veniens, vitam gratiae operatur, secundum illud Ioan. VI, qui manducat me, vivit propter me. Unde et Cyrillus dicit, vivificativum Dei verbum, uniens seipsum propriae carni, fecit ipsam vivificativam. Decebat ergo eum nostris quodammodo uniri corporibus per sacram eius carnem et pretiosum sanguinem, quae accipimus in benedictione vivificativa in pane et vino.
I answer that, The effect of this sacrament ought to be considered, first of all and principally, from what is contained in this sacrament, which is Christ; Who, just as by coming into the world, He visibly bestowed the life of grace upon the world, according to John 1:17: Grace and truth came by Jesus Christ, so also, by coming sacramentally into man causes the life of grace, according to John 6:58: He that eateth Me, the same also shall live by Me. Hence Cyril says on Luke 22:19: God’s life-giving Word by uniting Himself with His own flesh, made it to be productive of life. For it was becoming that He should be united somehow with bodies through His sacred flesh and precious blood, which we receive in a life-giving blessing in the bread and wine.
Secundo consideratur ex eo quod per hoc sacramentum repraesentatur, quod est passio Christi, sicut supra dictum est. Et ideo effectum quem passio Christi fecit in mundo, hoc sacramentum facit in homine. Unde super illud Ioan. XIX, continuo exivit sanguis et aqua, dicit Chrysostomus, quia hinc suscipiunt principium sacra mysteria, cum accesseris ad tremendum calicem, vel ab ipsa bibiturus Christi costa, ita accedas. Unde et ipse dominus dicit, Matth. XXVI, hic est sanguis meus, qui pro vobis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
Second, it is considered on the part of what is represented by this sacrament, which is Christ’s Passion, as stated above (Q. 74, A. 1; Q. 76, A. 2, ad 1). And therefore this sacrament works in man the effect which Christ’s Passion wrought in the world. Hence, Chrysostom says on the words, Immediately there came out blood and water (John 19:34): Since the sacred mysteries derive their origin from thence, when you draw nigh to the awe-inspiring chalice, so approach as if you were going to drink from Christ’s own side. Hence our Lord Himself says (Matt 26:28): This is My blood . . . which shall be shed for many unto the remission of sins.
Tertio consideratur effectus huius sacramenti ex modo quo traditur hoc sacramentum, quod traditur per modum cibi et potus. Et ideo omnem effectum quem cibus et potus materialis facit quantum ad vitam corporalem, quod scilicet sustentat, auget, reparat et delectat, hoc totum facit hoc sacramentum quantum ad vitam spiritualem. Unde Ambrosius dicit, in libro de sacramentis, iste panis est vitae aeternae, qui animae nostrae substantiam fulcit. Et Chrysostomus dicit, supra Ioan., praestat se nobis desiderantibus et palpare et comedere et amplecti. Unde et ipse dominus dicit, Ioan. VI, caro mea vere est cibus, et sanguis meus vere est potus.
Third, the effect of this sacrament is considered from the way in which this sacrament is given; for it is given by way of food and drink. And therefore this sacrament does for the spiritual life all that material food does for the bodily life, namely, by sustaining, giving increase, restoring, and giving delight. Accordingly, Ambrose says (De Sacram. v): This is the bread of everlasting life, which supports the substance of our soul. And Chrysostom says (Hom. xlvi in Joan.): When we desire it, He lets us feel Him, and eat Him, and embrace Him. And hence our Lord says (John 6:56): My flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed.
Quarto consideratur effectus huius sacramenti ex speciebus in quibus hoc traditur sacramentum. Unde et Augustinus, ibidem, dicit, dominus noster corpus et sanguinem suum in eis rebus commendavit quae ad unum aliquod rediguntur ex multis, namque aliud, scilicet panis, ex multis granis in unum constat, aliud, scilicet vinum, ex multis racemis confluit. Et ideo ipse alibi dicit, super Ioan., o sacramentum pietatis, o signum unitatis, o vinculum caritatis.
