Scriptum Super Sententiis I Commentary on Sentences I Prooemium Prologue Ecclesiasticus 24:40–42 Sirach 24:30–31 Ego sapientia effudi flumina: ego quasi trames aquae immensae defluvio; ego quasi fluvius diorix, et sicut aquaeductus exivi de paradiso. Dixi: rigabo hortum plantationum, et inebriabo pratus mei fructum. I, Wisdom, have poured out rivers; I flow down like a course of water without measure; I, like the channel of a river, and like an aqueduct, went out from Paradise. I have said, “I will water the garden of plants, and I will inebriate the fruit of my field.” Inter multas sententias quae a diversis de sapientia prodierunt, quid scilicet esset vera sapientia, unam singulariter firmam et veram apostolus protulit dicens Christum Dei virtutem et Dei sapientiam, qui etiam factus est nobis sapientia a Deo, 1 ad Corinth. 1, 24 et 30. Non autem hoc ita dictum est, quod solus filius sit sapientia, cum Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus sint una sapientia, sicut una essentia; sed quia sapientia quodam speciali modo Filio appropriatur, eo quod sapientiae opera cum propriis Filii plurimum convenire videntur. Per sapientiam enim Dei manifestantur divinorum abscondita, producuntur creaturarum opera, nec tantum producuntur, sed restaurantur et perficiuntur: illa, dico, perfectione qua unumquodque perfectum dicitur, prout proprium finem attingit. Quod autem manifestatio divinorum pertineat ad Dei sapientiam, patet ex eo quod ipse Deus per suam sapientiam seipsum plene et perfecte cognoscit. Unde si quid de ipso cognoscimus oportet quod ex eo derivetur, quia omne imperfectum a perfecto trahit originem: unde dicitur Sapient. 9, 17: sensum tuum quis sciet, nisi tu dederis sapientiam? Haec autem manifestatio specialiter per Filium facta invenitur: ipse enim est Verbum Patris, secundum quod dicitur Joan. 1; unde sibi manifestatio dicentis Patris convenit et totius Trinitatis. Unde dicitur Matth. 11, 27: nemo novit Patrem nisi Filius et cui Filius voluerit revelare; et Joan. 1, 18: Deum nemo vidit unquam, nisi unigenitus qui est in sinu Patris. Among the many views that have been presented by diverse people about wisdom—namely, what true wisdom is—the Apostle has offered one that is particularly strong and true, saying, Christ, the power of God and wisdom of God . . . whom God made our wisdom (1 Cor 1:24, 30). But this was not said in the sense that the Son alone is wisdom—for the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit are one wisdom, just as they are one essence. Rather, this was said because wisdom is appropriated to the Son in a certain specific way, because the works of wisdom seem especially to harmonize with the properties of the Son. For through God's wisdom the hidden things of the divine are made manifest, the works of created things are produced, and not only produced but even restored and perfected—I mean by that perfection whereby each thing is called "perfect" insofar as it attains its own proper end. But that the manifestation of divine things pertains to God's wisdom is clear from the fact that God himself through his own wisdom fully and perfectly knows his very self. Hence, if we know anything about him, it must be derived from him, since everything imperfect draws its origin from the perfect. Hence, it is said, who will know your understanding unless you give wisdom? (Wis 9:17). But this manifestation is found to be accomplished in a specific way by the Son, for he is the Word of the Father, according to what is said in John 1. Hence, the manifestation of the Father speaking to himself is fitting also for that of the whole Trinity. Hence, it is said, no one knows the Father except the Son and him to whom the Son has wished to reveal him (Matt 11:27); and no one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known (John 1:18). Recte ergo dicitur ex persona Filii: ego sapientia effudi flumina. Flumina ista intelligo fluxus aeternae processionis, qua Filius a Patre, et Spiritus Sanctus ab utroque, ineffabili modo procedit. Ista flumina olim occulta et quodammodo infusa erant in similitudinibus creaturarum, tum etiam in aenigmatibus Scripturarum, ita ut vix aliqui sapientes Trinitatis mysterium fide tenerent. Venit Filius Dei et infusa flumina quodammodo effudit, nomen Trinitatis publicando, Matth. ult. 19: docete omnes gentes, baptizantes eos in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Unde