Scriptum Super Sententiis III Commentary on Sentences III Prooemium Prologue Ecclesiastes 1:7 Ecclesiastes 1:7 Ad locum unde exeunt, flumina revertuntur ut iterum fluant. To the place where the streams flow, there they flow again. Ex verbis istis duo possumus accipere, in quibus hujus tertii libri materia comprehenditur, scilicet divinae incarnationis mysterium, et ejus copiosum fructum. In these words we can understand the two things in which the matter of this third book consists: namely, the mystery of the Divine Incarnation and its abundant fruit. Mysterium incarnationis insinuatur in fluminum reversione, cum dicitur: ad locum unde exeunt flumina revertuntur. Sed incarnationis fructus ostenditur in iterato fluxu, cum dicitur: ut iterum fluant. Flumina ista sunt naturales bonitates quas Deus creaturis influit, ut esse, vivere, intelligere, et hujusmodi: de quibus fluminibus potest intelligi quod dicitur Isaiae 41, 18: aperiam in supremis montium flumina. Montes enim supremi sunt nobilissimae creaturae, in quibus praedicta flumina aperiri dicuntur, quia in eis et copiosissime recipiuntur, et sine imperfectione ostenduntur. The mystery of the Incarnation is indicated by the return of the streams in the words, to the place where the streams flow, there they flow again (Eccl 1:7). The fruit of the Incarnation, on the other hand, is shown by the repetition of the flow, in the words, they flow again. The streams are the natural kinds of goodness that God pours forth into creatures, such as being, living, understanding, and the like, and the words of Isaiah 41:18 can be understood in reference to these rivers: I will open rivers on the highest of mountains. The highest mountains are the noblest created things, in which the streams referred to are said to be opened, since it is in them that the natural goods are also received most abundantly, and manifested without any imperfection. Sed locus unde ista flumina exeunt, est ipse Deus, de quo potest intelligi quod dicitur Isai. 53, 21: locus fluviorum rivi latissimi et patentes; ac si diceret: in loco ortus fluviorum rivi naturalium bonitatum eminenter inveniuntur; unde dicit: latissimi, quantum ad perfectionem divinae bonitatis, secundum omnia attributa; et patentes, quantum ad communicationem indeficientem; quia ejus bonitas, ex qua omnia fluunt, nec exhauriri nec concludi potest. The place where these streams came from is God himself, about whom can be understood what is said in Isaiah 33:21: there the Lord in majesty will be for us, a place of broad rivers and streams; this is as if to say, in the place of the source of the rivers, the streams of natural goods are found more eminently. Thus he says broad in reference to the perfection of the divine goodness, according to all its attributes; and open in reference to its unfailing communication, since God’s goodness, from which all things flow, can neither be exhausted nor confined. Ista flumina in aliis creaturis inveniuntur distincta; sed in homine inveniuntur quodammodo aggregata: homo enim est quasi orizon et confinium spiritualis et corporalis naturae, ut quasi medium inter utrasque, bonitates participet et corporales et spirituales; unde et omnis creaturae nomine homo intelligitur Marc. ult. ubi dicitur: praedicate Evangelium omni creaturae; ut beatus Gregorius exponit: In other created things these streams are found to be distinct from one another, but in man in a certain way all of them are brought together. For man is, as it were, the horizon and boundary of the spiritual and the bodily natures, and, as though a middle between the two, participates in both bodily and spiritual goodness. This is also why, as blessed Gregory explains, man is understood by the phrase the whole creation at the end of the Gospel of Mark: preach the gospel to the whole creation (Mark 16:15). et ideo quando humana natura per incarnationis mysterium Deo conjuncta est, omnia flumina naturalium bonitatum ad suum principium reflexa redierunt, ut possit dici quod legitur Josue 4, 17: reversae sunt aquae in alveum suum, et fluebant sicut ante consueverant; And therefore, when human nature was conjoined to God in the mystery of the Incarnation, all of the rivers of natural goodness turned and went back to their beginning, so that what we read in Joshua 4:18 could be said that the waters of the Jordan returned to their place and overflowed all its banks, as before. unde et hic sequitur: ut iterum fluant: in quo notatur incarnationis fructus: ipse enim Deus, qui naturalia bona influxerat, reversis quodammodo omnibus per assumptionem humanae naturae in ipsum, non jam Deus tantummodo, sed Deus et homo hominibus fluenta gratiarum abundanter influxit: quia de plenitudine ejus omnes accepimus, gratiam pro gratia: Joan. 1, 16. Et de isto influxu legitur Eccli. 