Fourth, the effect of this sacrament is considered from the species under which it is given. Hence Augustine says (Tract. xxvi in Joan.): Our Lord betokened His body and blood in things which out of many units are made into some one whole: for out of many grains is one thing made, viz. bread; and many grapes flow into one thing, viz. wine. And therefore he observes elsewhere (Tract. xxvi in Joan.): O sacrament of piety, O sign of unity, O bond of charity!
Et quia Christus et eius passio est causa gratiae, et spiritualis refectio et caritas sine gratia esse non potest, ex omnibus praemissis manifestum est quod hoc sacramentum gratiam confert.
And since Christ and His Passion are the cause of grace, and since spiritual refreshment, and charity cannot be without grace, it is clear from all that has been set forth that this sacrament bestows grace.
Ad primum ergo dicendum quod hoc sacramentum ex seipso virtutem habet gratiam conferendi, nec aliquis habet gratiam ante susceptionem huius sacramenti nisi ex aliquali voto ipsius, vel per seipsum, sicut adulti, vel voto Ecclesiae, sicut parvuli, sicut supra dictum est. Unde ex efficacia virtutis ipsius est quod etiam ex voto ipsius aliquis gratiam consequatur, per quam spiritualiter vivificetur. Restat igitur ut, cum ipsum sacramentum realiter sumitur, gratia augeatur, et vita spiritualis perficiatur. Aliter tamen quam per sacramentum confirmationis, in quo augetur et perficitur gratia ad persistendum contra exteriores impugnationes inimicorum Christi. Per hoc autem sacramentum augetur gratia, et perficitur spiritualis vita, ad hoc quod homo in seipso perfectus existat per coniunctionem ad Deum.
Reply Obj. 1: This sacrament has of itself the power of bestowing grace; nor does anyone possess grace before receiving this sacrament except from some desire thereof; from his own desire, as in the case of the adult, or from the Church’s desire in the case of children, as stated above (Q. 73, A. 3). Hence it is due to the efficacy of its power, that even from desire thereof a man procures grace whereby he is enabled to lead the spiritual life. It remains, then, that when the sacrament itself is really received, grace is increased, and the spiritual life perfected: yet in different fashion from the sacrament of Confirmation, in which grace is increased and perfected for resisting the outward assaults of Christ’s enemies. But by this sacrament grace receives increase, and the spiritual life is perfected, so that man may stand perfect in himself by union with God.
Ad secundum dicendum quod hoc sacramentum confert gratiam spiritualiter, cum virtute caritatis. Unde Damascenus comparat hoc sacramentum carboni quem Isaias vidit, Isaiae VI, carbo enim lignum simplex non est, sed unitum igni, ita et panis communionis non simplex panis est, sed unitus divinitati. Sicut autem Gregorius dicit, in homilia Pentecostes, amor Dei non est otiosus, magna enim operatur, si est. Et ideo per hoc sacramentum, quantum est ex sui virtute, non solum habitus gratiae et virtutis confertur, sed etiam excitatur in actum, secundum illud II Cor. V, caritas Christi urget nos. Et inde est quod ex virtute huius sacramenti anima spiritualiter reficitur, per hoc quod anima delectatur, et quodammodo inebriatur dulcedine bonitatis divinae, secundum illud Cant. V, comedite, amici, et bibite; et inebriamini, carissimi.
Reply Obj. 2: This sacrament confers grace spiritually together with the virtue of charity. Hence Damascene (De Fide Orth. iv) compares this sacrament to the burning coal which Isaias saw (Isa 6:6): For a live ember is not simply wood, but wood united to fire; so also the bread of communion is not simple bread but bread united with the Godhead. But as Gregory observes in a Homily for Pentecost, God’s love is never idle; for, wherever it is it does great works. And consequently through this sacrament, as far as its power is concerned, not only is the habit of grace and of virtue bestowed, but it is furthermore aroused to act, according to 2 Cor. 5:14: The charity of Christ presseth us. Hence it is that the soul is spiritually nourished through the power of this sacrament, by being spiritually gladdened, and as it were inebriated with the sweetness of the Divine goodness, according to Cant 5:1: Eat, O friends, and drink, and be inebriated, my dearly beloved.