Job 28, 11: profunda fluviorum scrutatus est et abscondita in lucem produxit. Et in hoc tangitur materia primi libri. Therefore, it is correctly said in the person of the Son: I, Wisdom, have poured out rivers. These rivers I understand as the flowing of the eternal procession by which in an ineffable way the Son proceeds from the Father, and the Holy Spirit from both. Formerly, these rivers were hidden and in a way vague, both within the likenesses of created things, and also in the enigmas of the Scriptures, such that hardly any wise men held by faith the mystery of the Trinity. The Son of God came and in a way poured out the rivers that had been stopped up, by making public the name of the Trinity: teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit (Matt 28:19). Hence, he has searched the depths of rivers and brought forth hidden things into the light (Job 28:11). And this touches on the subject matter of Book I. Secundum quod pertinet ad Dei sapientiam est creaturarum productio: ipse enim de rebus creatis non tantum speculativam, sed etiam operativam sapientiam habet, sicut artifex de artificiatis; unde in Psalm 103: omnia in sapientia fecisti. Et ipsa sapientia loquitur, Proverb. 8, 30: cum eo eram cuncta componens. Hoc etiam specialiter Filio attributum invenitur, inquantum est imago Dei invisibilis, ad cujus formam omnia formata sunt: unde Coloss. 1, 15: qui est imago Dei invisibilis, primogenitus omnis creaturae, quoniam in ipso condita sunt universa; et Joan. 1, 3: omnia per ipsum facta sunt. Recte ergo dicitur ex persona Filii: ego quasi trames aquae immensae de fluvio; in quo notatur et ordo creationis et modus. The second thing that pertains to God’s wisdom is the production of created things. For he himself has not only a speculative but also an operative wisdom about created things, just as the artisan has about the works of art. Hence, in wisdom hast thou made them all (Ps 104 [103]:24). And Wisdom itself says, with him I was forming all things (Prov 8:30). This, too, is found attributed to the Son in a special way, insofar as he is the image of the invisible God, according to whose form all things have been formed. Hence, he is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation, for in him all things were created (Col 1:15–16), and all things were made through him (John 1:3). Therefore, it is correctly said in the person of the Son, I flow down like a course of water without measure. In this is noted both the order of creation and its mode. Ordo, quia sicut trames a fluvio derivatur, ita processus temporalis creaturarum ab aeterno processu personarum: unde in Psalmo 148, 5, dicitur: dixit, et facta sunt. Verbum genuit, in quo erat ut fieret, secundum Augustinum, Sup. Gens. ad litteram. Semper enim id quod est primum est causa eorum quae sunt post, secundum philosophum, II Metaph.; unde primus processus est causa et ratio omnis sequentis processionis. Its order is indicated because just as a course is derived from a river, so too the temporal procession of created things is derived from the eternal procession of the Persons. Hence, it is said, he spoke, and they were created (Ps 148:5). He begot the Word, in whom it was that they were to come to be, according to Augustine. For that which is first is always the cause of the things that are after, according to the Philosopher. Hence, the first procession is the cause and reason for every subsequent procession. Modus autem signatur quantum ad duo: scilicet ex parte creantis, qui cum omnia impleat, nulli tamen se commetitur; quod notatur in hoc quod dicitur, immensae. Item ex parte creaturae: quia sicut trames procedit extra alveum fluminis, ita creatura procedit a Deo extra unitatem essentiae, in qua sicut in alveo fluxus personarum continetur. Et in hoc notatur materia secundi libri. But the mode of creation is indicated in reference to two things: first, on the side of the one creating, who, although he fills all things, nevertheless is not commensurate with anything—which is indicated by the fact that it is said, without measure; second, on the side of the thing created, since just as a rivulet proceeds outside of the channel of a river, so too what is created proceeds from God outside of the unity of his essence, within which, as within the channel, the flow of the Persons is contained. And this indicates the subject matter of Book II. Tertium, quod pertinet ad Dei sapientiam, est operum restauratio. Per idem enim debet res reparari per quod facta est; unde quae per sapientiam condita sunt, decet ut per sapientiam reparentur: unde dicitur Sapient. 