39, 27: benedictio illius quasi fluvius inundabit. Accordingly, the Ecclesiastes verse continues, they flow again—in which the fruit of the Incarnation is indicated. For it was God himself who had poured forth all natural goods; but now, with the return of all things through the assumption of human nature into himself, not God alone, but God-and-man poured forth to man streams of graces in abundance, and from his fullness have we all received, grace upon grace (John 1:16). And about this outpouring we read in Sirach 39:22: his blessing covers the dry land like a river. Et sic patet materia tertii libri: And so the matter of Book III is clear. in cujus prima parte agitur de incarnatione, Its first part treats the Incarnation in Distinctions 1-22, in secunda de virtutibus et donis nobis per Christum collatis. while the second treats the virtues and the gifts brought to us through Christ in Distinctions 23-40. Distinctio 1 Distinction 1 The Incarnation Postquam Magister in duobus praecedentibus libris determinavit de rebus divinis secundum exitum a principio, in hoc libro incipit determinare de rebus quae dicuntur divinae, secundum reditum in finem, scilicet Deum; unde dividitur haec pars in duas partes: After the Master has spent Books I and II considering things that are divine in virtue of their coming forth from their beginning, in this book he begins to consider the things that are called “divine” in according to their return to their final end—that is, to God. This part, then, is divided into two parts. in prima determinat istum reditum in finem ex parte reducentium; In the first, he considers that return to the end from the side of the one who leads them back. in secunda quantum ad ea quae exiguntur ex parte reductorum, scilicet sacramenta, quae ad gratiam disponunt: et hoc in 4 libro. In the second, he considers the things needed by those who are led back, namely, the sacraments, which dispose one toward grace; this is treated in the fourth book. Prima dividitur in duas partes: The first of these is divided into two parts. in prima determinat de reducente effective, scilicet de Deo incarnato; In the first, he considers the one who leads them back as the agent cause—namely, the Incarnate God. in secunda de reducentibus formaliter, ut sunt virtutes et dona, 23 dist.: cum vero supra perhibitum sit Christum plenum gratia fuisse, non est supervacuum inquirere, utrum fidem et spem, sicut caritatem habuerit. In the second, he considers the things that lead them back as formal causes, such as the virtues and the gifts. This begins at Distinction 23: since it has been shown above that Christ was filled with grace, it is not pointless to inquire whether he had faith and hope, as he had charity. Prima dividitur in duas partes: The first of these, Distinctions 1–22, is divided into two parts. in prima determinat de divina incarnatione; In the first, Distinctions 1–5, he considers the divine Incarnation; in secunda prosequitur conditiones ipsius Dei incarnati, dist. 6: ex praemissis autem emergit quaestio plurimum continens utilitatis. in the second, Distinctions 6–22, he treats the characteristics of the incarnate God himself. This begins at Distinction 6: but from the foregoing emerges a question which contains much usefulness. Prima dividitur in tres partes: The first of these, Distinctions 1–5, is divided into three parts. in prima determinat de incarnatione ex parte assumentis carnem, quis sit; In the first, he considers the Incarnation on the part of the one who assumes the flesh, who he is. in secunda ex parte assumpti, quid sit, dist. 2: et quia in homine tota humana natura corrupta erat, totam assumpsit; In the second, he considers it on the part of what was assumed, at Distinction 2: and because the whole human nature was corrupted in man by sin, he took it whole. in tertia ex parte utriusque, cujusmodi sit, dist. 5: praeterea inquiri oportet quid horum potius concedendum sit. In the third, he considers it on both sides—namely, the sort of thing that it is. This begins at Distinction 5: moreover . . . it is necessary to inquire which of these is more to be granted. Prima dividitur in tres partes: The first of these, Distinction 1, is divided into three parts. in prima ostendit per auctoritatem apostoli, quae sit persona assumens, quia filius; In the first, he shows through the authority of the Apostle that the Person who assumes is the Son. in secunda inquirit rationem, quare potius filius quam alia persona, ibi: diligenter vero annotandum est, quare filius, non pater vel Spiritus Sanctus, incarnatus est; In the second, he looks for the reason why it is the Son rather than another of the Persons, where he says, but it is diligently to be noted why the Son took on flesh, and not the Father or the Holy Spirit. in tertia excludit objectionem, ibi: sed forte aliqui dicent. In the third part, he excludes an objection, at but perhaps some will say. Diligenter vero annotandum est et cetera. Hic assignat rationem quare persona filii carnem assumpsit; et dividitur in duas partes: But it is diligently to be noted why the Son. Here he provides the reason why it was the Person of the Son who assumed flesh, and this is divided into two parts. in prima dicit, quod magis congruum fuit filium incarnari quam patrem aut spiritum sanctum; In the first, he says that it was more suitable that the Son become incarnate, rather than the Father or the Holy Spirit. in secunda inquirit, utrum possibile fuerit patrem aut spiritum sanctum incarnari, ibi: si vero quaeritur, utrum pater vel Spiritus Sanctus incarnari potuerit, vel etiam modo possit: sane responderi potest, et potuisse olim et posse nunc carnem sumere. In the second, he inquires whether it was possible for the Father or the Holy Spirit to become incarnate, at but if it is asked whether the Father or the Holy Spirit could have become incarnate, or could even do so now, it may be answered affirmatively: that the Father or the Holy Spirit could formerly and can now take on flesh. Circa primum assignat tres rationes, quare filius carnem assumpsit: Concerning the first point, he gives three reasons why it was the Son who assumed flesh.