Ad tertium dicendum quod, quia sacramenta operantur secundum similitudinem per quam significant, ideo per quandam assimilationem dicitur quod in hoc sacramento corpus offertur pro salute corporis, et sanguis pro salute animae, quamvis utrumque ad salutem utriusque operetur, cum sub utroque totus sit Christus, ut supra dictum est. Et licet corpus non sit immediatum subiectum gratiae, ex anima tamen redundat effectus gratiae ad corpus, dum in praesenti membra nostra exhibemus arma iustitiae Deo, ut habetur Rom. VI; et in futuro corpus nostrum sortietur incorruptionem et gloriam animae.
Reply Obj. 3: Because the sacraments operate according to the similitude by which they signify, therefore by way of assimilation it is said that in this sacrament the body is offered for the salvation of the body, and the blood for the salvation of the soul, although each works for the salvation of both, since the entire Christ is under each, as stated above (Q. 76, A. 2). And although the body is not the immediate subject of grace, still the effect of grace flows into the body while in the present life we present our members as instruments of justice unto God (Rom 6:13), and in the life to come our body will share in the incorruption and the glory of the soul.
Utrum effectus huius sacramenti sit adeptio gloriae
Whether the attaining of glory is an effect of this sacrament?
Ad secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod effectus huius sacramenti non sit adeptio gloriae. Effectus enim proportionatur suae causae. Sed hoc sacramentum competit viatoribus, unde et viaticum dicitur. Cum igitur viatores nondum sint capaces gloriae, videtur quod hoc sacramentum non causet adeptionem gloriae.
Objection 1: It seems that the attaining of glory is not an effect of this sacrament. For an effect is proportioned to its cause. But this sacrament belongs to wayfarers (viatoribus), and hence it is termed Viaticum. Since, then, wayfarers are not yet capable of glory, it seems that this sacrament does not cause the attaining of glory.
Praeterea, posita causa sufficienti, ponitur effectus. Sed multi accipiunt hoc sacramentum qui nunquam pervenient ad gloriam, ut patet per Augustinum, XXI de Civ. Dei. Non ergo hoc sacramentum est causa adeptionis gloriae.
Obj. 2: Further, given sufficient cause, the effect follows. But many take this sacrament who will never come to glory, as Augustine declares (De Civ. Dei xxi). Consequently, this sacrament is not the cause of attaining unto glory.
Praeterea, maius non efficitur a minori, quia nihil agit ultra suam speciem. Sed minus est percipere Christum sub specie aliena, quod fit in hoc sacramento, quam frui eo in specie propria, quod pertinet ad gloriam. Ergo hoc sacramentum non causat adeptionem gloriae.
Obj. 3: Further, the greater is not brought about by the lesser, for nothing acts outside its species. But it is the lesser thing to receive Christ under a strange species, which happens in this sacrament, than to enjoy Him in His own species, which belongs to glory. Therefore this sacrament does not cause the attaining of glory.
Sed contra est quod dicitur Ioan. VI, si quis manducaverit ex hoc pane, vivet in aeternum. Sed vita aeterna est vita gloriae. Ergo effectus huius sacramenti est adeptio gloriae.
On the contrary, It is written (John 6:52): If any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever. But eternal life is the life of glory. Therefore the attaining of glory is an effect of this sacrament.
Respondeo dicendum quod in hoc sacramento potest considerari et id ex quo habet effectum, scilicet ipse Christus contentus, et passio eius repraesentata; et id per quod habet effectum, scilicet usus sacramenti et species eius.
I answer that, In this sacrament we may consider both that from which it derives its effect, namely, Christ contained in it, as also His Passion represented by it; and that through which it works its effect, namely, the use of the sacrament, and its species.
Et quantum ad utrumque competit huic sacramento quod causet adeptionem vitae aeternae. Nam ipse Christus per suam passionem aperuit nobis aditum vitae aeternae, secundum illud Heb. IX, novi testamenti mediator est, ut, morte intercedente, qui vocati sunt accipiant repromissionem aeternae hereditatis. Unde et in forma huius sacramenti dicitur, hic est calix sanguinis mei novi et aeterni testamenti.
Now as to both of these it belongs to this sacrament to cause the attaining of eternal life. Because it was by His Passion that Christ opened to us the approach to eternal life, according to Heb. 9:15: He is the Mediator of the New Testament; that by means of His death . . . they that are called may receive the promise of eternal inheritance. Accordingly in the form of this sacrament it is said: This is the chalice of My blood, of the New and Eternal Testament.