9, 19: per sapientiam sanati sunt qui placuerunt tibi ab initio. Haec autem reparatio specialiter per Filium facta est, inquantum ipse homo factus est, qui, reparato hominis statu, quodammodo omnia reparavit quae propter hominem facta sunt; unde Coloss. 1, 20: per eum reconcilians omnia, sive quae in caelis, sive quae in terris sunt. Recte ergo ex ipsius Filii persona dicitur: ego quasi fluvius diorix, et sicut aquaeductus exivi de paradiso. Paradisus iste, gloria Dei Patris est, de qua exivit in vallem nostrae miseriae; non quod eam amitteret, sed quia occultavit: unde Joan. 16, 28: exivi a Patre et veni in mundum. The third thing that pertains to God’s wisdom is the restoration of his works. For the one who made something is the one who is appropriate for renewing it. Hence, it befits the things created through wisdom to be renewed through wisdom. Hence, it is said, thus the paths of those on earth were set right, and men were taught what pleases thee, and were saved by wisdom (Wis 9:18). But this renewal was brought about in a special way through the Son, insofar as he himself was made man. After man's state had been restored, he in a certain way renewed all things that were made on account of man. Hence, through him to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven (Col 1:20). Correctly, therefore, it is said in the person of the Son himself, I, like the channel of a river, and like an aqueduct, went out from Paradise. This Paradise is the glory of God the Father, from which he went out into the valley of our misery—not that he lost this glory, but because he hid it. Hence, I came from the Father and have come into the world (John 16:28). Et circa hunc exitum duo notantur, scilicet modus et fructus. Diorix enim fluvius rapidissimus est; unde designat modum quo, quasi impetu quodam amoris nostrae reparationis Christus complevit mysterium; unde Isaiae 59, 19: cum venerit quasi fluvius violentus, quem spiritus Domini cogit. Fructus autem designatur ex hoc quod dicitur, sicut aquaeductus: sicut enim aquaeductus ex uno fonte producuntur divisim ad fecundandam terram, ita de Christo profluxerunt diversarum gratiarum genera ad plantandam Ecclesiam, secundum quod dicitur Ephes. 4, 11: ipse dedit quosdam quidem apostolos, quosdam autem prophetas, alios vero evangelistas, alios autem pastores et doctores, ad consummationem sanctorum in opus ministerii, in aedificationem corporis Christi. Et in hoc tangitur materia tertii libri, in cujus prima parte agitur de mysteriis nostrae reparationis, in secunda de gratiis nobis collatis per Christum. And with respect to this coming forth, two things are noted—namely, the mode and the fruit. For the channel of a river is very rapid; hence, it designates the mode by which Christ, as by a certain impetus of love, completed the mystery of our renewal. Hence, he will come like a rushing stream, which the wind of the Lord drives (Isa 59:19). But the fruit is designated from the fact that it says, like an aqueduct. For just as aqueducts are led separately from a single font to render the land fertile, so too from Christ flowed forth the kinds of diverse graces for sowing the Church. In this sense, it is said, and his gifts were that some should be apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, some pastors and teachers, for the equipment of the saints, for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ (Eph 4:11–12). And this touches on the subject matter of Book III, the first part of which treats the mysteries of our renewal, and the second treats the graces gathered to us through Christ. Quartum, quod ad Dei sapientiam pertinet, est perfectio, qua res conservantur in suo fine. Subtracto enim fine, relinquitur vanitas, quam sapientia non patitur secum; unde dicitur Sapient. 8, 1, quod sapientia attingit a fine usque ad finem fortiter et disponit omnia suaviter. Unumquodque dispositum est quando in suo fine, quem naturaliter desiderat, collocatum est. Hoc etiam ad Filium specialiter pertinet, qui, cum sit verus et naturalis Dei Filius, nos in gloriam Paternae hereditatis induxit; unde Hebr. 2, 10: decebat eum propter quem et per quem facta sunt omnia, qui multos filios in gloriam adduxerat. Unde recte dicitur: dixi: rigabo hortum plantationum. Ad consecutionem enim finis exigitur praeparatio, per quam omne quod non competit fini, tollatur; ita Christus etiam, ut nos in finem aeternae gloriae induceret, sacramentorum medicamenta praeparavit, quibus a nobis peccati vulnus abstergitur. The fourth thing that pertains to God’s wisdom is the perfection by which things are preserved in their end. For if the end is removed, emptiness remains, which wisdom does not suffer to coexist with herself. Hence, it is said that wisdom reaches mightily from one end of the earth to the other, and she orders all things sweetly (Wis 8:1). But each thing has been ordered when it has been placed at the end which it naturally desires. And this also pertains to the Son in a special way, the one who, since he is the true and natural Son of God, has led us into the glory of the Father’s inheritance. Hence, it was fitting that he, for whom and by whom all things exist, in bringing many sons to glory (Heb 2:10). Hence, it is correctly said, I said: I will water the garden of plants. For preparation is required for the attainment of an end so that thereby everything that does not befit the end may be removed. So too Christ, so that he might lead us into the end that is eternal glory, has prepared the remedies of the sacraments, whereby the wound of sin is cleansed from us. Unde duo notantur in verbis praedictis, scilicet praeparatio, quae est per sacramenta, et inductio in gloriam. Primum per hoc quod dicitur: rigabo hortum plantationum. Hortus enim iste Ecclesia est, de qua Cant. 4, 12: hortus conclusus soror mea sponsa: in qua sunt plantationes diversae, secundum diversos sanctorum ordines, quos omnes manus omnipotentis plantavit. Iste hortus irrigatur a Christo sacramentorum rivis, qui ex ejus latere profluxerunt: unde in commendationem pulchritudinis Ecclesiae dicitur in Num. 24, 5: quam pulchra tabernacula tua, Jacob! Et post sequitur, 6: ut horti juxta fluvios irrigui. Et ideo etiam ministri Ecclesiae, qui sacramenta dispensant, rigatores dicuntur, 1 Corinth. 3, 6: ego plantavi, Apollo rigavit. Inductio autem in gloriam notatur in hoc quod sequitur: et inebriabo partus mei fructum. Partus ipsius Christi sunt fideles Ecclesiae, quos suo labore quasi mater parturivit: de quo partu Isa. ult., 9: numquid ego, qui alios parere facio, ipse non pariam? Dicit Dominus. Fructus autem istius partus sunt sancti qui sunt in gloria: de quo fructu Cant. 5, 1: veniat dilectus meus in hortum suum et comedat fructum pomorum suorum. Istos inebriat abundantissima sui fruitione; de qua ebrietate, Psalm. 35, 9: inebriabuntur ab ubertate domus tuae. Et dicitur ebrietas, quia omnem mensuram rationis et desiderii excedit: unde Isa. 64, 4: oculus non vidit, Deus, absque te quae praeparasti expectantibus te. Et in hoc tangitur materia quarti libri: in cujus prima parte agitur de sacramentis; in secunda de gloria resurrectionis. Et sic patet ex praedictis verbis intentio libri Sententiarum. Hence, two things are indicated in the aforementioned words: namely, the preparation that is through the sacraments, and the admission into glory. The first is indicated through the fact that it is said, I will water the garden of plants. For this garden is the Church, about which it is said, a garden locked is my sister, my bride (Song 4:12). In this garden are diverse plants, according to the diverse orders of the saints, all of whom the hand of the Almighty has planted. This garden is watered by Christ with the streams of the sacraments, which flowed out from his side. Hence, in praise of the beauty of the Church, it is said, how fair are your tents, O Jacob (Num 24:5). And then it continues, like gardens beside a river (Num 24:6). And for this reason, too, the ministers of the Church who dispense the sacraments are called "waterers": I planted, Apollos watered (1 Cor 3:6). But the admission into glory is indicated by the fact that it continues, and I will inebriate the fruit of my offspring. Christ's own offspring are the Church's faithful, whom he has brought forth by his own labor, as though its mother. About this offspring it is said, shall I bring to the birth and not cause to bring forth? says the Lord (Isa 66:9). But the fruits of this offspring are the saints who are in glory. About this fruit it is