Similiter etiam refectio spiritualis cibi, et unitas significata per species panis et vini, habentur quidem in praesenti sed imperfecte, perfecte autem in statu gloriae. Unde Augustinus dicit, super illud Ioan. VI, caro mea vere est cibus, cum cibo et potu id appetant homines ut non esuriant neque sitiant, hoc veraciter non praestat nisi iste cibus et potus, qui eos a quibus sumitur immortales et incorruptibiles facit in societate sanctorum, ubi pax erit et unitas plena atque perfecta.
In like manner the refreshment of spiritual food and the unity denoted by the species of the bread and wine are to be had in the present life, although imperfectly, but perfectly in the state of glory. Hence Augustine says on the words, My flesh is meat indeed (John 6:56): Seeing that in meat and drink, men aim at this, that they hunger not nor thirst, this verily naught doth afford save only this meat and drink which maketh them who partake thereof to be immortal and incorruptible, in the fellowship of the saints, where shall be peace, and unity, full and perfect.
Ad primum ergo dicendum quod, sicut passio Christi, ex cuius virtute hoc sacramentum operatur, est quidem causa sufficiens gloriae, non tamen ita quod statim per ipsam introducamur in gloriam, sed oportet ut prius simul compatiamur, ut postea simul glorificemur, sicut dicitur Rom. VIII, ita hoc sacramentum non statim nos in gloriam introducit, sed dat nobis virtutem perveniendi ad gloriam. Et ideo viaticum dicitur. In cuius figuram, legitur III Reg. XIX, quod Elias comedit et bibit, et ambulavit in fortitudine cibi illius quadraginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus, usque ad montem Dei Horeb.
Reply Obj. 1: As Christ’s Passion, in virtue whereof this sacrament is accomplished, is indeed the sufficient cause of glory, yet not so that we are thereby forthwith admitted to glory, but we must first suffer with Him in order that we may also be glorified afterwards with Him (Rom 8:17), so this sacrament does not at once admit us to glory, but bestows on us the power of coming unto glory. And therefore it is called Viaticum, a figure whereof we read in 3 Kings 19:8: Elias ate and drank, and walked in the strength of that food forty days and forty nights unto the mount of God, Horeb.
Ad secundum dicendum quod, sicut passio Christi non habet suum effectum in his qui se ad eam non habent ut debent, ita et per hoc sacramentum non adipiscuntur gloriam qui indecenter ipsum suscipiunt. Unde Augustinus dicit, super Ioan., exponens illa verba, aliud est sacramentum, aliud virtus sacramenti. Multi de altari accipiunt, et accipiendo moriuntur. Panem ergo caelestem spiritualiter manducate, innocentiam ad altare apportate. Unde non est mirum si illi qui innocentiam non servant, effectum huius sacramenti non consequuntur.
Reply Obj. 2: Just as Christ’s Passion has not its effect in them who are not disposed towards it as they should be, so also they do not come to glory through this sacrament who receive it unworthily. Hence Augustine (Tract. xxvi in Joan.), expounding the same passage, observes: The sacrament is one thing, the power of the sacrament another. Many receive it from the altar . . . and by receiving . . . die . . . Eat, then, spiritually the heavenly bread, bring innocence to the altar. It is no wonder, then, if those who do not keep innocence, do not secure the effect of this sacrament.
Ad tertium dicendum quod hoc quod Christus sub aliena specie sumitur, pertinet ad rationem sacramenti, quod instrumentaliter agit. Nihil autem prohibet causam instrumentalem producere potiorem effectum, ut ex supra dictis patet.
Reply Obj. 3: That Christ is received under another species belongs to the nature of a sacrament, which acts instrumentally. But there is nothing to prevent an instrumental cause from producing a more mighty effect, as is evident from what was said above (Q. 77, A. 3, ad 3).
Utrum effectus huius sacramenti sit remissio peccati mortalis
Whether the forgiveness of mortal sin is an effect of this sacrament?