said, let my beloved come to his garden, and eat its choicest fruits (Song 4:16). He inebriates these with the most abundant enjoyment of him. About this enjoyment and inebriation it is said, they will be inebriated by the fertility of your house (Ps 36:8 [35:9]). And it is called "inebriation" because it exceeds every measure of reason and desire. Hence, eye has not seen, O God, beside you, the things which you have prepared for those waiting for you (Isa 64:4). And this touches on the subject matter of Book IV: in the first part of which the sacraments are treated; in the second, the glory of the resurrection. And so from the aforementioned words the aim of the Book of Sentences is clear. Quaestio Prima Question 1 Prooemium On the Prologue Ad evidentiam hujus sacrae doctrinae, quae in hoc libro traditur, quaeruntur quinque: To make clear this Sacred Doctrine, which is being handed on in this book, five things are asked: primo, de necessitate ipsius; first, as regards the need for it; secundo, supposito quod sit necessaria, an sit una, vel plures; second, supposing that it is necessary, whether it is one or many; tertio, si sit una, an practica, vel speculativa; et si speculativa, utrum sapientia, vel scientia, vel intellectus; third, if it is one, whether it is practical or speculative; and if speculative, whether it is is wisdom, science, or understanding; quarto, de subjecto ipsius; fourth, as regards its subject; quinto, de modo. and fifth, as regards its mode. Articulus 1 Article 1 Utrum praeter physicas disciplinas alia doctrina sit homini necessaria Whether any doctrine other than the natural disciplines is necessary for man Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod praeter physicas disciplinas nulla sit homini doctrina necessaria. Sicut enim dicit Dionysius in epistola ad Polycarpum, philosophia est cognitio existentium; et constat, inducendo in singulis, quod de quolibet genere existentium in philosophia determinatur; quia de Creatore et creaturis, tam de his quae sunt ab opere naturae quam de his quae sunt ab opere nostro. Sed nulla doctrina potest esse nisi de existentibus, quia non entis non est scientia. Ergo praeter physicas disciplinas nulla doctrina debet esse. Obj. 1: We proceed to the first as follows. It appears that no other doctrine is necessary for man besides the natural disciplines. For as Dionysius says in his letter to Polycarp, philosophy is the knowledge of things that exist. And it is clear that about every genus of existing things there is a consideration in philosophy, since it runs through each thing. For it is about the Creator and things created, and both about things that come from the activity of nature and things that come from our own activity. But no doctrine can be about things that do not exist, since there is no science of a non-being. Therefore there should be no doctrine besides the natural disciplines. Item, omnis doctrina est ad perfectionem: vel quantum ad intellectum, sicut speculativae, vel quantum ad affectum procedentem in opus, sicut practicae. Sed utrumque completur per philosophiam; quia per demonstrativas scientias perficitur intellectus, per morales affectus. Ergo non est necessaria alia doctrina. Obj. 2: Furthermore, every doctrine is for the sake of a perfection, either for the intellect, such as speculative doctrine, or for an affect that leads to action, such as practical doctrine. But both of these are completed by philosophy, since the intellect is perfected through the demonstrative sciences, and the affect through the moral sciences. Therefore no other doctrine is needed. Praeterea, quaecumque naturali intellectu possunt cognosci ex principiis rationis, vel sunt in philosophia tradita, vel per principia philosophiae inveniri possunt. Sed ad perfectionem hominis sufficit illa cognitio quae ex naturali intellectu potest haberi. Ergo praeter philosophiam non est necessaria alia doctrina. Probatio mediae. Illud quod per se suam perfectionem consequitur, nobilius est eo quod per se consequi non potest. Sed alia animalia et creaturae insensibiles ex puris naturalibus consequuntur finem suum; quamvis non sine Deo, qui omnia in omnibus operatur. Ergo et homo, cum sit nobilior eis, per naturalem intellectum cognitionem sufficientem suae perfectioni habere potest. Obj. 3: Furthermore, whatever things can be known by a natural understanding based on the principles of reason are either handed down in philosophy or can be discovered through the principles of philosophy. But the knowledge that one can have from natural understanding is sufficient for man's perfection. Therefore no doctrine is needed besides philosophy. Here is proof of the middle premise: what can attain its own perfection through itself is nobler than what cannot attain it through itself. But the other animals and created things which lack senses attain their own ends from merely natural powers, although not without God, who works all things in all things. Therefore, man too, since he is nobler than they, can have knowledge sufficient for his perfection through his natural understanding. Contra, Hebr. 11, 6: sine fide impossibile est placere Deo. Placere autem Deo est summe necessarium. Cum igitur ad ea quae sunt fidei, philosophia non possit, oportet esse aliquam doctrinam quae ex fidei principiis procedat. On the contrary, without faith it is impossible to please God (Heb 11:6). Now, pleasing God is necessary to the highest degree. Therefore, since philosophy cannot ascend to the things that belong to faith, there must be some doctrine that proceeds from the principles of the faith. Item, effectus non proportionatus causae, imperfecte ducit in cognitionem suae causae. Talis autem effectus est omnis creatura respectu Creatoris, a quo in infinitum distat. Ergo imperfecte ducit in ipsius cognitionem. Cum igitur philosophia non procedat nisi per rationes sumptas ex creaturis, insufficiens est ad Dei cognitionem faciendam. Ergo oportet aliquam aliam doctrinam esse altiorem, quae per revelationem procedat, et philosophiae defectum suppleat. Furthermore, an effect that is not proportionate to its cause leads one imperfectly to knowing its cause. Now, everything created is such an effect relative to its Creator, from whom it is infinitely distant. Therefore such a thing leads one imperfectly to the knowledge of its Creator. Therefore, since philosophy proceeds only through accounts drawn from created things, it is insufficient for causing knowledge of God. Therefore there must be some other, higher doctrine, one that proceeds through revelation and supplies for philosophy's defect. Ad hujus evidentiam sciendum est, quod omnes qui recte senserunt posuerunt finem humanae vitae Dei contemplationem. Contemplatio autem Dei est duplex. Una per creaturas, quae imperfecta est, ratione jam dicta, in qua contemplatione Philosophus, felicitatem contemplativam posuit, quae tamen est felicitas viae; et ad hanc ordinatur tota cognitio philosophica, quae ex rationibus creaturarum procedit. Est alia Dei contemplatio, qua videtur immediate per suam essentiam; et haec perfecta est, quae erit in patria et est homini possibilis secundum fidei suppositionem. Unde oportet ut ea quae sunt ad finem proportionentur fini, quatenus homo manuducatur ad illam contemplationem in statu viae per cognitionem non a creaturis sumptam, sed immediate ex divino lumine inspiratam; et haec est doctrina theologiae. To make this matter evident, one should note that all who have rightly judged this matter have asserted that the end of human life is the contemplation of God. Now, the contemplation of God is of two sorts. One occurs through created things, which is an imperfect contemplation, for the reason already stated; in this contemplation the Philosopher placed contemplative happiness, which is the happiness of the earthly path. And to this happiness is ordered all philosophical knowledge, which proceeds from the accounts of created things. The other contemplation of God is that whereby he is seen immediately, through his own essence, and this, which will occur in the heavenly homeland and is possible for man according to the supposition of faith, is perfect. Hence it is necessary, inasmuch as things that are for the sake of the end are proportioned to their end, that to the extent that man is led by the hand toward that contemplation, in the state of the earthly path, [this will occur] through a knowledge not taken from created things, but immediately inspired by a divine light. And this is the doctrine of theology. Ex hoc possumus habere duas conclusiones. Una est, quod ista scientia imperat omnibus aliis scientiis tamquam principalis; alia est, quod ipsa utitur in obsequium sui omnibus aliis scientiis quasi vassallis, sicut patet in omnibus artibus