Ad tertium sic proceditur. Videtur quod effectus huius sacramenti sit remissio peccati mortalis. Dicitur enim in quadam collecta, sit hoc sacramentum ablutio scelerum. Sed scelera dicuntur peccata mortalia. Ergo per hoc sacramentum peccata mortalia abluuntur.
Objection 1: It seems that the forgiveness of mortal sin is an effect of this sacrament. For it is said in one of the Collects (Postcommunion, Pro vivis et defunctis): May this sacrament be a cleansing from crimes. But mortal sins are called crimes. Therefore mortal sins are blotted out by this sacrament.
Praeterea, hoc sacramentum agit in virtute passionis Christi, sicut et Baptismus. Sed per Baptismum dimittuntur peccata mortalia, ut supra dictum est. Ergo et per hoc sacramentum, praesertim cum in forma huius sacramenti dicatur, qui pro multis effundetur in remissionem peccatorum.
Obj. 2: Further, this sacrament, like Baptism, works by the power of Christ’s Passion. But mortal sins are forgiven by Baptism, as stated above (Q. 69, A. 1). Therefore they are forgiven likewise by this sacrament, especially since in the form of this sacrament it is said: Which shall be shed for many unto the forgiveness of sins.
Praeterea, per hoc sacramentum gratia confertur, ut dictum est. Sed per gratiam iustificatur homo a peccatis mortalibus, secundum illud Rom. III, iustificati gratis per gratiam ipsius. Ergo per hoc sacramentum remittuntur peccata mortalia.
Obj. 3: Further, grace is bestowed through this sacrament, as stated above (A. 1). But by grace a man is justified from mortal sins, according to Rom. 3:24: Being justified freely by His grace. Therefore mortal sins are forgiven by this sacrament.
Sed contra est quod dicitur I Cor. XI, qui manducat et bibit indigne, iudicium sibi manducat et bibit. Dicit autem Glossa ibidem quod ille manducat et bibit indigne qui in crimine est, vel irreverenter tractat, et talis manducat et bibit sibi iudicium, idest damnationem. Ergo ille qui est in peccato mortali, per hoc quod accipit hoc sacramentum, magis accumulat sibi peccatum, quam remissionem sui peccati consequatur.
On the contrary, It is written (1 Cor 11:29): He that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment to himself: and a gloss of the same passage makes the following commentary: He eats and drinks unworthily who is in the state of sin, or who handles (the sacrament) irreverently; and such a one eats and drinks judgment, i.e., damnation, unto himself. Therefore, he that is in mortal sin, by taking the sacrament heaps sin upon sin, rather than obtains forgiveness of his sin.
Respondeo dicendum quod virtus huius sacramenti potest considerari dupliciter. Uno modo, secundum se. Et sic hoc sacramentum habet virtutem ad remittendum quaecumque peccata, ex passione Christi, quae est fons et causa remissionis peccatorum
I answer that, The power of this sacrament can be considered in two ways. First of all, in itself: and thus this sacrament has from Christ’s Passion the power of forgiving all sins, since the Passion is the fount and cause of the forgiveness of sins.
alio modo potest considerari per comparationem ad eum qui recipit hoc sacramentum, prout in eo invenitur vel non invenitur impedimentum percipiendi hoc sacramentum. Quicumque autem habet conscientiam peccati mortalis, habet in se impedimentum percipiendi effectum huius sacramenti, eo quod non est conveniens susceptor huius sacramenti, tum quia non vivit spiritualiter, et ita non debet spirituale nutrimentum suscipere, quod non est nisi viventis; tum quia non potest uniri Christo, quod fit per hoc sacramentum, dum est in affectu peccandi mortaliter. Et ideo, ut dicitur in libro de ecclesiasticis Dogmat., si mens in affectu peccandi est, gravatur magis Eucharistiae perceptione quam purificetur. Unde hoc sacramentum in eo qui ipsum percipit cum conscientia peccati mortalis, non operatur remissionem peccati.