ordinatis, quarum finis unius est sub fine alterius, sicut finis pigmentariae artis, qui est confectio medicinarum, ordinatur ad finem medicinae, qui est sanitas: unde medicus imperat pigmentario et utitur pigmentis ab ipso factis, ad suum finem. Ita, cum finis totius philosophiae sit infra finem theologiae, et ordinatus ad ipsum, theologia debet omnibus aliis scientiis imperare et uti his quae in eis traduntur. From this we can draw two conclusions. One is that this science rules all the other sciences as the principal science. The other is that it itself makes use of all the other sciences in their compliance to it, as though they were its vassals. This is clear in all the ordered arts, where the end of one is subservient to the end of another. For example, the end of the art of ointments, which is the making of medicines, is ordered to the end of medicine, which is health; this is why the physician rules the ointment-maker and uses the ointments he makes for his own end. So too, since the end of the whole of philosophy is beneath the end of theology, and is ordered to it, theology ought to rule all the other sciences and use the things that are treated in them. Ad primum ergo dicendum, quod quamvis philosophia determinet de existentibus secundum rationes a creaturis sumptas, oportet tamen esse aliam quae existentia consideret secundum rationes ex inspiratione divini luminis acceptas. Reply to Obj. 1: Although philosophy considers existing things, and according to the accounts taken from created things, still there must be another [doctrine] that would consider existing things according to accounts received from the inspiration of the divine light. Et per hoc patet solutio ad secundum: quia philosophia sufficit ad perfectionem intellectus secundum cognitionem naturalem, et affectus secundum virtutem acquisitam: et ideo oportet esse aliam scientiam per quam intellectus perficiatur quantum ad cognitionem infusam, et affectus quantum ad dilectionem gratuitam. Reply to Obj. 2: The solution to this is clear, for philosophy suffices for the perfection of the intellect [only] according to natural knowledge, and that of the affections [only] according to acquired virtue. And this is why there must be another science whereby the intellect is perfected as regards infused knowledge and the affect as regards gratuitous love. Ad tertium dicendum, quod in his quae acquirunt aequalem bonitatem pro fine, tenet propositio inducta, scilicet, nobilius est eo quod per se consequi non potest. Sed illud quod acquirit bonitatem perfectam pluribus auxiliis et motibus, est nobilius eo quod imperfectam bonitatem acquirit paucioribus, vel per seipsum, sicut dicit Philosophus; et hoc modo se habet homo respectu aliarum creaturarum, qui factus est ad ipsius divinae gloriae participationem. Reply to Obj. 3: In things that admit of equal goodness as regards their end, the proposition introduced above holds true—that is, that it is nobler than what cannot reach its end through itself. But what receives a perfect goodness by means of more aids and motions is nobler than what receives an imperfect goodness through fewer aids, or through itself, as the Philosopher himself says. And this is how man stands relative to other created things, he who was made for participation in the divine glory itself. Articulus 2 Article 2 Utrum tantum una doctrina debeat esse praeter physicas Whether there should be one doctrine only besides the natural disciplines Circa secundum sic proceditur. Videtur quod non una tantum doctrina debeat esse praeter physicas doctrinas, sed plures. De omnibus enim de quibus instruitur homo per rationes creaturarum, potest instrui per rationes divinas. Sed scientiae procedentes per rationes creaturarum sunt plures, differentes genere et specie, sicut moralis, naturalis, etc. Ergo scientiae procedentes per rationes divinas debent plures esse. Obj. 1: As regards the second, we proceed as follows. It appears there should not be only one doctrine besides the natural doctrines. For about all concerning which man is instructed through the accounts of created things, he can also be instructed through divine accounts. But there are many sciences based on the accounts of created things, sciences differing in both genus and species, such as moral science, natural science, and so on. Therefore, there should be many sciences based on divine accounts.