Second, it can be considered in comparison with the recipient of the sacrament, in so far as there is, or is not, found in him an obstacle to receiving the fruit of this sacrament. Now whoever is conscious of mortal sin, has within him an obstacle to receiving the effect of this sacrament; since he is not a proper recipient of this sacrament, both because he is not alive spiritually, and so he ought not to eat the spiritual nourishment, since nourishment is confined to the living; and because he cannot be united with Christ, which is the effect of this sacrament, as long as he retains an attachment towards mortal sin. Consequently, as is said in the book De Eccles. Dogm.: If the soul leans towards sin, it is burdened rather than purified from partaking of the Eucharist. Hence, in him who is conscious of mortal sin, this sacrament does not cause the forgiveness of sin.
Potest tamen hoc sacramentum operari remissionem peccati dupliciter. Uno modo, non perceptum actu, sed voto, sicut cum quis primo iustificatur a peccato. Alio modo, etiam perceptum ab eo qui est in peccato mortali, cuius conscientiam et affectum non habet. Forte enim primo non fuit sufficienter contritus, sed, devote et reverenter accedens, consequetur per hoc sacramentum gratiam caritatis, quae contritionem perficiet et remissionem peccati.
Nevertheless this sacrament can effect the forgiveness of sin in two ways. First of all, by being received, not actually, but in desire; as when a man is first justified from sin. Second, when received by one in mortal sin of which he is not conscious, and for which he has no attachment; since possibly he was not sufficiently contrite at first, but by approaching this sacrament devoutly and reverently he obtains the grace of charity, which will perfect his contrition and bring forgiveness of sin.
Ad primum ergo dicendum quod petimus quod illud sacramentum nobis sit ablutio scelerum, vel eorum quorum conscientiam non habemus, secundum illud Psalmi, ab occultis meis munda me, domine; vel ut contritio in nobis perficiatur ad scelerum remissionem; vel etiam ut robur nobis detur contra scelera vitanda.
Reply Obj. 1: We ask that this sacrament may be the cleansing of crimes, or of those sins of which we are unconscious, according to Ps. 18:13: Lord, cleanse me from my hidden sins; or that our contrition may be perfected for the forgiveness of our sins; or that strength be bestowed on us to avoid sin.
Ad secundum dicendum quod Baptismus est spiritualis generatio, quae est mutatio de non esse spirituali in esse spirituale; et datur per modum ablutionis. Et ideo, quantum ad utrumque, non inconvenienter accedit ad Baptismum qui habet conscientiam peccati mortalis. Sed per hoc sacramentum homo sumit in se Christum per modum spiritualis nutrimenti, quod non competit mortuo in peccatis. Et ideo non est similis ratio.
Reply Obj. 2: Baptism is spiritual generation, which is a transition from spiritual non-being into spiritual being, and is given by way of ablution. Consequently, in both respects he who is conscious of mortal sin does not improperly approach Baptism. But in this sacrament man receives Christ within himself by way of spiritual nourishment, which is unbecoming to one that lies dead in his sins. Therefore the comparison does not hold good.
Ad tertium dicendum quod gratia est sufficiens causa remissionis peccati mortalis, non tamen actu remittit peccatum mortale nisi cum primo datur peccatori. Sic autem non datur in hoc sacramento. Unde ratio non sequitur.
Reply Obj. 3: Grace is the sufficient cause of the forgiveness of mortal sin; yet it does not forgive sin except when it is first bestowed on the sinner. But it is not given so in this sacrament. Hence the argument does not prove.
Utrum per hoc sacramentum remittantur peccata venialia
Whether venial sins are forgiven through this sacrament?
Ad quartum sic proceditur. Videtur quod per hoc sacramentum non remittantur peccata venialia. Hoc enim sacramentum, ut Augustinus dicit, super Ioan., est sacramentum caritatis. Sed venialia peccata non contrariantur caritati, ut in secunda parte habitum est. Cum ergo contrarium tollatur per suum contrarium, videtur quod peccata venialia per hoc sacramentum non remittantur.
Objection 1: It seems that venial sins are not forgiven by this sacrament, because this is the sacrament of charity, as Augustine says (Tract. xxvi in Joan.). But venial sins are not contrary to charity, as was shown in the Second Part (I-II, Q. 88, AA. 1, 2; II-II, Q. 24, A. 10). Therefore, since contrary is taken away by its contrary, it seems that venial sins are not forgiven by this sacrament.